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单核细胞增生李斯特菌的耐药特征及机制 预览
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作者 冯有为 潘佳栋 +3 位作者 陈思思 孙昕宇 王玉婷 殷月兰 《中国人兽共患病学报》 CAS CSCD 北大核心 2019年第2期158-163,共6页
食源性疾病已成为当今世界重大的公共卫生问题,由单核细胞增生李斯特菌(Listeria monocytogenes,Lm)等病原细菌引起的食源性疾病是影响食品安全的主要因素之一。近年来Lm耐药率呈上升趋势,多重耐药菌株不断出现,给世界公共卫生和人类健... 食源性疾病已成为当今世界重大的公共卫生问题,由单核细胞增生李斯特菌(Listeria monocytogenes,Lm)等病原细菌引起的食源性疾病是影响食品安全的主要因素之一。近年来Lm耐药率呈上升趋势,多重耐药菌株不断出现,给世界公共卫生和人类健康带来了严重威胁。Lm的耐药机制十分复杂,包括可移动元件介导的耐药基因转移、药物作用靶点的改变、抗生素的外排作用、灭活酶的产生、生物被膜的形成等多种机制。本文就近年来国内外食品及临床来源Lm的耐药特征及机制进行综述,为李斯特菌病的合理用药,耐药菌株的监测以及公共卫生策略的制定提供科学依据。 展开更多
关键词 单核细胞增生李斯特菌 耐药性 多重耐药 耐药机制
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Tracing of Antibiotic-Resistant Bacteria Isolated from Semen of Iraqi Males with Primary Infertility 预览
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作者 Mohemid M. Al-Jebouri Salih A. Mdish 《泌尿学期刊(英文)》 2019年第1期19-29,共11页
Objectives: The main objective of this study was to investigate the bacterial infections of seminal fluid in males with primary infertility. The patients were referred to and/or visiting the Urology Department in Sala... Objectives: The main objective of this study was to investigate the bacterial infections of seminal fluid in males with primary infertility. The patients were referred to and/or visiting the Urology Department in Salah Al-Deen Teaching Hospital. Methods: The present study was carried out from May 2017 to June 2018 and the number of the patients group was 60. The patients aged between 20 to 50 years. Semen was collected from infertile men of a couple that female failed to become pregnant after one year of regular and unprotected intercourse of marriage and submitted for seminal fluid analysis for the bacteriological analyses. The control group consisted of 50 fertile male who were selected randomly from Tikrit City during the period of this study. Semen culture was done for all the patients and the control group. Results: There were 30 patients who suffered from bacteriospermia and 16 of them (53.3%) were infected with gram positive organisms, while only 14 (46.7%) patients were infected with gram negative organisms. The most common organism was Staphylococcus aureus which was isolated from bacteriospermia. Escherichia coli, Enterococcus faecalis, Klebsiella pneumoniae, S. saprophyticus, Proteus mirabilis and Niesseria gonorrhoae were also isolated and the frequencies of isolation were 23.3% (7), 13.3% (4), 10.0% (3), 10.0% (3), 6.6% (2), and 6.6% (2) respectively. The present study showed many antibiotics were not active against gram positive bacteria isolated e.g. the resistance frequenciy to rifampcin, vancomycin and clindamycin was 48%, 44% and 40% respectively. Conclusions: The gram positive organisms were more prevalent than gram negative organisms in patients with bacteriospermia and the isolationfrequencies of two groups were 16 (53.3%) and 14 (46.7%) respectively. The most effective antimicrobial agents were amikacin, ciprofloxacin and levofloxacin and the least effective one was ceftazidime, whereas moxifloxacin, norfloxacin, gentamicin, azithromycin, moxifloxacin, norfloxacin, cefotaxime, and ceftriaxon 展开更多
关键词 Antibiotic RESISTANCE Bacteriospermia BACTERIA Iraq
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Epigallocatechin Gallate-Stearate Enhances the Efficacy of Antibiotics 预览
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作者 Ayuni Yussof Umme Habiba +2 位作者 Deborah Liaw Tinchun Chu Lee H. Lee 《医学微生物学(英文)》 2019年第3期77-94,共18页
Introduction: The rise in antibiotic resistant cases has caused a global concern. Researchers around the world are trying to find a novel alternative to combat this issue. Green tea with its many health benefits, incl... Introduction: The rise in antibiotic resistant cases has caused a global concern. Researchers around the world are trying to find a novel alternative to combat this issue. Green tea with its many health benefits, including antibacterial and antiviral activity, has shown to be one of the most promising candidates to be used as an agent to solve this problem. Objective: This study focuses on evaluating the synergistic effects of antibiotics and two green tea polyphenols: epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), and its modified lipophilic form epigallocatechin gallate stearate (EGCG-S). Methods: In this study, twelve antibiotics and eight bacteria: Gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus), Staphylococcus epidermidis (S. epidermidis) and Bacillus megaterium (B. megaterium);Gram-negative Escherichia coli (E. coli), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa), Serratia marcescens (S. marcescens), and Enterobacter aerogenes (E. aerogenes);and acid-fast Mycobacterium smegmatis (M. smegmatis) were used. Antibacterial synergism profiling of EGCG, EGCG-S and antibiotics has been established using a disk diffusion assay. Results: The results revealed that both 1% of EGCG and 1% EGCG-S enhanced the antimicrobial activities on antibiotics in various bacteria. Antimicrobial susceptibility study indicated that EGCG-S was able to enhance some antibiotics from the resistant category to intermediate or susceptible and/or from intermediate category to susceptible. Both EGCG and EGCG-S worked comparably on Gram-positive bacteria;in S. aureus, both compounds enhanced 5 antibiotics (AM10, CF30, C30, S10 and TE30) activities while EGCG-S had higher efficiency. B. megaterium were susceptible to most of the antibiotic treatment, thus the impact of EGCG and EGCG-S was insignificant. EGCG-S worked better than EGCG on Gram-negative bacteria;converted 9 antibiotics susceptibility in E. coli and P. aeruginosa, and 8 antibiotics in E. aerogenes. EGCG and EGCG-S also showed synergism on acid-fast bacteria M. smegmatis with EGCG-S has much higher effi 展开更多
关键词 EGCG EGCG-Stearate Antibiotic Resistance DISK Diffusion Methods
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Community Pharmacists’ Knowledge, Practices and Perceptions on Antibiotic Use and Resistance: A Cross-Sectional, Self-Administered Questionnaire Survey, in Guediawaye and Pikine, Senegal 预览
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作者 Oumar Bassoum Awa Ba-Diallo +7 位作者 Ndèye Marème Sougou Mamadou Makhtar Mbacke Lèye Mayassine Diongue Ndèye Fatou Cissé Adama Faye Ibrahima Seck Djibril Fall Anta Tal-Dia 《流行病学期刊(英文)》 2019年第4期289-308,共20页
Background: Antibiotic resistance is a threat to global health. Community pharmacists are among the most accessible health professionals. Therefore, their role in improving antibiotic use and subsequently in fighting ... Background: Antibiotic resistance is a threat to global health. Community pharmacists are among the most accessible health professionals. Therefore, their role in improving antibiotic use and subsequently in fighting resistance is crucial. The objective of this study was to evaluate community pharmacists’ knowledge, practices and perceptions on antibiotic use and resistance. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study in community pharmacies located in the departments of Guediawaye and Pikine, Senegal. The study took place between November 2017 and February 2018. A total of 121 community pharmacies were located. In each of them, we planned to include one pharmacist. A self-administered questionnaire was used. The data were analyzed using Epi Info 7. The analysis was descriptive. Variables were expressed as number (n) and percentage (%). Results: The response rate was 75.2%. The majority mistakenly thought that antibiotics are always effective against sore throat (64.8%), bronchitis (51.6%), paronychia (72.5%) and dental caries (65.9%). Most respondents knew that self-medication (96.7%), poor treatment compliance (94.5%), inappropriate antibiotic dispensing (79.1%), inappropriate antibiotic prescribing (85.7%) were causes of resistance. Further, causes such as poor hand hygiene and lack of immunization were cited by 9.9% and 6.6% of participants. Moreover, 25.2% knew that third-generation cephalosporins, macrolides and quinolones are critically important antibiotics. In addition, 96.7% and 90.2% said to dispense antibiotics without a prescription and to contact prescribers in case of doubt about the reliability of an antibiotic prescription, respectively. The majority was of the opinion that some antibiotic prescriptions were inadequate (29.7%) and that the consumption of antibiotics was high (92.3%). Conclusion: This study showed a lack of knowledge among community pharmacists practicing in Guediawaye and Pikine towards antibiotic use and resistance. Therefore, it is necessary to sensitize them. Further studi 展开更多
关键词 Community PHARMACISTS KNOWLEDGE PRACTICES Senegal Antibiotic RESISTANCE
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Degradation of extracellular genomic, plasmid DNA and specific antibiotic resistance genes by chlorination
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作者 Menglu Zhang Sheng Chen +2 位作者 Xin Yu Peter Vikesland Amy Pruden 《环境科学与工程前沿(英文)》 SCIE EI CAS CSCD 2019年第3期115-126,共12页
There is a need to improve understanding of the effect of chlorine disinfection on antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) in order to advance relevant drinking water, wastewater, and reuse treatments. However, few studies... There is a need to improve understanding of the effect of chlorine disinfection on antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) in order to advance relevant drinking water, wastewater, and reuse treatments. However, few studies have explicitly assessed the physical effects on the DNA. Here we examined the effects of free chlorine (1-20 mg CI2/L) on extracellular genomic, plasmid DNA and select ARGs. Chlorination was found to decrease the fluorometric signal of extracellular genomic and plasmid DNA (ranging from 0.005 to 0.05 μg/mL) by 70%, relative to a no-chlorine control. Resulting DNA was further subject to a fragment analysis using a Bioanalyzer, indicating that chlorination resulted in fragmentation. Moreover, chlorine also effectively deactivated both chromosomal- and plasmidborne ARGs, mecK and tetA., respectively. For concentrations >2 mg CI2//L× 30 min, chlorine efficiently reduced the qPCR signal when the initial concentration of ARGs was 10^5 copies/μL or less. Notably, genomic DNA and mecA gene signals were more readily reduced by chlorine than the plasmid-bome tetK gene (by ~2 fold). Based on the results of qPCR with short (~200 bps) and long amplicons (-1200 bps), chlorination could destroy the integrity of ARGs, which likely reduces the possibility of natural transformation. Overall, our findings strongly illustrate that chlorination could be an effective method for inactivating extracellular chromosomal- and plasmid-bome DNA and ARGs. 展开更多
关键词 Antibiotic RESISTANCE Antibiotic RESISTANCE GENES (ARGs) EXTRACELLULAR DNA/ARGs CHLORINATION
抗生素耐药性研究进展
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作者 陆继爽 李波 +3 位作者 单春乔 冯柳柳 王业华 刘艳 《中国兽医学报》 CSCD 北大核心 2019年第10期2088-2095,共8页
抗生素耐药性是当今社会面临的最严峻挑战之一,细菌已经进化出多种机制得以在诸多抗生素中存活。因此,迫切需要寻找新的药物研发途径,理想的药物靶标与代谢和压力相关,而由信号核苷酸(p)pp Gpp调节的严谨反应是有效的靶标之一,抑制该途... 抗生素耐药性是当今社会面临的最严峻挑战之一,细菌已经进化出多种机制得以在诸多抗生素中存活。因此,迫切需要寻找新的药物研发途径,理想的药物靶标与代谢和压力相关,而由信号核苷酸(p)pp Gpp调节的严谨反应是有效的靶标之一,抑制该途径会降低致病细菌存活率。最近设计的(p)pp Gpp小分子类似物,在抑制细菌生长和生物膜产生方面取得令人满意的结果。此外,抗菌肽、小RNA和核糖开关以及抗生素佐剂等在耐药性细菌感染方面也有很好的应用前景,本研究对目前抗生素耐药性研究进展加以总结。 展开更多
关键词 抗生素耐药性 严谨反应抑制剂 抗菌肽 小RNA和核糖开关 细菌代谢 抗生素佐剂
住院患者临床血液感染分离菌的分布及耐药性分析 预览
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作者 吴姝婷 廖婷 +4 位作者 张瑞 苟红梅 董明江 潘萍 杨忠文 《医药前沿》 2019年第32期34-35,共2页
目的:了解住院患者临床血液感染分离细菌的分布及其耐药特征.方法:统计2011—2018年自巴中市中心医院血培养中分离的细菌分布及对常见临床药物的耐药特征,按照美国临床和实验室标准协会CLSI2016版判断结果.结果:血培养分离菌407株,其中... 目的:了解住院患者临床血液感染分离细菌的分布及其耐药特征.方法:统计2011—2018年自巴中市中心医院血培养中分离的细菌分布及对常见临床药物的耐药特征,按照美国临床和实验室标准协会CLSI2016版判断结果.结果:血培养分离菌407株,其中革兰阳性球菌115株,占28.26%,革兰阴性杆菌289株,占71.01%,真菌6株,占0.74%.分离前五位的细菌分别是大肠埃希菌、肺炎克雷伯菌、金黄色葡萄球菌、凝固酶阴性葡萄球菌和阴沟肠杆菌.金黄色葡萄球菌和凝固酶阴性葡萄球菌中甲氧西林耐药菌株(MRSA和MRCNS)的分离率分别为12.5%和73.1%,未检出对万古霉素和利奈唑胺耐药的葡萄球菌和肠球菌.大肠埃希菌、克雷伯菌属和阴沟肠杆菌中产ESBL株分别占47.5%、7.1%、50%,产ESBL株对测试药物的耐药率均高于非产ESBL菌株.肠杆菌科细菌对碳青霉烯类抗生素高度敏感,大多数细菌耐药率均低于5%,非发酵菌对碳青霉烯类耐药率较高,自血流感染患者分离的鲍曼不动杆菌对对亚胺培南和美罗培南的耐药率甚至达到了80%.结论:肿瘤医院患者血培养中分离的细菌以肠杆菌科为主,鲍曼不动杆菌属对碳青霉烯的耐药率仍呈上升趋势,给临床的治疗带来了极大挑战,应当引起临床的重视. 展开更多
关键词 血培养 耐药性 住院患者 抗生素 抗菌药物敏感实验
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Presence, dissemination and removal of antibiotic resistant bacteria and antibiotic resistance genes in urban drinking water system: A review
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作者 Qiaowen Tan Weiying Li +4 位作者 Junpeng Zhang Wei Zhou Jiping Chen Yue Li Jie Ma 《环境科学与工程前沿(英文)》 SCIE EI CAS CSCD 2019年第3期13-27,共15页
Antibiotic resistance in aquatic environment has become an important pollution problem worldwide. In recent years, much attention was paid to antibiotic resistance in urban drinking water systems due to its close rela... Antibiotic resistance in aquatic environment has become an important pollution problem worldwide. In recent years, much attention was paid to antibiotic resistance in urban drinking water systems due to its close relationship with the biosafety of drinking water. This review was focused on the mechanisms of antibiotic resistance, as well as the presence, dissemination and removal of antibiotic resistant bacteria (ARB) and antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) in the urban drinking water system. First, the presence of ARB and ARGs in the drinking water source was discussed. The variation of concentration of ARGs and ARB during coagulation, sedimentation and filtration process were provided subsequently, in which filtration was proved to be a promising technology to remove ARGs. However, biological activated carbon (BAC) process and drinking water distribution systems (DWDSs) could be incubators which promote the antibiotic resistance, due to the enrichment of ARGs and ARB in the biofilms attached to the active carbon and pipe wall. Besides, as for disinfection process, mechanisms of the inactivation of ARB and the promotion of conjugative transfer of ARGs under chlorine, ozone and UV disinfection were described in detail. Here we provide some theoretical support for future researches which aim at antibiotic resistance controlling in drinking water. 展开更多
关键词 Antibiotic resistant BACTERIA Antibiotic resistance genes WATER source DRINKING WATER treatment plant DRINKING WATER distribution SYSTEM Urban DRINKING WATER SYSTEM
仔猪腹泻源大肠杆菌耐药性调查及耐药基因检测
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作者 杨海峰 陈晓兰 +2 位作者 吴萌 邱树磊 蒋春茂 《畜牧与兽医》 北大核心 2019年第5期66-69,共4页
对泰州地区分离的仔猪腹泻源大肠杆菌的耐药性及其携带的相关耐药基因情况进行检测,为养殖场今后合理用药提供科学依据。采用微量肉汤稀释法对分离的49株大肠杆菌进行8种抗菌药物的药敏试验;采用PCR方法对多黏菌素耐药基因mcr-1及超广谱... 对泰州地区分离的仔猪腹泻源大肠杆菌的耐药性及其携带的相关耐药基因情况进行检测,为养殖场今后合理用药提供科学依据。采用微量肉汤稀释法对分离的49株大肠杆菌进行8种抗菌药物的药敏试验;采用PCR方法对多黏菌素耐药基因mcr-1及超广谱β-内酰胺酶(ESBL)耐药基因blaCTX-M、blaSHV和blaTEM进行检测。药敏试验结果显示:大肠杆菌对氯霉素、氟苯尼考、氨苄西林、四环素、庆大霉素和恩诺沙星等的耐药率分别达到100%、97.96%、95.92%、89.80%、59.18%和51.02%;而对多黏菌素E和头孢噻呋的耐药率也达到44.90%和32.65%。进一步耐药基因检测结果显示:ESBL耐药基因中blaCTX-M的检出率最高,达到12.24%(6/49);其次为blaSHV,8.16%(4/49);有一株大肠杆菌携带blaTEM基因。其中一株同时携带blaCTX-M和blaSHV。多黏菌素耐药基因mcr-1的检出率达到30.61%(15/49),其中4株同时携带blaCTX-M基因。泰州地区分离大肠杆菌耐药情况和多重耐药现象较为严重,多黏菌素耐药基因mcr-1及ESBL耐药基因blaCTX-M、blaSHV和blaTEM的广泛分布表明这些耐药基因存在快速传播的风险。因此,有必要加强猪场细菌耐药性监测。 展开更多
关键词 仔猪 大肠杆菌 耐药性 耐药基因
植物乳杆菌HNU082抗生素抗性与相关基因的关系 预览
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作者 李红叶 姜帅铭 +1 位作者 赵永平 张家超 《食品工业科技》 CAS 北大核心 2019年第6期6-12,共7页
以一株分离自海南鱼茶的植物乳杆菌(Lactobacillusplantarum)HNU082为研究对象,经全基因组测序获知该菌株所携带的抗生素抗性基因信息(arlR、emeA、fexA、lmrC、lmrD、macB、mepA、mprF、novA、pbp1a、gyrB、rpoB9类),并针对11种常用抗... 以一株分离自海南鱼茶的植物乳杆菌(Lactobacillusplantarum)HNU082为研究对象,经全基因组测序获知该菌株所携带的抗生素抗性基因信息(arlR、emeA、fexA、lmrC、lmrD、macB、mepA、mprF、novA、pbp1a、gyrB、rpoB9类),并针对11种常用抗生素进行抗性筛选,得到各抗生素对HNU082的最小抑制浓度(Minimum Inhibitory Concentrations,MIC),从而确定其抗性基因与抗生素抗性间的关系。结果表明,并非所有抗性基因都能导致菌株对相应抗生素产生抗性:菌株检出rpoB却未表达利福平抗性;抗性程度与抗性基因所占比例大小无关:与万古霉素和诺氟沙星相关的抗性基因分别占所检测基因总数的6.7%和20.0%,但菌株对二者所表达的抗性均为MIC>1280μg/mL,而盐酸克林霉素相关基因占所检测基因的20.0%,其MIC(20μg/mL)却与诺氟沙星相差很大;红霉素和罗红霉素的相关抗性基因均为macB,但菌株对罗红霉素的抗性强于红霉素,即对受同一基因影响的不同药物,菌株所表现的抗性特征也不尽相同。 展开更多
关键词 植物乳杆菌HNU082 抗性基因 抗生素抗性 最小抑制浓度
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猪链球菌9型分离株的耐药性及耐药基因分析 预览
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作者 关琳 王丹丹 +7 位作者 祝昊丹 周俊明 孙珂 吕立新 俞正玉 何孔旺 李彬 倪艳秀 《中国人兽共患病学报》 CAS CSCD 北大核心 2019年第11期1015-1020,共6页
目的了解猪链球菌9型(Streptococcus suis serotype 9,SS9)的耐药性和耐药基因情况。方法采用药敏纸片扩散法检测15株SS9菌株对9类21种不同抗生素的耐药性,并通过PCR方法检测其大环内酯类及四环素类耐药基因的携带情况。结果被检菌株对... 目的了解猪链球菌9型(Streptococcus suis serotype 9,SS9)的耐药性和耐药基因情况。方法采用药敏纸片扩散法检测15株SS9菌株对9类21种不同抗生素的耐药性,并通过PCR方法检测其大环内酯类及四环素类耐药基因的携带情况。结果被检菌株对大环内酯类及林可胺类耐药率都为100%,对四环素及链霉素的耐药率都为93.3%,对头孢类、氯霉素类、阿莫西林、糖肽类以及庆大霉素较为敏感。所有菌株均耐7种及以上抗菌药物,最高可耐16种,其中以8重耐药的菌株数量最多。不同地区SS9分离株对抗生素耐药情况不同,健康猪分离株耐药情况较病猪分离株更为严重。100%的菌株具有ermB基因,93.33%的菌株具有tetO基因,表明ermB和tetO分别可能是介导SS9对大环内酯类及四环素产生耐药性的主要原因之一。结论本研究为猪链球菌9型的预防和临床治疗、耐药性及耐药机制的研究提供了参考依据。 展开更多
关键词 猪链球菌9型 抗生素 耐药性 耐药基因
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迟缓爱德华氏菌耐药性分析研究
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作者 黄新新 何宇平 +6 位作者 彭强辉 曾静 刘海泉 孙晓红 赵勇 李想 郭德华 《食品安全质量检测学报》 CAS 2019年第10期3173-3179,共7页
目的分析来自不同地区和宿主的迟缓爱德华氏菌(Edwardsiella tarda, Et)耐药特性及抗性基因。方法采用VITEK 2 Compact全自动分析系统,利用VITEK 2 Compact AST-GN13(22095)药敏鉴定卡对23株Et进行药敏试验;通过实时荧光PCR法检测抗性... 目的分析来自不同地区和宿主的迟缓爱德华氏菌(Edwardsiella tarda, Et)耐药特性及抗性基因。方法采用VITEK 2 Compact全自动分析系统,利用VITEK 2 Compact AST-GN13(22095)药敏鉴定卡对23株Et进行药敏试验;通过实时荧光PCR法检测抗性基因。结果manE291、ET-0711059、L49231、DT这4株Et对复方新诺明耐药,其中ET-0711059还对包括氨苄西林、庆大霉素等在内的其余7种抗生素耐药,对环丙沙星处于中介耐药。23株Et经氨基糖苷类、四环素类、磺胺类、喹诺酮类、大环内酯类等30种抗性基因检测,16%Et含有氨基糖苷类ant(3”)-I抗性基因及磺胺类sul1抗性基因;另有16%Et含磺胺类sul2抗性基因;40%Et含四环素类tetA抗性基因。所有耐药菌株均为鱼源株,6株人源菌株不表现耐药。结论所检测的Et菌株除了1株多重耐药,其余菌株的耐药性并不突出,主要表现为对复方新诺明的耐药。在检测的Et菌株中分布有一定比例的抗性基因,但和耐药性并不完全相关。 展开更多
关键词 迟缓爱德华氏菌 耐药性 抗性基因
2006-2016年我国畜禽动物源性沙门菌血清型分布及其耐药特征
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作者 段瑶 李杰 +1 位作者 阚飙 闫梅英 《疾病监测》 CAS 2019年第4期296-302,共7页
目的了解2006—2016年我国畜禽动物来源沙门菌的血清型分布及其耐药特征,完善我国动物源性沙门菌耐药数据,为多重耐药沙门菌感染的预防控制决策提供依据。方法利用传统血清凝集试验,对主要来源于鸡、猪的沙门菌进行血清分型;采用微量肉... 目的了解2006—2016年我国畜禽动物来源沙门菌的血清型分布及其耐药特征,完善我国动物源性沙门菌耐药数据,为多重耐药沙门菌感染的预防控制决策提供依据。方法利用传统血清凝集试验,对主要来源于鸡、猪的沙门菌进行血清分型;采用微量肉汤稀释法测定所有实验菌株对16种抗生素的最小抑菌浓度,依据美国临床和实验室标准协会2017版进行药敏结果判读。结果 2006—2016年776株沙门菌分为49种血清型,以肠炎沙门菌(31.57%)、德尔卑沙门菌(17.53%)和鼠伤寒沙门菌(14.82%)为主。猪和鸡源沙门菌的优势血清型分别为德尔卑沙门菌(39.15%)和肠炎沙门菌(51.62%)。沙门菌对磺胺异恶唑、链霉素和萘啶酸的耐药率最高,分别为73.32%、70.88%、69.59%;对环丙沙星的耐药率为10.70%;对三代头孢的敏感性较高,达92.00%以上。菌株多重耐药率达63.40%,鼠伤寒沙门菌多重耐药率最高(90.44%),次之为德尔卑沙门菌(63.24%)和肠炎沙门菌(58.78%)。结论我国主要畜禽动物源性沙门菌的多重耐药现象较严重。随着时间的推移,菌株对多数药物的耐药水平呈上升趋势,需密切关注并实时监测耐药性的变迁、播散及其对环境、人群的潜在威胁,同时加强养殖业抗菌药物的合理应用及监管。 展开更多
关键词 沙门菌 血清型 耐药 多重耐药
Urban recreational water – potential breeding ground for antibiotic resistant bacteria?
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作者 Jing Yang Xu Connie Le +1 位作者 Baowei Chen Hongquan Zhang 《环境科学学报:英文版》 SCIE EI CAS CSCD 2019年第7期1-3,共3页
The emergence of multidrug-resistant bacteria, or'superbugs,' has become an urgent and worldwide concern.Antibiotic-resistant bacteria (ARB) cause significant morbidity and mortality (O’Neill, 2016). It has b... The emergence of multidrug-resistant bacteria, or'superbugs,' has become an urgent and worldwide concern.Antibiotic-resistant bacteria (ARB) cause significant morbidity and mortality (O’Neill, 2016). It has been estimated that ARB cause at least 23,000 deaths annually in the United States alone and hundreds of thousands of deaths in developing countries (Bougnom and Piddock, 2017). 展开更多
关键词 Antibiotic RESISTANCE genes (ARGs) MULTIDRUG RESISTANCE in bacteria MICROBIAL PATHOGENS LAKE water and sediment
华北地区部分省(市)奶牛乳房炎乳中链球菌耐药表型和耐药基因研究
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作者 田晓英 甄天元 +4 位作者 于忠娜 孙萍 王军 韩荣伟 王世清 《黑龙江畜牧兽医》 CAS 北大核心 2019年第1期1-7,共7页
为了解华北地区4个省(市)奶牛乳房炎乳中链球菌的感染情况及对常用抗生素的耐药性,试验采用EN液体培养基、5%绵羊鲜血琼脂培养基、触酶试验、6.5%NaCl试验、七叶苷试验i马尿酸钠试验和CAMP试验对2016年华北地区240批次乳房炎奶牛乳样进... 为了解华北地区4个省(市)奶牛乳房炎乳中链球菌的感染情况及对常用抗生素的耐药性,试验采用EN液体培养基、5%绵羊鲜血琼脂培养基、触酶试验、6.5%NaCl试验、七叶苷试验i马尿酸钠试验和CAMP试验对2016年华北地区240批次乳房炎奶牛乳样进行链球菌的分离鉴定和分型;采用纸片扩散法对2016年华北地区分离出的链球菌进行药敏试验,对华北地区上下半年及4个省(市)链球菌的药敏情况进行对比;并通过PCR扩增技术研究链球菌的耐药基因,计算链球菌表型耐药率与所携带相关耐药基因的阳性率,比较两者的相符率。结果表明:共分离得到致病性链球菌28株,总分离率为11.67%,其中无乳链球菌7株、停乳链球菌5株和乳房链球菌16株;链球菌分离株对苯唑西林和青霉素G表现出完全耐药;对四环素类药物耐药性较高,强力霉素和四环素的耐药率分别为85.71%和82.14%;对氯霉素类药物高度敏感,敏感率为92.86%;对喹诺酮类和氨基糖苷类药物耐药性较低,平均耐药率分别为8.93%和10.20%;除磺胺类药物外,其他类药物耐药率下半年均低于上半年;在4个省(市)中,天津市链球菌分离株对各类抗生素的平均耐药率高于其他省(市);经PCR扩增检测,耐药基因阳性率在7.14%~26.79%之间,整体检出率较低,耐药基因与耐药表型相符率在0~100%之间,其中氯霉素相符率为0,并不能完全拟合。说明2016年我国华北地区链球菌总检出率较低,乳房链球菌为主要致病菌,链球菌分离株表现出不同程度的耐药性,且多为多重耐药,耐药基因与耐药表型的相符率较低。 展开更多
关键词 奶牛乳房炎 链球菌 分型 抗生素 耐药性 耐药基因
Low nutrient levels as drinking water conditions can reduce the fitness cost of efflux pump-mediated ciprofloxacin resistance in Pseudomonas aeruginosa
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作者 Wenfang Lin Kun Wan +3 位作者 Jie Zeng Jingjing Li Xi Li Xin Yu 《环境科学学报:英文版》 SCIE EI CAS CSCD 2019年第9期123-132,共10页
The long-term persistence of antibiotic resistance in the environment, especially in drinking water, is a public health concern. Expression of an efflux pump, an important mechanism of resistance to antibiotics, usual... The long-term persistence of antibiotic resistance in the environment, especially in drinking water, is a public health concern. Expression of an efflux pump, an important mechanism of resistance to antibiotics, usually confers a fitness cost in bacteria. In this study, we aimed to determine why antibiotic resistance conferred by overexpression of an efflux pump persisted in low-nutrient environments(TOC < 10 mg/L) such as drinking and source water in which antibiotic selective pressure might be very low or even absent.Competition experiments between wild-type Pseudomonas aeruginosa and ciprofloxacinresistant mutants revealed that the fitness cost of ciprofloxacin resistance significantly decreased(p < 0.05) under low-nutrient(0.5 mg/L total organic carbon(TOC)) relative to high-nutrient(500 mg/L TOC) conditions. Mechanisms underlying this fitness cost were analyzed. The mexD gene expression in resistant bacteria(cip3 strain) was significantly lower(p < 0.05) in low-nutrient conditions, with 10 mg/L TOC((8.01 ± 0.82)-fold), than in high-nutrient conditions, with 500 mg/L TOC((48.89 ± 4.16)-fold). Moreover, rpoS gene expression in resistant bacteria((1.36 ± 0.13)-fold) was significantly lower(p < 0.05) than that in the wild-type strain((2.78 ± 0.29)-fold) under low-nutrient conditions(10 mg/L TOC),suggesting a growth advantage. Furthermore, the difference in metabolic activity between the two competing strains was significantly smaller(p < 0.05) in low-nutrient conditions(5 and 0.5 mg/L TOC). These results suggest that nutrient levels are a key factor in determining the persistence of antibiotic resistance conferred by efflux pumps in the natural environment with trace amounts or no antibiotics. 展开更多
关键词 EFFLUX pumps Antibiotic RESISTANCE Fitness cost LOW NUTRIENT nfxB mutation CIPROFLOXACIN RESISTANCE
牛奶中大肠杆菌对抗生素的耐药性研究 预览
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作者 刘海锋 张艳娇 +3 位作者 廖小微 孙丰慧 代敏 郭莉娟 《成都医学院学报》 CAS 2019年第5期569-574,共6页
目的探究牛奶中大肠杆菌(Escherichia coli,E.coli)对各种抗生素的耐药情况,分析E.coli耐抗生素基因及其耐药基因,为E.coli污染合理使用抗生素提供依据。方法 牛奶样品中分离得到的43株E.coli,通过药敏实验法测定其对11种抗生素的耐药性... 目的探究牛奶中大肠杆菌(Escherichia coli,E.coli)对各种抗生素的耐药情况,分析E.coli耐抗生素基因及其耐药基因,为E.coli污染合理使用抗生素提供依据。方法 牛奶样品中分离得到的43株E.coli,通过药敏实验法测定其对11种抗生素的耐药性,并采用PCR法检测20种抗生素耐药基因。结果 43株E.coli对11种抗生素的耐药性各不相同,其中对β内酰胺类抗生素的耐药率最高,奥格门汀(AMC)(97.67%)、氨苄西林(AMP)(51.16%),四环素(TET)类抗生素次之,TET(25.58%),其余抗生素的耐药率皆低于25.00%。多重耐药菌株占34.88%,以5耐占比最高为6.98%。耐药基因检测表明,除了sul1、tet(B)、tet(C)、tet(D)基因未检出,其它基因ant(3″)-Ia的检出率高达100.00%,其次tet(M)检出率为90.91%,检出率较低的为blaCTX-M(9.30%),其余基因检测率为(18.60%~66.67%)。检测出16种不同的抗生素耐药基因组合,3种或3种以上的组合占25.02%。结论 在两家牧场的牛乳中,E.coli污染较为严重,以耐β内酰胺类抗生素为主,多重耐药相对较高,抗生素耐药基因检出率较高,建议企业轮换用药、采取新药等方式降低成本,改善抗生素耐药持续恶化的现状。 展开更多
关键词 大肠杆菌 抗生素 耐药性 耐药基因
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Development of Helicobacter pylori treatment: How do we manage antimicrobial resistance? 预览
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作者 Sho Suzuki Mitsuru Esaki +2 位作者 Chika Kusano Hisatomo Ikehara Takuji Gotoda 《世界胃肠病学杂志:英文版》 SCIE CAS 2019年第16期1907-1912,共6页
Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) antimicrobial resistance is an urgent, global issue. In 2017, the World Health Organization designated clarithromycin-resistant H. pylori as a high priority bacterium for antibiotic res... Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) antimicrobial resistance is an urgent, global issue. In 2017, the World Health Organization designated clarithromycin-resistant H. pylori as a high priority bacterium for antibiotic research and development. In addition to clarithromycin, resistance to metronidazole and fluoroquinolones has also increased worldwide. Recent international guidelines for management of H. pylori infection recommend bismuth or non-bismuth quadruple therapy for 14 d as a first-line treatment for H. pylori in areas of high clarithromycin and/or metronidazole resistance. Although these treatment regimens provide acceptable H. pylori eradication rates, the regimens used should not contribute to future resistance of H. pylori to antimicrobials. Moreover, these regimens can promote resistance, due to prolonged therapy with multiple antibiotics. A new strategy that can eradicate H. pylori as well as reduce the antibiotics used is required to prevent future antimicrobial resistance in H. pylori. Dual-therapy with vonoprazan and amoxicillin could be a breakthrough for H. pylori eradication in an era of growing antimicrobial resistance. This regimen may provide a satisfactory eradication rate of H. pylori and also minimize antimicrobial resistance due to single antibiotic use and the strong inhibitory effect of vonoprazan on gastric acid secretion. 展开更多
关键词 HELICOBACTER PYLORI Antibiotic RESISTANCE ANTIMICROBIAL RESISTANCE Dual therapy Vonoprazan
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肝内胆管结石中抗生素耐药基因在性别之间分布差异的初步分析 预览
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作者 杨晨瑞 李君剑 张燕忠 《临床肝胆病杂志》 CAS 北大核心 2019年第5期1021-1026,共6页
目的 分析肝内胆管结石抗生素耐药基因(ARG)在不同性别之间的分布,为临床合理使用抗生素提供参考。方法 收集2017年10月-2018年9月山西医科大学附属人民医院收治的肝内胆总管结石患者共120例,其中男60例,女60例,对所采集标本进行细菌基... 目的 分析肝内胆管结石抗生素耐药基因(ARG)在不同性别之间的分布,为临床合理使用抗生素提供参考。方法 收集2017年10月-2018年9月山西医科大学附属人民医院收治的肝内胆总管结石患者共120例,其中男60例,女60例,对所采集标本进行细菌基因组提取,并采用实时定量PCR方法进行检测。符合正态分布的计量资料组间比较采用t检验;不符合正态分布的计量资料组间比较采用Mann-Whitney U检验。Pearson线性相关分析确定可移动基因元件(MGE)和ARG丰度之间是否具有显著相关性。结果 在所有测得的ARG中,男性ARG16种,其中sull的基因检出率最高(9.4%)。blaCTX-M、blaTEM、blaSHV、blaampC、ampC-01、ampC/blaDHA、bla-ACC-1、blaCMY、blaGES、cfxA、aac、aacc、aadA1、strB、tetX的检出率分别为7.6%、6.9%、7.3%、7.8%、6.2%、6.5%、3.9%、5.5%、2.4%、3.9%、5.6%、7.4%、6.8%、4.2%、8.6%。女性ARG7种,其中sull的基因检出率最高(24%)。blaTEM、aacc、aadD、aadA1、strB、tetX的检出率分别为11.3%、10.8%、8.4%、11.9%、23.9%、9.8%。aadD在男性中未被检出;blaCTX-M、blaSHV、blaampC、ampC-01、ampC/blaDHA、bla-ACC-1、blaCMY、blaGES、cfxA、aac在女性中未被检出。16SrRNA基因与β-内酰胺类ARG、四环素类ARG具有显著相关性(P<0.01),与氨基糖苷类ARG、磺胺类ARG具有相关性(P<0.05);tnpA基因与β-内酰胺类ARG、四环素类ARGs和磺胺类ARG具有相关性(P<0.05),与intⅠ基因具有显著相关性(P<0.01)。结论 肝内胆管结石中携带非常丰富的ARG,其中sull的基因丰度最高;同时,男性中的ARG丰度高于女性,女性中β-内酰胺类ARG的丰度较少。因此,对于肝内胆管结石患者进行抗感染治疗时,女性应考虑将β-内酰胺类抗生素作为首选,而男性患者应给予更多剂量的抗生素或考虑多联用药。 展开更多
关键词 胆结石 抗生素抗药性 β内酰胺抗药性 氨基糖苷类 四环素类 磺胺类 性别分布 横断面研究
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2018年天津市环湖医院分离的病原菌分布特征及药敏结果分析 预览
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作者 于海淼 张乐 +1 位作者 杨萍 胡静仪 《继续医学教育》 2019年第11期131-134,共4页
目的回顾性分析天津市环湖医院2018年1—12月临床分离病原菌的分布特征及其对抗菌药物的敏感性和耐药性,为临床合理用药及控制感染提供参考依据。方法按照《全国临床检验操作规程》对临床送检标本进行病原菌分离培养和鉴定,并采用VITEK ... 目的回顾性分析天津市环湖医院2018年1—12月临床分离病原菌的分布特征及其对抗菌药物的敏感性和耐药性,为临床合理用药及控制感染提供参考依据。方法按照《全国临床检验操作规程》对临床送检标本进行病原菌分离培养和鉴定,并采用VITEK 2 Compact进行细菌药物敏感性试验。结果2018年1—12月分离的非重复病原菌中,革兰阴性杆菌2201株,占74.4%,排名前三的分别是肺炎克雷伯菌、鲍曼不动杆菌和粘质沙雷菌;革兰阳性球菌715株,占24.2%,排名前三的分别是表皮葡萄球菌、金黄色葡萄球菌和人葡萄球菌;真菌40株,占1.4%。痰液分离的肺炎克雷伯菌和尿液分离的大肠埃希菌对阿米卡星、头孢替坦、替加环素及碳青霉烯类抗菌药物的敏感率均超过90.0%,对头孢哌酮/舒巴坦、哌拉西林/他唑巴坦的敏感率分别超过82.0%和98.0%。脑脊液和血液分离的凝固酶阴性葡萄球菌中,甲氧西林耐药株的检出率分别为56.5%和81.1%,均未检出替加环素和万古霉素耐药菌株,其中,血液分离的凝固酶阴性葡萄球菌中有2.7%的菌株对利奈唑胺耐药。结论近年来,细菌耐药性不断增高,及时进行细菌耐药性的监测与分析,对掌握细菌的耐药趋势尤为重要,对院内感染的控制和临床抗菌药物的合理应用也意义重大。 展开更多
关键词 细菌分布 耐药监测 耐药性
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新型冠状病毒肺炎防控与诊疗专栏