In recent years, several statistical finite mixture models have been proposed to model the lifetime data with heterogeneity. The Lindley distribution has been highlighted by many authors for these types of lifetime da...In recent years, several statistical finite mixture models have been proposed to model the lifetime data with heterogeneity. The Lindley distribution has been highlighted by many authors for these types of lifetime data analysis. This paper introduces a new Lindley family distribution called location-based generalized Akash distribution (NGAD) with monotonic increasing and bathtub?failure rates. The density function of NGAD is flexible to cover the left-skewed, right-skewed and symmetrical shapes with different tail-weights. Its fundamental structural properties and its ability to provide a suitable statistical model for various types of data sets are studied. The maximum likelihood (ML) method is used to estimate its unknown parameters and the performance of ML estimates are examined by a simulation study. Finally, several real-data sets with different characteristics are used to illustrate its flexibility. It is observed that NGAD provides a better fit than some other existing modified Lindley distributions.展开更多
A comprehensive mathematical model is developed to simulate the interactions of the complex processes that take place in typical catalytic chemical reactors. This mathematical model includes correlations representing ...A comprehensive mathematical model is developed to simulate the interactions of the complex processes that take place in typical catalytic chemical reactors. This mathematical model includes correlations representing various modes of mass transport and chemical reactions. To illustrate the application and value of this approach for reactor optimizations, the model is applied to the case of series reactions with a desirable intermediate compound and the risk of degradation of this compound if the process conditions are not optimized. The modeling results show that in such cases, which are very common in practice, replacing the conventional uniform catalyst distribution with a novel non-uniform distribution will significantly improve the performance of the reactor and the production of the desirable compound. Various catalyst distribution options are compared, and a novel non-uniform loading of catalyst is identified that gives a much better performance compared to the conventional approach. The model is versatile and useful for both the design as well as the optimization of the catalytic fixed-bed reactors in a wide variety of reactor and reaction conditions.展开更多
Ionic strength conditions in distribution experiments with single ions are very important for evaluating their distribution properties. Distribution experiments of picrates (MPic) with M = Ag(I) and Li(I)-Cs(I) into o...Ionic strength conditions in distribution experiments with single ions are very important for evaluating their distribution properties. Distribution experiments of picrates (MPic) with M = Ag(I) and Li(I)-Cs(I) into o-dichlorobenzene (oDCBz) were performed at 298 K by changing volume ratios (Vorg/V) between water and oDCBz phases, where “org” shows an organic phase. Simultaneously, an analytic equation with the Vorg/V variation was derived in order to analyze such distribution systems. Additionally, the AgPic distribution into nitrobenzene (NB), dichloromethane, and 1,2-dichloroethene (DCE) and the NaB(C6H5) 4 (=NaBPh4) one into NB and DCE were studied at 298 K under the conditions of various Vorg/V values. So, extraction constants (Kex) for MPic into the org phases, their ion-pair formation constants (KMA,org) for MA = MPic in the org ones, and standard distribution constants () for the M(I) transfers between the water and org bulk phases with M = Ag and Li-Cs were determined at the distribution equilibrium potential (dep) of zero V between the bulk phases and also the Kex (NaA), KNaA,org, and values were done at A-=BPh-4. Here, the symbols Kex, KMA,org, and or were defined as [MA] org/[M+][A-], [MA] org/[M+]org [A-]org, and [M+]org/[M+] or [A-]org/[A-] at dep = 0, respectively. Especially, the ionic strength dependences of Kex and KMPic,org were examined at M = Li(I)-K(I) and org = oDCBz. From above, the conditional distribution constants, KD,BPh4 and KD,Cs, were classified by checking the experimental conditions of the I, Iorg, and dep values.展开更多
Sediment and macrobenthic fauna distribution at Dar es Salaam harbour channel were investigated to attest the influence of sediment grain size distribution and total organic carbon contents on benthic macrofauna domin...Sediment and macrobenthic fauna distribution at Dar es Salaam harbour channel were investigated to attest the influence of sediment grain size distribution and total organic carbon contents on benthic macrofauna dominance and diversity. Sampling campaign was conducted from January to April, 2019 in 25 sampling stations along the channel. Sediment grain sizes ranged between 0.7405 and 0.00273 mm with an average of 0.0804 mm classified as medium silt. Sediment distribution showed an onshore-offshore pattern consisting of fine dark clay-silt sediments in the southern part of the harbour close to Mwalimu Nyerere Bridge, medium (sandy) at the harbour and coarse sandy offshore. Five classes of macrofauna were identified with sedentary Polychaetes (Diopatra cuprea) found in tubes and free forms being dominant in most of the sediment types, however more abundant in clay-silt. High species diversity index values were encountered in sediments with medium total organic carbon (TOC) and sediment grain sizes (sand-silt). Apparently, low species similarity indices were observed in all sediment type indicating significant dissimilarities in species composition among sediment grain sizes. Thus, the distribution of benthic macrofauna species along Dar es Salaam harbour channel is strongly influenced by the sediment grain sizes and organic carbon contents in sediments.展开更多
Plant growth regulators(PGRs)are frequently used to adjust cotton growth and development.The objectives of this study were to determine how PGRs affect plant morphology,light distribution and the spatial distribution ...Plant growth regulators(PGRs)are frequently used to adjust cotton growth and development.The objectives of this study were to determine how PGRs affect plant morphology,light distribution and the spatial distribution of leaves and bolls within the cotton canopy.The field experiments were carried out at Shihezi(Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region,China)in 2014 and 2015.The experiment included two PGR treatments:(i)flumetralin(active ingredient(a.i),N-N-ethy)-2,6-dinitro-4-aniline and(i)mepiquat chloride(ai,1-dimethyl-piperidiniuchloride)plus flumetralin.No PGR(manual topping)was applied in the control treatment.The chemically-topped plants were taller and had more main stem internodes than the manually-topped plants.Furthermore,the PGRs significantly reduced the length of fruiting branches in the upper canopy,resulting in a more compact canopy.The maximum leaf area index was signifcantly greater in the chemically-topped treatments than that in the control.In particular,the PGRs increased leaf area index by 25%in the upper canopy.The leaf area duration was also longer in the chemically-topped treatments than in the control.Compared with the control,the chemically-topped treatments increased canopy diffuse non-interceptance by 35.75%in the upper canopy layer,while reducing the fraction of intercepted photosynthetically active radiation by 14.45%in the upper canopy layer.Light transmittance in the upper and middle canopy layers was greater in the chemically-topped treatments than in the control,which increased boll numbers in both the upper canopy and the middle canopy.However,the chemically-topped treatments resulted in less light-leakage through the lower canopy layer during the late growth stages,which had a tendency to increase boll numbers in the whole canopy.In summary,the PGRs optimized canopy shape,light distribution and the spatial distribution of bolls and leaves.展开更多
To predict the particle size and layer-thickness distributions(LTDs)in a continuously operated horizontal fluidized-bed granulation process,two alternative models were considered.A one-dimensional two-zone model was p...To predict the particle size and layer-thickness distributions(LTDs)in a continuously operated horizontal fluidized-bed granulation process,two alternative models were considered.A one-dimensional two-zone model was proposed,which describes with population-balance equations the particle growth in a spraying zone that is separated from the drying zone.The residence-time distribution(RTD)was calculated from a literature correlation and was coupled with a population-balance model via a tank-in-series model with reflux.A two-dimensional,one-zone population-balance model,which was based directly on the RTD and the feed particle-size distribution(PSD)was also used.Granulation experiments were conducted and analyzed microscopically and with a camera optical device to determine the sample PSDs.LTDs over the particle population were derived from the PSDs and were analyzed directly by micro-computer-tomography.To compare the simulated data with the experimentally determined distributions,the PSDs were converted to LTDs.The good agreement shows that both methods are suitable to determine the PSD from an RTD of an arbitrary granulation process in a horizontal fluidized bed.Improvement appears necessary with regards to the LTD spread.展开更多
Pharmacokinetic models are mathematical models which provide insights into the interaction of chemicals with biological processes. During recent decades, these models have become central of attention in industry that ...Pharmacokinetic models are mathematical models which provide insights into the interaction of chemicals with biological processes. During recent decades, these models have become central of attention in industry that caused to do a lot of efforts to make them more accurate. Current work studies the process of drug and nanoparticle (NPs) distribution throughout the body which consists of a system of ordinary differential equations. We use a tri-compartmental model to study the perfusion of NPs in tissues and a six-compartmental model to study drug distribution in different body organs. We have performed global sensitivity analysis by LHS Monte Carlo method using PRCC. We identify the key parameters that contribute most significantly to the absorption and distribution of drugs and NPs in different organs in body.展开更多
Considering that the measurement devices of the distribution network are becoming more and more abundant, on the basis of the traditional Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition (SCADA) measurement system, Phasor mea...Considering that the measurement devices of the distribution network are becoming more and more abundant, on the basis of the traditional Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition (SCADA) measurement system, Phasor measurement unit (PMU) devices are also gradually applied to the distribution network. So when estimating the state of the distribution network, the above two devices need to be used. However, because the data of different measurement systems are different, it is necessary to balance this difference so that the data of different systems can be compatible to achieve the purpose of effective utilization of the estimated power distribution state. To this end, this paper starts with three aspects of data accuracy of the two measurement systems, data time section and data refresh frequency to eliminate the differences between system data, and then considers the actual situation of the three-phase asymmetry of the distribution network. The three-phase state estimation equations are constructed by the branch current method, and finally the state estimation results are solved by the weighted least square method.展开更多
Comparing two samples about corresponding parameters of their respective populations is an old and classical statistical problem. In this paper, we present a simple yet effective tool to compare two samples through th...Comparing two samples about corresponding parameters of their respective populations is an old and classical statistical problem. In this paper, we present a simple yet effective tool to compare two samples through their medians. We calculate the confidence of the statement “the median of the first population is strictly smaller (larger) than the median of the second.” We analyze two real data sets and empirically demonstrate the quality of the confidence for such a statement. This confidence in the order of the medians is to be seen as a pre-analysis tool that can provide useful insights for comparing two or more populations. The method is entirely based on their exact distribution with no need for asymptotic considerations. We also provide the Quor statistical software, an R package that implements the ideas discussed in this work.展开更多
Tropical cyclone(TC) Cempaka which occurred on 27–29 November 2017 has caused floods, landslides, and strong winds in certain areas of Java Island. Pacitan Regency was the most severely affected by TC Cempaka. The la...Tropical cyclone(TC) Cempaka which occurred on 27–29 November 2017 has caused floods, landslides, and strong winds in certain areas of Java Island. Pacitan Regency was the most severely affected by TC Cempaka. The landslide frequency–area distribution curve of event inventory i.e. TC Cempaka can help to understand landslide susceptibility, hazard, vulnerability, and risk. Landslides were identified by using a local government database and by comparing pre-and post-event high-resolution satellite imageries. Field investigation was carried out in March 2018 to November 2018 to verify the landslide location and update the information. Power law, inverse gamma, and double Pareto model were employed to describe the frequency–magnitude of landslide(mLS) triggered by TC Cempaka. The exponent β values of power law, inverse gamma, and double Pareto were 2.6±0.28(fitted for 8.5% of dataset), 2.2±0.08(fitted for 83% of dataset), and 2.3±0.09(best fitted for dataset), respectively. The P-values were 0.51, 0.67, and 0.91 for power law, inverse gamma, and double Pareto, respectively. This study revealed that rollover occurred at 200 and 300 m2 for double Pareto and inverse gamma, respectively. The cutoff points totaled 1096.49 ± 236.44 and 7235.4 ± 1896.7 m2 for double Pareto and power law, respectively. Rollover phenomenon was real and existed in the dataset because it was far from the minimum resolvable size of the landslide that the authors can delineate from the satellite images. mLS for Pacitan was distributed at around 2 to 4. The magnitude of large landslides was 3.2, that of medium landslides was less than 3, and that of small landslides was almost 4. Numerical estimation calculated a fixed mLS=3.01. Comparison analysis of β values obtained from several landslide inventories triggered by heavy rainfall suggests that the variability of β is related to the intensity and duration of rainfall. Triggering events, such as intensity and duration of rainfall, affect the proportion of large landslides that occur i展开更多
Avian Influenza, with a high mortality rate in human population, is considered to be one of the most significant potential threats to human beings. Based on a recent avian influenza SI-SIR model with logistic growth f...Avian Influenza, with a high mortality rate in human population, is considered to be one of the most significant potential threats to human beings. Based on a recent avian influenza SI-SIR model with logistic growth for birds, we propose a stochastic model with generalized incidence rate. For the stochastic avian-only system, sufficient conditions for the extinction of infected birds are established, and the existence of a unique ergodic stationary distribution is also obtained. For the stochastic avian-human system, a threshold number is established, and hence the extinction of disease is investigated. From the viewpoint of biology, the noise intensity in the infected birds plays a key role in the evolutionary dynamics. Moreover, we also analyze the asymptotic behavior around the endemic equilibrium of the corresponding deterministic model.展开更多
In recent years, variable selection based on penalty likelihood methods has aroused great concern. Based on the Gibbs sampling algorithm of asymmetric Laplace distribution, this paper considers the quantile regression...In recent years, variable selection based on penalty likelihood methods has aroused great concern. Based on the Gibbs sampling algorithm of asymmetric Laplace distribution, this paper considers the quantile regression with adaptive Lasso and Lasso penalty from a Bayesian point of view. Under the non-Bayesian and Bayesian framework, several regularization quantile regression methods are systematically compared for error terms with different distributions and heteroscedasticity. Under the error term of asymmetric Laplace distribution, statistical simulation results show that the Bayesian regularized quantile regression is superior to other distributions in all quantiles. And based on the asymmetric Laplace distribution, the Bayesian regularized quantile regression approach performs better than the non-Bayesian approach in parameter estimation and prediction. Through real data analyses, we also confirm the above conclusions.展开更多
We used a distance-sampling survey method and multivariate statistics to obtain a unique estimate of bird species density and seasonal variation in shade-coffee plantations. Our aim was to determine which cultivation ...We used a distance-sampling survey method and multivariate statistics to obtain a unique estimate of bird species density and seasonal variation in shade-coffee plantations. Our aim was to determine which cultivation practices among plantations contribute most to bird abundance. We conducted avian species counts at 200 points distributed across 10 shade-coffee plantations bordering the lower slopes of the Mombacho Volcano Natural Reserve, in western Nicaragua. We measured vegetation structure (coffee plants and overstory). We used principal components analysis (PCA) among 14 habitat variables to derive a single phyto-geoclimate summary measure (PGSM). We also used PCA to derive an avian abundance summary measure (AASM) from three bird survey variables, which proved to be a good predictor of bird density. We found higher bird species densities (AASM) in organic and traditional polyculture shade coffee plantations whose structurally complex and diverse overstory could be verified by PGSM. However, this finding was true only for birds that were habitat specialists. Our results provide further evidence for promoting organic coffee cultivation practices that maintain a structurally diverse overstory and help retain avian species richness and abundance in coffee plantations.展开更多
This letter investigates how to identify the marginal bottleneck,which is defined as the constraint most likely to be violated with the increasing wind generation uncertainty of power system in real-time dispatch.The ...This letter investigates how to identify the marginal bottleneck,which is defined as the constraint most likely to be violated with the increasing wind generation uncertainty of power system in real-time dispatch.The presented method takes the correlation of wind power prediction error(WPPE)into account,leading to an ellipsoidal formulation of wind power generation region(WGR).Based on constructed WGR,the identification procedure is formulated as a max-max-min problem,which is solved by the algorithm based on iteration linear program with the proposed method to select appropriate initial points of WPPE.Finally,two cases are tested,demonstrating the efficacy and efficiency of the procedure to identify marginal bottleneck.展开更多
Statistical analysis of lifetime data is a significant topic in social sciences, engineering, reliability, biomedical and others. We use the generalized weighted exponential distribution, as a generator to introduce a...Statistical analysis of lifetime data is a significant topic in social sciences, engineering, reliability, biomedical and others. We use the generalized weighted exponential distribution, as a generator to introduce a new family called generalized weighted exponential-G family, and apply this new generator to provide a new distribution called generalized weighted exponential gombertez distribution. We investigate some of its properties, moment generating function, moments, conditional moments, mean residual lifetime, mean inactivity time, strong mean inactivity time, Rényi entropy, Lorenz curves and Bonferroni. Furthermore, in this model, we estimate the parameters by using maximum likelihood method. We apply this model to a real data-set to show that the new generated distribution can produce a better fit than other classical lifetime models.展开更多
The traditional estimation of Gaussian mixture model is sensitive to heavy-tailed errors;thus we propose a robust mixture regression model by assuming that the error terms follow a Laplace distribution in this article...The traditional estimation of Gaussian mixture model is sensitive to heavy-tailed errors;thus we propose a robust mixture regression model by assuming that the error terms follow a Laplace distribution in this article. And for the variable selection problem in our new robust mixture regression model, we introduce the adaptive sparse group Lasso penalty to achieve sparsity at both the group-level and within-group-level. As numerical experiments show, compared with other alternative methods, our method has better performances in variable selection and parameter estimation. Finally, we apply our proposed method to analyze NBA salary data during the period from 2018 to 2019.展开更多
In production and scientific research, the research on the characteristics of submicron particles has attracted extensive attention, which is of great significance to the development of industrial production, medical ...In production and scientific research, the research on the characteristics of submicron particles has attracted extensive attention, which is of great significance to the development of industrial production, medical and health inspection and other fields. In this paper, the characteristics of submicron particles are studied based on backlight scattering. By collecting the real-time waveform of the backscattering signal of particles with different particle sizes at different concentrations, the corresponding relationship between the particle concentration and the number of pulses was obtained. It is found that the peak value of the backscattered light energy has a good linear relationship with the particle size. The analysis of the signal distribution law of standard particle swarm with different particle size parameters found that it conformed to the lognormal distribution form.展开更多
As the proportion of interfaces increases rapidly in nanomaterials,properties and quality of interfaces hugely impact the performance of advanced semiconductors.Here,the effect of interfaces is explored by comparative...As the proportion of interfaces increases rapidly in nanomaterials,properties and quality of interfaces hugely impact the performance of advanced semiconductors.Here,the effect of interfaces is explored by comparatively studying two InAs/AlSb superlattices with and without the thin InAsSb layers inserted inside each InAs layers.Through strain mapping,it indicates that the addition of interfaces leads to an increase of local strain both near interfaces and inside layers.Meantime,owing to the creation of hole potential wells within the original electron wells,the charge distribution undergoes an extra electron-hole alternating arrangement in the structure with inserted layers than the uninserted counterpart.Such a feature is verified to enhance electron-hole wave function overlap by theoretical simulations,which is a must for better optical performance.Furthermore,with an elaborate design of the inserted layers,the wave function overlap could be boosted without sacrificing other key device performances.展开更多
文摘In recent years, several statistical finite mixture models have been proposed to model the lifetime data with heterogeneity. The Lindley distribution has been highlighted by many authors for these types of lifetime data analysis. This paper introduces a new Lindley family distribution called location-based generalized Akash distribution (NGAD) with monotonic increasing and bathtub?failure rates. The density function of NGAD is flexible to cover the left-skewed, right-skewed and symmetrical shapes with different tail-weights. Its fundamental structural properties and its ability to provide a suitable statistical model for various types of data sets are studied. The maximum likelihood (ML) method is used to estimate its unknown parameters and the performance of ML estimates are examined by a simulation study. Finally, several real-data sets with different characteristics are used to illustrate its flexibility. It is observed that NGAD provides a better fit than some other existing modified Lindley distributions.
文摘A comprehensive mathematical model is developed to simulate the interactions of the complex processes that take place in typical catalytic chemical reactors. This mathematical model includes correlations representing various modes of mass transport and chemical reactions. To illustrate the application and value of this approach for reactor optimizations, the model is applied to the case of series reactions with a desirable intermediate compound and the risk of degradation of this compound if the process conditions are not optimized. The modeling results show that in such cases, which are very common in practice, replacing the conventional uniform catalyst distribution with a novel non-uniform distribution will significantly improve the performance of the reactor and the production of the desirable compound. Various catalyst distribution options are compared, and a novel non-uniform loading of catalyst is identified that gives a much better performance compared to the conventional approach. The model is versatile and useful for both the design as well as the optimization of the catalytic fixed-bed reactors in a wide variety of reactor and reaction conditions.
文摘Ionic strength conditions in distribution experiments with single ions are very important for evaluating their distribution properties. Distribution experiments of picrates (MPic) with M = Ag(I) and Li(I)-Cs(I) into o-dichlorobenzene (oDCBz) were performed at 298 K by changing volume ratios (Vorg/V) between water and oDCBz phases, where “org” shows an organic phase. Simultaneously, an analytic equation with the Vorg/V variation was derived in order to analyze such distribution systems. Additionally, the AgPic distribution into nitrobenzene (NB), dichloromethane, and 1,2-dichloroethene (DCE) and the NaB(C6H5) 4 (=NaBPh4) one into NB and DCE were studied at 298 K under the conditions of various Vorg/V values. So, extraction constants (Kex) for MPic into the org phases, their ion-pair formation constants (KMA,org) for MA = MPic in the org ones, and standard distribution constants () for the M(I) transfers between the water and org bulk phases with M = Ag and Li-Cs were determined at the distribution equilibrium potential (dep) of zero V between the bulk phases and also the Kex (NaA), KNaA,org, and values were done at A-=BPh-4. Here, the symbols Kex, KMA,org, and or were defined as [MA] org/[M+][A-], [MA] org/[M+]org [A-]org, and [M+]org/[M+] or [A-]org/[A-] at dep = 0, respectively. Especially, the ionic strength dependences of Kex and KMPic,org were examined at M = Li(I)-K(I) and org = oDCBz. From above, the conditional distribution constants, KD,BPh4 and KD,Cs, were classified by checking the experimental conditions of the I, Iorg, and dep values.
文摘Sediment and macrobenthic fauna distribution at Dar es Salaam harbour channel were investigated to attest the influence of sediment grain size distribution and total organic carbon contents on benthic macrofauna dominance and diversity. Sampling campaign was conducted from January to April, 2019 in 25 sampling stations along the channel. Sediment grain sizes ranged between 0.7405 and 0.00273 mm with an average of 0.0804 mm classified as medium silt. Sediment distribution showed an onshore-offshore pattern consisting of fine dark clay-silt sediments in the southern part of the harbour close to Mwalimu Nyerere Bridge, medium (sandy) at the harbour and coarse sandy offshore. Five classes of macrofauna were identified with sedentary Polychaetes (Diopatra cuprea) found in tubes and free forms being dominant in most of the sediment types, however more abundant in clay-silt. High species diversity index values were encountered in sediments with medium total organic carbon (TOC) and sediment grain sizes (sand-silt). Apparently, low species similarity indices were observed in all sediment type indicating significant dissimilarities in species composition among sediment grain sizes. Thus, the distribution of benthic macrofauna species along Dar es Salaam harbour channel is strongly influenced by the sediment grain sizes and organic carbon contents in sediments.
基金This study was financially supported by the 948 Program from Ministry of Agriculture of China(2016-X25)the National Key Technology R&D Program of China(2014BAD09B03)The authors are grateful to Dr.William J.Gale(Shihezi University,China)for his helpful revision of the paper especially in English language.
文摘Plant growth regulators(PGRs)are frequently used to adjust cotton growth and development.The objectives of this study were to determine how PGRs affect plant morphology,light distribution and the spatial distribution of leaves and bolls within the cotton canopy.The field experiments were carried out at Shihezi(Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region,China)in 2014 and 2015.The experiment included two PGR treatments:(i)flumetralin(active ingredient(a.i),N-N-ethy)-2,6-dinitro-4-aniline and(i)mepiquat chloride(ai,1-dimethyl-piperidiniuchloride)plus flumetralin.No PGR(manual topping)was applied in the control treatment.The chemically-topped plants were taller and had more main stem internodes than the manually-topped plants.Furthermore,the PGRs significantly reduced the length of fruiting branches in the upper canopy,resulting in a more compact canopy.The maximum leaf area index was signifcantly greater in the chemically-topped treatments than that in the control.In particular,the PGRs increased leaf area index by 25%in the upper canopy.The leaf area duration was also longer in the chemically-topped treatments than in the control.Compared with the control,the chemically-topped treatments increased canopy diffuse non-interceptance by 35.75%in the upper canopy layer,while reducing the fraction of intercepted photosynthetically active radiation by 14.45%in the upper canopy layer.Light transmittance in the upper and middle canopy layers was greater in the chemically-topped treatments than in the control,which increased boll numbers in both the upper canopy and the middle canopy.However,the chemically-topped treatments resulted in less light-leakage through the lower canopy layer during the late growth stages,which had a tendency to increase boll numbers in the whole canopy.In summary,the PGRs optimized canopy shape,light distribution and the spatial distribution of bolls and leaves.
基金the Forschungs-Gellschaft Verfahrens-Technik(GVT-IGF project no.17633 N)the German Federal Ministry of Science and Education(BMBF,WIGRATEC+project No.03WKCI4B).
文摘To predict the particle size and layer-thickness distributions(LTDs)in a continuously operated horizontal fluidized-bed granulation process,two alternative models were considered.A one-dimensional two-zone model was proposed,which describes with population-balance equations the particle growth in a spraying zone that is separated from the drying zone.The residence-time distribution(RTD)was calculated from a literature correlation and was coupled with a population-balance model via a tank-in-series model with reflux.A two-dimensional,one-zone population-balance model,which was based directly on the RTD and the feed particle-size distribution(PSD)was also used.Granulation experiments were conducted and analyzed microscopically and with a camera optical device to determine the sample PSDs.LTDs over the particle population were derived from the PSDs and were analyzed directly by micro-computer-tomography.To compare the simulated data with the experimentally determined distributions,the PSDs were converted to LTDs.The good agreement shows that both methods are suitable to determine the PSD from an RTD of an arbitrary granulation process in a horizontal fluidized bed.Improvement appears necessary with regards to the LTD spread.
文摘Pharmacokinetic models are mathematical models which provide insights into the interaction of chemicals with biological processes. During recent decades, these models have become central of attention in industry that caused to do a lot of efforts to make them more accurate. Current work studies the process of drug and nanoparticle (NPs) distribution throughout the body which consists of a system of ordinary differential equations. We use a tri-compartmental model to study the perfusion of NPs in tissues and a six-compartmental model to study drug distribution in different body organs. We have performed global sensitivity analysis by LHS Monte Carlo method using PRCC. We identify the key parameters that contribute most significantly to the absorption and distribution of drugs and NPs in different organs in body.
文摘Considering that the measurement devices of the distribution network are becoming more and more abundant, on the basis of the traditional Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition (SCADA) measurement system, Phasor measurement unit (PMU) devices are also gradually applied to the distribution network. So when estimating the state of the distribution network, the above two devices need to be used. However, because the data of different measurement systems are different, it is necessary to balance this difference so that the data of different systems can be compatible to achieve the purpose of effective utilization of the estimated power distribution state. To this end, this paper starts with three aspects of data accuracy of the two measurement systems, data time section and data refresh frequency to eliminate the differences between system data, and then considers the actual situation of the three-phase asymmetry of the distribution network. The three-phase state estimation equations are constructed by the branch current method, and finally the state estimation results are solved by the weighted least square method.
文摘Comparing two samples about corresponding parameters of their respective populations is an old and classical statistical problem. In this paper, we present a simple yet effective tool to compare two samples through their medians. We calculate the confidence of the statement “the median of the first population is strictly smaller (larger) than the median of the second.” We analyze two real data sets and empirically demonstrate the quality of the confidence for such a statement. This confidence in the order of the medians is to be seen as a pre-analysis tool that can provide useful insights for comparing two or more populations. The method is entirely based on their exact distribution with no need for asymptotic considerations. We also provide the Quor statistical software, an R package that implements the ideas discussed in this work.
基金partially supported by Hibah Rekognisi Tugas Akhir 2019(No.2129/UN1/DITLIT/DIT-LIT/LT/2019)。
文摘Tropical cyclone(TC) Cempaka which occurred on 27–29 November 2017 has caused floods, landslides, and strong winds in certain areas of Java Island. Pacitan Regency was the most severely affected by TC Cempaka. The landslide frequency–area distribution curve of event inventory i.e. TC Cempaka can help to understand landslide susceptibility, hazard, vulnerability, and risk. Landslides were identified by using a local government database and by comparing pre-and post-event high-resolution satellite imageries. Field investigation was carried out in March 2018 to November 2018 to verify the landslide location and update the information. Power law, inverse gamma, and double Pareto model were employed to describe the frequency–magnitude of landslide(mLS) triggered by TC Cempaka. The exponent β values of power law, inverse gamma, and double Pareto were 2.6±0.28(fitted for 8.5% of dataset), 2.2±0.08(fitted for 83% of dataset), and 2.3±0.09(best fitted for dataset), respectively. The P-values were 0.51, 0.67, and 0.91 for power law, inverse gamma, and double Pareto, respectively. This study revealed that rollover occurred at 200 and 300 m2 for double Pareto and inverse gamma, respectively. The cutoff points totaled 1096.49 ± 236.44 and 7235.4 ± 1896.7 m2 for double Pareto and power law, respectively. Rollover phenomenon was real and existed in the dataset because it was far from the minimum resolvable size of the landslide that the authors can delineate from the satellite images. mLS for Pacitan was distributed at around 2 to 4. The magnitude of large landslides was 3.2, that of medium landslides was less than 3, and that of small landslides was almost 4. Numerical estimation calculated a fixed mLS=3.01. Comparison analysis of β values obtained from several landslide inventories triggered by heavy rainfall suggests that the variability of β is related to the intensity and duration of rainfall. Triggering events, such as intensity and duration of rainfall, affect the proportion of large landslides that occur i
文摘Avian Influenza, with a high mortality rate in human population, is considered to be one of the most significant potential threats to human beings. Based on a recent avian influenza SI-SIR model with logistic growth for birds, we propose a stochastic model with generalized incidence rate. For the stochastic avian-only system, sufficient conditions for the extinction of infected birds are established, and the existence of a unique ergodic stationary distribution is also obtained. For the stochastic avian-human system, a threshold number is established, and hence the extinction of disease is investigated. From the viewpoint of biology, the noise intensity in the infected birds plays a key role in the evolutionary dynamics. Moreover, we also analyze the asymptotic behavior around the endemic equilibrium of the corresponding deterministic model.
文摘In recent years, variable selection based on penalty likelihood methods has aroused great concern. Based on the Gibbs sampling algorithm of asymmetric Laplace distribution, this paper considers the quantile regression with adaptive Lasso and Lasso penalty from a Bayesian point of view. Under the non-Bayesian and Bayesian framework, several regularization quantile regression methods are systematically compared for error terms with different distributions and heteroscedasticity. Under the error term of asymmetric Laplace distribution, statistical simulation results show that the Bayesian regularized quantile regression is superior to other distributions in all quantiles. And based on the asymmetric Laplace distribution, the Bayesian regularized quantile regression approach performs better than the non-Bayesian approach in parameter estimation and prediction. Through real data analyses, we also confirm the above conclusions.
文摘We used a distance-sampling survey method and multivariate statistics to obtain a unique estimate of bird species density and seasonal variation in shade-coffee plantations. Our aim was to determine which cultivation practices among plantations contribute most to bird abundance. We conducted avian species counts at 200 points distributed across 10 shade-coffee plantations bordering the lower slopes of the Mombacho Volcano Natural Reserve, in western Nicaragua. We measured vegetation structure (coffee plants and overstory). We used principal components analysis (PCA) among 14 habitat variables to derive a single phyto-geoclimate summary measure (PGSM). We also used PCA to derive an avian abundance summary measure (AASM) from three bird survey variables, which proved to be a good predictor of bird density. We found higher bird species densities (AASM) in organic and traditional polyculture shade coffee plantations whose structurally complex and diverse overstory could be verified by PGSM. However, this finding was true only for birds that were habitat specialists. Our results provide further evidence for promoting organic coffee cultivation practices that maintain a structurally diverse overstory and help retain avian species richness and abundance in coffee plantations.
文摘This letter investigates how to identify the marginal bottleneck,which is defined as the constraint most likely to be violated with the increasing wind generation uncertainty of power system in real-time dispatch.The presented method takes the correlation of wind power prediction error(WPPE)into account,leading to an ellipsoidal formulation of wind power generation region(WGR).Based on constructed WGR,the identification procedure is formulated as a max-max-min problem,which is solved by the algorithm based on iteration linear program with the proposed method to select appropriate initial points of WPPE.Finally,two cases are tested,demonstrating the efficacy and efficiency of the procedure to identify marginal bottleneck.
文摘Statistical analysis of lifetime data is a significant topic in social sciences, engineering, reliability, biomedical and others. We use the generalized weighted exponential distribution, as a generator to introduce a new family called generalized weighted exponential-G family, and apply this new generator to provide a new distribution called generalized weighted exponential gombertez distribution. We investigate some of its properties, moment generating function, moments, conditional moments, mean residual lifetime, mean inactivity time, strong mean inactivity time, Rényi entropy, Lorenz curves and Bonferroni. Furthermore, in this model, we estimate the parameters by using maximum likelihood method. We apply this model to a real data-set to show that the new generated distribution can produce a better fit than other classical lifetime models.
文摘The traditional estimation of Gaussian mixture model is sensitive to heavy-tailed errors;thus we propose a robust mixture regression model by assuming that the error terms follow a Laplace distribution in this article. And for the variable selection problem in our new robust mixture regression model, we introduce the adaptive sparse group Lasso penalty to achieve sparsity at both the group-level and within-group-level. As numerical experiments show, compared with other alternative methods, our method has better performances in variable selection and parameter estimation. Finally, we apply our proposed method to analyze NBA salary data during the period from 2018 to 2019.
文摘In production and scientific research, the research on the characteristics of submicron particles has attracted extensive attention, which is of great significance to the development of industrial production, medical and health inspection and other fields. In this paper, the characteristics of submicron particles are studied based on backlight scattering. By collecting the real-time waveform of the backscattering signal of particles with different particle sizes at different concentrations, the corresponding relationship between the particle concentration and the number of pulses was obtained. It is found that the peak value of the backscattered light energy has a good linear relationship with the particle size. The analysis of the signal distribution law of standard particle swarm with different particle size parameters found that it conformed to the lognormal distribution form.
基金This work was supported by the Ministry of Science and Technology of China(No.2018YFA0209102)the National Natural Science Foundation of China(Nos.11727807,51725101,51672050,and 61790581).
文摘As the proportion of interfaces increases rapidly in nanomaterials,properties and quality of interfaces hugely impact the performance of advanced semiconductors.Here,the effect of interfaces is explored by comparatively studying two InAs/AlSb superlattices with and without the thin InAsSb layers inserted inside each InAs layers.Through strain mapping,it indicates that the addition of interfaces leads to an increase of local strain both near interfaces and inside layers.Meantime,owing to the creation of hole potential wells within the original electron wells,the charge distribution undergoes an extra electron-hole alternating arrangement in the structure with inserted layers than the uninserted counterpart.Such a feature is verified to enhance electron-hole wave function overlap by theoretical simulations,which is a must for better optical performance.Furthermore,with an elaborate design of the inserted layers,the wave function overlap could be boosted without sacrificing other key device performances.