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动物疾病谱系与社会人类学(1870-2000) 预览
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作者 弗雷德里克·凯克 张雨男 张盈(译) 《原生态民族文化学刊》 CSSCI 2020年第1期49-60,共12页
捕杀、疫苗接种与疫情监测是现代公共卫生用于管理可能传染给人类的动物疾病的3种主要技术手段。在微生物如何在人类与动物之间建立关系的问题上,这3种技术有着各自不同的本体论理解。因此,动物疾病不仅是一个应用人类学问题,还涉及学... 捕杀、疫苗接种与疫情监测是现代公共卫生用于管理可能传染给人类的动物疾病的3种主要技术手段。在微生物如何在人类与动物之间建立关系的问题上,这3种技术有着各自不同的本体论理解。因此,动物疾病不仅是一个应用人类学问题,还涉及学科的理论核心,即理解社会因果关系是如何从物理因果关系中产生的。为了澄清这一观点,通过考察赫伯特·斯宾塞对口蹄疫的研究;威廉·罗伯逊·史密斯结合牛结核病所思考的献祭概念;埃米尔·涂尔干是如何将接种天花疫苗作为社会病态的隐喻;以及克洛德·列维-斯特劳斯对疯牛病的研究。通过他们对动物疾病传播给人类风险的不同理解,即从预防到防治,再到防范,来分析4位学者对社会这一概念的理解。 展开更多
关键词 哨兵 献祭 生物安全 社会 人畜共患病
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基于Sentinel多源数据的农田地表土壤水分反演模型构建与验证 预览
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作者 郭交 刘健 +1 位作者 宁纪锋 韩文霆 《农业工程学报》 EI CAS CSCD 北大核心 2019年第14期71-78,共8页
土壤水分是影响水文、生态和气候等环境过程的重要参数,而微波遥感是农田地表土壤水分测量的重要手段之一。针对微波遥感反演农田地表土壤水分受植被覆盖影响较大的问题,该文基于Sentinel-1和Sentinel-2多源遥感数据,利用Oh模型、支持... 土壤水分是影响水文、生态和气候等环境过程的重要参数,而微波遥感是农田地表土壤水分测量的重要手段之一。针对微波遥感反演农田地表土壤水分受植被覆盖影响较大的问题,该文基于Sentinel-1和Sentinel-2多源遥感数据,利用Oh模型、支持向量回归(support vector regression,SVR)和广义神经网络(generalized regression neural Network,GRNN)模型对土壤水分进行定量反演,以减小植被影响,提高反演精度。结果表明:通过水云模型去除植被影响后的Oh模型反演精度有所提高。加入不同植被指数的SVR和GRNN模型的反演效果总体优于Oh模型,基于SVR模型的多特征参数组合(双极化雷达后向散射系数、海拔高度、局部入射角、修改型土壤调整植被指数)反演效果最优,其测试集相关系数和均方根误差分别达到了0.903和0.015cm^3/cm^3,为利用多源遥感数据反演农田地表土壤水分提供了参考。 展开更多
关键词 土壤水分 模型 遥感 反演 多源数据 SENTINEL
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Predation pressure in maize across Europe and in Argentina: an intercontinental comparison
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作者 Marco Ferrante Gabor L. Lovei +5 位作者 Serena Magagnoli Lenka Minarcikova Elena Larisa Tomescu Giovanni Burgio Ludovit Cagan Mihael Cristin Ichim 《昆虫科学:英文版》 SCIE CAS CSCD 2019年第3期545-554,共10页
Humankind draws important benefits from large-scale ecological processes termed ecosystem services, yet the status of several of them is declining. Reliable monitoring methods are essential for tracking the status of ... Humankind draws important benefits from large-scale ecological processes termed ecosystem services, yet the status of several of them is declining. Reliable monitoring methods are essential for tracking the status of ecosystem services. Predation is the mainstay of natural pest control, a key ecosystem service. We used green plasticine caterpillars to monitor predation pressure, and to obtain baseline data on predator activity in transgenic Bt versus non-Bt maize fields in Old and New World countries. Predation pressure was measured at ground and canopy levels using an identical, small-plot experimental design in four European countries (Denmark, Slovakia, Romania and Italy) and Argentina. Total predation rate in maize was l l.7%d^-1 (min. 7.2%d^-1 in Argentina, max. 29.0%d^-1 in Romania). Artificial caterpillars were attacked both by invertebrates (mostly chewing insects with 42.0% of the attack marks, and ants with 7.1%, but also predatory and parasitoid wasps, spiders and slugs), and vertebrates (small mammals 25.5%, and birds 20.2%). Total predation at ground level (15.7%d^-1) was significantly higher than in maize canopies (6.0%d^-1) in all countries, except Argentina. We found no significant differences between predator pressure in Bt versus non-Bt maize plots. The artificial caterpillar method provided comparable, quantitative data on predation intensity, and proved to be suitable for monitoring natural pest control. This method usefully expands the existing toolkit by directly measuring ecological function rather than structure. 展开更多
关键词 artificial CATERPILLARS ECOSYSTEM services mortality SENTINEL PREY TRANSGENIC plants
Precision surgical approach with lymph-node dissection in early gastric cancer 预览
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作者 Shinichi Kinami Naohiko Nakamura +4 位作者 Yasuto Tomita Takashi Miyata Hideto Fujita Nobuhiko Ueda Takeo Kosaka 《世界胃肠病学杂志:英文版》 SCIE CAS 2019年第14期1640-1652,共13页
The gravest prognostic factor in early gastric cancer is lymph-node metastasis, with an incidence of about 10% overall. About two-thirds of early gastric cancer patients can be diagnosed as node-negative prior to trea... The gravest prognostic factor in early gastric cancer is lymph-node metastasis, with an incidence of about 10% overall. About two-thirds of early gastric cancer patients can be diagnosed as node-negative prior to treatment based on clinicpathological data. Thus, the tumor can be resected by endoscopic submucosal dissection. In the remaining third, surgical resection is necessary because of the possibility of nodal metastasis. Nevertheless, almost all patients can be cured by gastrectomy with D1+ lymph-node dissection. Laparoscopic or robotic gastrectomy has become widespread in East Asia because perioperative and oncological safety are similar to open surgery. However, after D1+ gastrectomy, functional symptoms may still result. Physicians must strive to minimize postgastrectomy symptoms and optimize long-term quality of life after this operation. Depending on the location and size of the primary lesion, preservation of the pylorus or cardia should be considered. In addition, the extent of lymph-node dissection can be individualized, and significant gastric-volume preservation can be achieved if sentinel node biopsy is used to distinguish node-negative patients. Though the surgical treatment for early gastric cancer may be less radical than in the past, the operative method itself seems to be still in transition. 展开更多
关键词 Stomach neoplasms SURGERY GASTRECTOMY methods Recovery of function SENTINEL LYMPH NODE SURGERY Gastric cancer
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ECRG4: a new potential target in precision medicine
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作者 Xin Qin Ping Zhang 《医学前沿:英文版》 CAS CSCD 2019年第5期540-546,共7页
Given the rapid development in precision medicine, tremendous efforts have been devoted to discovering new biomarkers for disease diagnosis and treatment. Esophageal cancer-related gene-4 (ECRG4),which is initially kn... Given the rapid development in precision medicine, tremendous efforts have been devoted to discovering new biomarkers for disease diagnosis and treatment. Esophageal cancer-related gene-4 (ECRG4),which is initially known as a new candidate tumor suppressor gene, is emerging as a sentinel molecule for gauging tissue homeostasis. ECRG4 is unique in its cytokine-like functional pattern and epigenetically-regulated gene expression pattern. The gene can be released from the cell membrane upon activation and detected in liquid biopsy, thus offering considerable potential in precision medicine. This review provides an updated summary on the biology of ECRG4, with emphasis on its important roles in cancer diagnosis and therapy. The future perspectives of ECRG4 as a potential molecular marker in precision medicine are also discussed in detail. 展开更多
关键词 ECRG4 tumor SUPPRESSOR gene SENTINEL molecule PRECISION MEDICINE cell SENESCENCE EPITHELIUM homeostasis
2018年盐城市哨点医院放射性疾病监测结果
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作者 章益飞 王建明 《职业与健康》 CAS 2019年第22期3032-3036,共5页
目的 了解2018年盐城市哨点医院放射防护现状、放射工作人员职业暴露及健康状况,识别放射防护薄弱环节,降低职业性放射性疾病的发生风险。方法 2018年,根据国家放射卫生相关标准,开展X射线影像设备和放射工作场所防护监测;采用热释光法... 目的 了解2018年盐城市哨点医院放射防护现状、放射工作人员职业暴露及健康状况,识别放射防护薄弱环节,降低职业性放射性疾病的发生风险。方法 2018年,根据国家放射卫生相关标准,开展X射线影像设备和放射工作场所防护监测;采用热释光法开展放射工作人员个人剂量监测;对放射工作人员开展职业健康检查,进行辐射健康效应监测。结果 放射诊断设备质量控制监测合格率为92.31%,放射工作场所防护监测合格率为98.90%;419名放射工作人员个人剂量监测结果显示,年有效剂量均低于20 mSv,人均年有效剂量为0.453 m Sv,从事介入放射的人员人均年有效剂量最高(0.606 mSv);核医学工作人员辐射敏感指标异常检出率最高,不同职业工作人员眼晶体混浊检出率差异有统计学意义(P<0.01)。结论 2018年盐城市哨点医院放射防护情况总体良好,放射工作人员职业受照剂量处于较低水平。无职业性放射性疾病发生,但放射工作人员多处于亚健康状态,应重点关注从事介入及核医学的工作人员辐射防护及职业健康。 展开更多
关键词 放射 哨点 监测 放射性疾病
The 2015/16 El Nino-related glacier changes in the tropical Andes
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作者 Bijeesh Kozhikkodan VEETTIL Jefferson Cardia SIMOES 《地球科学前沿:英文版》 SCIE CAS CSCD 2019年第2期422-429,共8页
Significant changes in the area and snowline altitude of two glacierized mountains - Nevado Champara (Cordillera Blanca,Peru) and Cerro Tilata (Cordillera Real,Bolivia)- in the tropical Andes,before and after the rece... Significant changes in the area and snowline altitude of two glacierized mountains - Nevado Champara (Cordillera Blanca,Peru) and Cerro Tilata (Cordillera Real,Bolivia)- in the tropical Andes,before and after the recent El Nino in 2015/16 period,have been analysed using Sentinel 2A and Landsat data.It is seen that the recent El Nino has been accompanied by higher fluctuation in glacier coverage on Nevado Champara and the loss of glacier coverage on Cerro Tilata was very high during the past 16 years.Rise in snowline altitude of selected glaciers was very high after the 2015/16 El Nino.Increase in the area covered by snow and ice during the La Nina periods were not enough to cover the ice loss occurred during the previous El Nino events and the strongest El Nino in 2015/ 16 was followed by a significant loss of ice-covered areas in the tropical Andes.Freshwater resources in this region will be affected in the near future if the current trends in glacier decline continue.Adaptation strategies needs to be implemented to reduce the impacts of the continuing loss of glacierized on regional communities in the tropical Andean region. 展开更多
关键词 ENSO tropical ANDES GLACIER loss SNOWLINE ALTITUDE SENTINEL 2A
基于中国医院药物警戒系统开展主动监测的实践与探讨 预览 被引量:2
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作者 侯永芳 宋海波 +1 位作者 刘红亮 李馨龄 《中国药物警戒》 2019年第4期212-214,共3页
目的概述中国医院药物警戒系统,为利用真实世界电子诊疗数据开展主动监测提供参考。方法通过国家药品不良反应监测哨点联盟建立各方合作机制,建立中国医院药物警戒系统来打通数据源之间的数据通道,并通过建立风险分析模型验证药品安全... 目的概述中国医院药物警戒系统,为利用真实世界电子诊疗数据开展主动监测提供参考。方法通过国家药品不良反应监测哨点联盟建立各方合作机制,建立中国医院药物警戒系统来打通数据源之间的数据通道,并通过建立风险分析模型验证药品安全性问题。结果与结论中国医院药物警戒系统作为主动监测的一种尝试,能够提高药品不良反应报告效率与质量,减少不良反应漏报病例,共享药物安全性警示信息,未来可在验证风险信号方面发挥作用。 展开更多
关键词 主动监测 药品不良反应 通用数据模型 监测哨点
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Clinical characteristics of sentinel polyps and their correlation with proximal colon cancer:A retrospective observational study 预览
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作者 Man Wang Jia-Jie Lu +2 位作者 Wen-Jie Kong Xiao-Jing Kang Feng Gao 《世界临床病例杂志》 2019年第20期3217-3225,共9页
BACKGROUND Colorectal cancer is a common malignant tumor of the digestive tract.The relationship between sentinel polyps(rectal polyps with proximal colon cancer)and proximal colon cancer has received extensive attent... BACKGROUND Colorectal cancer is a common malignant tumor of the digestive tract.The relationship between sentinel polyps(rectal polyps with proximal colon cancer)and proximal colon cancer has received extensive attention in recent years.However,there is still no clear conclusion regarding the relationship.AIM To investigate the clinical characteristics of sentinel polyps and their correlation with proximal colon cancer.METHODS A retrospective analysis of 2587 patients with rectal polyps from January 2006 to December 2017 was performed.According to whether or not proximal colon cancer was diagnosed,the patients were divided into either a sentinel polyp group(192 patients)or a pure rectal polyp group(2395 patients).The endoscopic features,clinicopathological features,therapeutic effects,and short-term prognosis were analyzed and compared between the two groups.RESULTS The mean age of patients in the sentinel polyp group was generally higher than that of the pure rectal polyp group,and the positivity rates of anemia,stool occult blood,and tumor markers of the sentinel polyp group were also significantly higher than those in the rectal polyp group(χ^2=90.56,P<0.01;χ^2=70.30,P<0.01;χ^2=92.80,P<0.01).The majority of the patients in the sentinel polyp group had multiple polyps,large polyps,adenomatous polyps,or sessile polyps(χ^2=195.96,P<0.01;χ^2=460.46,P<0.01;χ^2=94.69,P<0.01;χ^2=48.01,P<0.01).Most of the proximal colon cancers were Duke’s A and B stages in the sentinel polyp group.In the pure rectal polyp group,2203 patients underwent endoscopic treatment,and all of the patients were cured and discharged.In the sentinel polyp group,65 patients underwent radical operation,and 61 patients received endoscopic submucosal dissection or endoscopic mucosal resection.Additionally,21 patients were lost to follow-up after 6-12 mo,and the loss rate was 10.94%.A total of 63.16%of patients experienced remission without tumor recurrence or metastasis,33.33%of patients experienced tumors regression or improved symptoms,and 展开更多
关键词 Sentinel polyps Rectal polyps Proximal colon cancer Ascending colon cancer Transverse colon cancer
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Comparison of sentinel lymph node detection performancesusing blue dye in conjunction with indocyanine green orradioisotope in breast cancer patients: a prospective singlecenterrandomized study 预览
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作者 Long Yuan Xiaowei Qi +10 位作者 Yi Zhang Xinhua Yang Fan Zhang Linjun Fan Li Chen Kongyong Zhang Ling Zhong Yanling Li Sijie Gan Wenying Fu Jun Jiang 《癌症生物学与医学:英文版》 CAS CSCD 2018年第4期452-460,共9页
Objective: This randomized study aimed to compare the clinical efficacy between the novel dual tracer composed of indocyanine green (ICG) and blue dye (BD) and the conventional dual tracer composed of radioisotope and... Objective: This randomized study aimed to compare the clinical efficacy between the novel dual tracer composed of indocyanine green (ICG) and blue dye (BD) and the conventional dual tracer composed of radioisotope and BD for sentinel lymph node (SLN) mapping in patients with breast cancer.Methods: This study enrolled 471 clinically lymph node-negative patients with primary breast cancer. All patients underwent mastectomy, and those undergoing sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) were randomized to receive blue dye plus radioisotope (RB group) or BD plus ICG (IB group). The detection performances on SLN identification rate, positive SLN counts, detection sensitivity, and false-negative rate were compared between the two groups.Results: In the IB group, 97% (194/200) of the patients who underwent the ICG and BD dual tracer injection showed fluorescentpositive lymphatic vessels within 2–5 min. The identification rate of SLNs was comparable between the IB group (99.0%, 198/200)and the RB group (99.6%, 270/271) (P = 0.79). No significant differences were observed in the identification rate of metastatic SLNs (22.5% vs. 22.9%, P > 0.05, RB group vs. IB group, the same below), positive SLN counts (3.72 ± 2.28 vs. 3.91 ± 2.13, P >0.05), positive metastatic SLN counts (0.38 ± 0.84 vs. 0.34 ± 0.78, P > 0.05), SLNB detection sensitivity (94.4% vs. 92.5%, P >0.05), or false-negative rate (5.6% vs. 7.5%, P > 0.05) between the two groups.Conclusions: ICG can be used as a promising alternative tracer for radioisotope in SLN mapping, and when it is combined with BD in lymphangiography, it offers comparable detection sensitivity compared to the conventional lymphatic mapping strategies that are widely used in clinical practice. 展开更多
关键词 breast cancer indocyanine green SENTINEL LYMPH node BIOPSY LYMPHOGRAPHY
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2013-2015年河北省保定市莲池区性病门诊男性就诊者艾滋病哨点监测结果分析 被引量:2
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作者 和丽娜 杨阳 +3 位作者 詹军伟 詹军娜 曹帅 杨晴 《医学动物防制》 2018年第2期108-111,共4页
目的了解2013-2015年保定市莲池区性病门诊就诊者中男性艾滋病性病感染状况、艾滋病知识知晓率及高危行为状况,为完善人群哨点监测体系和制定综合防治策略提供依据。方法依据《全国艾滋病哨点监测实施方案》对保定市莲池区性病门诊男性... 目的了解2013-2015年保定市莲池区性病门诊就诊者中男性艾滋病性病感染状况、艾滋病知识知晓率及高危行为状况,为完善人群哨点监测体系和制定综合防治策略提供依据。方法依据《全国艾滋病哨点监测实施方案》对保定市莲池区性病门诊男性就诊者进行监测,对结果进行数据整理和统计分析。结果 2013-2015年共监测性病门诊男性就诊者1 200名,每年400名。以20~29岁年龄组、在婚、汉族和河北省户籍为主;艾滋病知识知晓率为92.58%,2013年最高,2015年最低,3年间知晓率差异有统计学意义(χ^2=80.659,P=0.000);最近3个月与暗娼或临时性伴发生过性行为的分别占11.25%和12.83%,注射过毒品的占0.25%,与同性发生过肛交性行为的占15.83%。最近3个月与暗娼或临时性伴发生过性行为、与同性发生过肛交性行为比例3年间差异有统计学意义(χ^2=43.618,P=0.000;χ^2=22.363,P=0.000和χ^2=14.795,P=0.001);HIV、梅毒和HCV抗体阳性检出率分别为0.5%、10.1%和0.7%。梅毒和HCV抗体阳性检出率3年间差异有统计学意义(χ^2=67.298,P=0.000;χ^2=13.146,P=0.000)。结论 2013-2015年间性病门诊艾滋病知识知晓率和高危行为发生率均有差异,要继续加强性病门诊的监测,加强宣传内容的全面性和形式的多样化,减少艾滋病、性病和丙肝的传播。 展开更多
关键词 性病门诊 男性 艾滋病 哨点
保留功能胃切除术的争议与共识 被引量:4
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作者 赵刚 徐佳 王书昌 《中国实用外科杂志》 CSCD 北大核心 2018年第2期158-162,共5页
近年来,我国早期胃癌的诊治率明显提高。早期胃癌病人预后较好,因此,手术更加重视保留胃的解剖和生理功能,减少手术创伤,进而改善病人术后生活质量。其中保留幽门胃切除术是目前应用最广泛的胃功能保留手术,可显著降低术后倾倒综... 近年来,我国早期胃癌的诊治率明显提高。早期胃癌病人预后较好,因此,手术更加重视保留胃的解剖和生理功能,减少手术创伤,进而改善病人术后生活质量。其中保留幽门胃切除术是目前应用最广泛的胃功能保留手术,可显著降低术后倾倒综合征、胆汁反流和胆石病的发生率,术后胃潴留是其常见术后并发症。前哨淋巴结探测技术可预测早期胃癌淋巴结转移情况,决定淋巴结清扫范围,指导术者在术中选择个体化手术方案,从而缩小手术范围以充分保留胃功能。 展开更多
关键词 保留功能胃切除术 早期胃癌 保留幽门胃切除术 前哨淋巴结
不同剂量右美托咪定复合舒芬太尼和地佐辛术后镇痛对剖宫产产妇术后恶心呕吐的影响 被引量:1
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作者 张卫卫 韩冲芳 +2 位作者 吕志敢 王海燕 杨文曲 《实用疼痛学杂志》 2018年第5期375-379,共5页
目的 探讨不同剂量右美托咪定复合舒芬太尼和地佐辛通过静脉自控镇痛(PCIA)对剖宫产产妇术后恶心呕吐的影响.方法 选择2017年10月至2017年12月在山西医学科学院山西大医院妇产科收治的单胎足月妊娠行剖宫产手术120例,按照随机单盲法分为... 目的 探讨不同剂量右美托咪定复合舒芬太尼和地佐辛通过静脉自控镇痛(PCIA)对剖宫产产妇术后恶心呕吐的影响.方法 选择2017年10月至2017年12月在山西医学科学院山西大医院妇产科收治的单胎足月妊娠行剖宫产手术120例,按照随机单盲法分为4组(n=30):舒芬太尼组(S组)、低剂量右美托咪定组、中剂量右美托咪定组、高剂量右美托咪定组(DEX1组、DEX2组、DEX3组).术后均连接静脉自控镇痛泵,S组给予舒芬太尼1.5 μg/kg与地佐辛0.15 mg/kg,并加托烷司琼0.15 mg/kg;DEX1组、DEX2组、DEX3组分别在S组基础上加用右美托咪定2μg/kg、4μg/kg、6μg/kg.记录术后6、12、24、36、48 h时视觉模拟评分(VAS)和Ramsay镇静评分(RSS)评估镇痛、镇静效果;记录术后恶心、呕吐(PONV)情况,观察各组产妇不良反应.结果 DEX1组、DEX2组、DEX3组产妇术后6、12、24、36、48 h时VAS评分低于S组,且DEX2组、DEX3组评分低于DEX1组,DEX3组术后12、24、36h时评分低于DEX2组(P<0.05);DEX1组、DEX2组、DEX3组产妇术后6、12、24、36、48 h时RSS评分高于S组,且DEX2组、DEX3组评分高于DEX1组,DEX3组术后6、12、24、36h时评分高于DEX2组(P<0.05);DEX1组、DEX2组、DEX3组产妇术后6、12、24、36、48 h时PONV评分低于S组,且DEX3组评分低于DEX1组,DEX3组术后6、48 h时评分低于DEX2组(P<0.05);右美托咪定组产妇术后恶心呕吐发生率均低于S组(P<0.05),且其他不良反应发生率较S组低(P<0.05).结论 不同剂量右美托咪定复合舒芬太尼和地佐辛用于剖宫产术后PCIA镇痛,在镇痛、镇静的同时可减少产妇术后PONV的发生,右美托咪定4μg/kg为适宜剂量. 展开更多
关键词 右美托咪啶 舒芬太尼 地佐辛 剖宫产术 恶心 呕吐
山东省男男性行为者哨点毒品滥用者HIV感染状况及影响因素分析 被引量:1
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作者 段青 廖玫珍 +6 位作者 黄鹏翔 李瑞 单士馨 杨特 于海英 张科 康殿民 《中国艾滋病性病》 CSCD 北大核心 2018年第2期143-147,共5页
目的了解山东省男男性行为者(MSM)哨点毒品滥用者艾滋病病毒(HIV)感染状况及其影响因素,为相关部门制定合理的干预措施提供依据。方法从2012-2015年MSM哨点资料中筛选出符合要求的毒品滥用者,分析其一般人口学特征、艾滋病知识/性... 目的了解山东省男男性行为者(MSM)哨点毒品滥用者艾滋病病毒(HIV)感染状况及其影响因素,为相关部门制定合理的干预措施提供依据。方法从2012-2015年MSM哨点资料中筛选出符合要求的毒品滥用者,分析其一般人口学特征、艾滋病知识/性行为变化、HIV感染状况及其影响因素。结果 2012-2015年MSM哨点毒品滥用者所占比例分别为2.8%(88/3 172)、2.2%(70/3 161)、2.1%(64/3 060)、2.5%(81/3 210)。303名毒品滥用者的HIV阳性率为4.6%(14/303),梅毒阳性率为7.6%(23/303);12 300名非毒品滥用者的HIV阳性率为3.7%(452/12 300),梅毒阳性率为5.0%(611/12 300)。2012-2015年,MSM哨点毒品滥用者艾滋病知识总体知晓率为77.2%(234/303),知晓率总体呈上升趋势(χ_(趋势)~2=18.2,P〈0.05);文化程度为大专及以上所占的比例总体呈上升趋势(χ_(趋势)~2=48.6,P〈0.05);最近6个月商业性行为的发生率呈下降趋势(χ_(趋势)~2=13.1,P〈0.05);最近6个月的同性肛交性行为的发生率呈下降趋势(χ_(趋势)~2=29.8,P〈0.05)。外省籍毒品滥用者的HIV阳性率高于本省籍的毒品滥用者(χ~2=3.93,P〈0.05),样本来源为自愿咨询检测(VCT)的毒品滥用者的HIV阳性率高于其他样本来源的毒品滥用者(χ~2=24.83,P〈0.05),在本地居住时间≥2年的毒品滥用者的HIV阳性率高于在本地居住时间〈2年的毒品滥用者(χ~2=4.91,P〈0.05),梅毒阳性的毒品滥用者的HIV阳性率高于梅毒阴性的毒品滥用者(χ~2=4.01,P〈0.05)。结论 MSM哨点毒品滥用者梅毒感染率高于非毒品滥用者,提示与之感染途径相似的艾滋病也应引起重视,应进一步加强该人群的干预措施,关注外省籍者和VCT者,推广使用安全套并防范梅毒感染。 展开更多
关键词 男男性行为者 哨点 毒品滥用者 艾滋病病毒
Grassland Height Assessment by Satellite Images 预览
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作者 Alessandro Cimbelli Valerio Vitale 《遥感技术进展(英文)》 2017年第1期40-53,共14页
Images collected by optical and radar satellite sensors represent a most viable solution for the extraction of biophysical parameters of the earth surface. The mid-resolution dataset acquired by Landsat and Sentinel s... Images collected by optical and radar satellite sensors represent a most viable solution for the extraction of biophysical parameters of the earth surface. The mid-resolution dataset acquired by Landsat and Sentinel satellites have recently become available free of charge for all users. At the same time, some software for image processing and GIS, like QGIS, R, and ImageJ, have reached a high level of maturity and a large community of users, thanks to their open source license. In this project, free satellite images and open source software have been used for the assessment of the grassland biomass. The overall goal is the enhancement of the statistics of grassland production and dried fodder for the animal breeding. Currently, the National Institute of Statistics collects this kind of dataset at the province level. The project consists in some “in situ” surveys in a specific site in central Italy and in the building of a regression model between the grassland heights and the corresponding radiometric values of the most relevant image bands. 展开更多
关键词 BIOMASS SENTINEL LANDSAT GRASSLAND
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2016年绵阳市男男性行为者艾滋病哨点监测结果分析 被引量:8
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作者 王毅 周万明 +5 位作者 樊静 赵西和 唐宇 杨红 周力 王思源 《预防医学情报杂志》 CAS 2017年第12期1199-1204,共6页
目的 了解男男性行为者(MSM)艾滋病疫情、知识知晓及性行为现状,分析肛交保护性及艾滋病病毒(HIV)感染影响因素。方法 2016-01/06,以绵阳城区MSM为对象,用滚雪球抽样法,在固定场所和知情同意下,进行调查对象招募和行为学及血清学调... 目的 了解男男性行为者(MSM)艾滋病疫情、知识知晓及性行为现状,分析肛交保护性及艾滋病病毒(HIV)感染影响因素。方法 2016-01/06,以绵阳城区MSM为对象,用滚雪球抽样法,在固定场所和知情同意下,进行调查对象招募和行为学及血清学调查。结果 共调查440名,艾滋病知识知晓率97.4%,近1年接受预防服务89.6%。近6月男性肛交、商业性行为、异性性行为每次使用安全套比例分别为71.9%、75.5%和28.0%。HIV确诊阳性率7.3%,梅毒累计感染率10.9%、艾滋病现症感染率6.6%。多因素分析结果,年龄、本地居住时间、酒吧寻找性伴、近1周肛交数、HIV感染与近6月肛交保护有关,年龄、文化程度、接受预防服务、近6月肛交保护是HIV感染独立影响因素。结论 MSM艾滋病知识知晓高,安全套使用待进一步提高,HIV感染处较高水平。肛交保护性、HIV感染风险受多种因素影响,应针对性开展行为干预。 展开更多
关键词 男男性行为者 艾滋病 哨点 监测 影响因素
河北省廊坊市2011-2015年艾滋病哨点监测结果分析 被引量:2
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作者 王斌 李倩 +2 位作者 吕国栋 赵云伟 苗香芬 《医学动物防制》 2017年第11期1153-1155,共3页
目的了解廊坊市2011-2015年高危人群艾滋病流行状况和流行因素,分析高危人群艾滋病流行趋势,为制定艾滋病防治策略和干预措施及效果评价提供依据。方法 2011-2015年连续5年采用随机抽样和整群抽样的方法,通过自愿咨询检测门诊和开展外... 目的了解廊坊市2011-2015年高危人群艾滋病流行状况和流行因素,分析高危人群艾滋病流行趋势,为制定艾滋病防治策略和干预措施及效果评价提供依据。方法 2011-2015年连续5年采用随机抽样和整群抽样的方法,通过自愿咨询检测门诊和开展外展干预活动,对首次接受艾滋病咨询检测的暗娼、性病门诊男性就诊者和长途卡车司机3类人群进行问卷调查和血清学检测。对收集和检测的数据通过SPSS统计软件进行统计分析。结果 2011-2015年共检测暗娼4 000人,其中艾滋病阳性未检出、梅毒阳性检出率为1.25%、丙肝阳性检出率为0.35%;性病门诊男性就诊者2 000人,艾滋病阳性检出率为0.95%、梅毒检出率为4.35%、丙肝阳性检出率为0.70%;长途卡车司机共检测2 000人,其中艾滋病阳性未检出、梅毒阳性检出率为0.30%、丙肝阳性检出率为0.30%。结论性传播已成为廊坊市艾滋病性病传播的主要途径。应加强对暗娼、性病门诊男性就诊者和长途卡车司机的健康宣传教育,加大干预力度。 展开更多
关键词 艾滋病 哨点 监测
Clinical utilities and biological characteristics of melanoma sentinel lymph nodes 预览
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作者 Dale Han Daniel C Thomas +3 位作者 Jonathan S Zager Barbara Pockaj Richard L White Stanley PL Leong 《世界临床肿瘤学杂志》 2016年第2期174-188,共15页
An estimated 73870 people will be diagnosed with melanoma in the United States in 2015,resulting in 9940 deaths.The majority of patients with cutaneous melanomas are cured with wide local excision.However,current evid... An estimated 73870 people will be diagnosed with melanoma in the United States in 2015,resulting in 9940 deaths.The majority of patients with cutaneous melanomas are cured with wide local excision.However,current evidence supports the use of sentinel lymph node biopsy(SLNB)given the 15%-20%of patients who harbor regional node metastasis.More importantly,the presence or absence of nodal micrometastases has been found to be the most important prognostic factor in earlystage melanoma,particularly in intermediate thickness melanoma.This review examines the development of SLNB for melanoma as a means to determine a patient’s nodal status,the efficacy of SLNB in patients with melanoma,and the biology of melanoma metastatic to sentinel lymph nodes.Prospective randomized trials have guided the development of practice guidelines for use of SLNB for melanoma and have shown the prognostic value of SLNB.Given the rapidly advancing molecular and surgical technologies,the technical aspects of diagnosis,identification,and management of regional lymph nodes in melanoma continues to evolve and to improve.Additionally,there is ongoing research examining both the role of SLNB for specific clinical scenarios and the ways to identify patients who may benefit from completion lymphadenectomy for a positive SLN.Until further data provides sufficient evidence to alter national consensusbased guidelines,SLNB with completion lymphadenectomy remains the standard of care for clinically node-negative patients found to have a positive SLN. 展开更多
关键词 MELANOMA Metastasis Review BIOLOGIC characteristics SENTINEL LYMPH NODE SENTINEL LYMPH NODE biopsy
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2010—2014年天津市东丽区外来人口艾滋病哨点监测分析
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作者 吕艳 《职业与健康》 CAS 2016年第3期382-383,共2页
目的 通过了解天津市东丽区外来人口对艾滋病(AIDS)知识的知晓及感染情况,为该区制定防治策略提供依据。方法 按照《全国艾滋病哨点监测实施方案》要求,对流动人口进行问卷调查以及人类免疫缺陷病毒(HIV)等血清学检测。结果 2010—2... 目的 通过了解天津市东丽区外来人口对艾滋病(AIDS)知识的知晓及感染情况,为该区制定防治策略提供依据。方法 按照《全国艾滋病哨点监测实施方案》要求,对流动人口进行问卷调查以及人类免疫缺陷病毒(HIV)等血清学检测。结果 2010—2014年外来人口对AIDS的知晓率为94.38%(1896/2009)。其中2011年知晓率最高,为100%;2014年最低,为88.53%;各年度的知晓率差异有统计学意义(χ^2=73.30,P〈0.01)。商业性行为时的安全套使用率为74.64%。未监测出HIV;梅毒和丙型肝炎病毒抗体阳性者各4人,其阳性率均为0.20%。结论 该市应针对外来人口的特点和其对AIDS认知的薄弱环节进行宣传教育,进一步提高安全套使用率。 展开更多
关键词 流动人口 艾滋病 哨点
昌邑区2013~2015年娱乐场所性病、艾滋病哨点监测结果分析 预览
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作者 赵咏梅 《数理医药学杂志》 2016年第8期1174-1176,共3页
目的:探讨分析昌邑区2013~2015年娱乐场所性病、艾滋病哨点监测结果。方法:分别在2013~2015年,对昌邑区各大娱乐场所暗娼近3年的调查资料进行分析。结果:2013、2014、2015年性病、艾滋病知晓率差异显著(P〈0.05)。2013、2014、201... 目的:探讨分析昌邑区2013~2015年娱乐场所性病、艾滋病哨点监测结果。方法:分别在2013~2015年,对昌邑区各大娱乐场所暗娼近3年的调查资料进行分析。结果:2013、2014、2015年性病、艾滋病知晓率差异显著(P〈0.05)。2013、2014、2015三年暗娼安全套"从未使用"比例相比差异显著(χ~2=6.451,P〈0.05);2013、2014、2015三年暗娼安全套"有时使用"比例相比差异显著(χ~2=25.625,P〈0.01);2013、2014、2015三年暗娼安全套"每次使用"比例相比差异显著(χ~2=33.824,P〈0.01)。2013、2014、2015三年性病、艾滋病阳性率差异显著(χ~2=6.144,P〈0.05)。结论:2013~2015年开展对昌邑区娱乐场所性病、艾滋病暗娼哨点监测,暗娼性病、艾滋病知识知晓率、安全套使用率均有所提高;性病、艾滋病检测率降低、接受干预服务比例下降。 展开更多
关键词 娱乐场所 性病 艾滋病 哨点 监测结果
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