基金Acknowledgments The Wolf Science Center was established by Zs6fia Viranyi, Kurt Kotrschal, and Friederike Range and we thank all the helpers who made this possible, hence indirectly supporting this research. We further thank Laura Stott for assistance with data collection and video coding and Teresa Schmidjell for video coding. Additionally, we thank Marlies Dolezal of the Bioinformatics and Biostatistics platform at the University of Veterinary Medicine for support with the statistical analyses and all the staff and students of the Wolf Science Center （WSC） for their help with the tests and care of the animals. We further thank many private sponsors, including Royal Canin, for financial support and the Game Park Ernstbrunn for hosting the WSC.
基金We thank the Chinese Scholarship Council （201204910187） for the support to GF. GF was also funded by the Starting Funding for Scientific Research from Inner Mongolia University. JCS was funded by the European Research Council （ERC- 2012-StG-310886-HISTFUNC） and the Danish Council for Inde- pendent Research I Natural Sciences （12-125079）.