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The Chemical Channel of Earthquake Reactions and Decrease in the Magnitude of Earthquakes 认领
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作者 Michael G. Noppe 《地球科学国际期刊(英文)》 2020年第3期84-99,共16页
The first necessary condition for the onset of an earthquake is the penetration of explosive gas into an explosive zone as a result of physical or chemical reaction. The second necessary condition is to ensure the sub... The first necessary condition for the onset of an earthquake is the penetration of explosive gas into an explosive zone as a result of physical or chemical reaction. The second necessary condition is to ensure the subsequent propagation of the flame after ignition. The latter condition has made it possible to explain the impact of a cyclone on the emergence of 42 strongest earthquakes in the 21st century. If violation of this condition can be achieved with the help of vibrators or explosions, this will result in a decrease in the magnitude of an earthquake or even a complete prevention of earthquakes. Thus, the second condition is essentially a “pressure lock” that opens (with a decrease in the pressure caused by a cyclone), which leads to an earthquake or closes (with an increase in the pressure caused by an anticyclone or human interference using vibrators or explosions), which leads to earthquake prevention. Kinetic equations of the 2nd type were used to describe chemical reactions and obtain formulas for the precursor time, which made it possible to describe earthquakes of the chemical channel. The set of experimental time values of the earthquake precursor described by the physical model includes about 20% of all earthquakes;80% of earthquakes can be attributed to the chemical channel for earthquakes that occurred in Dushanbe in 1983. All earthquakes in Tiberias in June 2018 passed through the chemical channel, which can be concluded from the small magnitude of these earthquakes. Several proposals have been made, including: 1) creating a new sensor for the geochemical method, which allows determining the epicenter of a future earthquake;2) creating a network of stations with a new sensor for determining the epicenter and an atmospheric pressure meter installed at each station (this will determine if the “pressure lock” is closed by an anticyclone, which can lead to a decrease in the magnitude of an earthquake or even prevent an earthquake);3) installing vibrators in epicenters (or making daily explos 展开更多
关键词 EARTHQUAKES Prediction Physical Model EARTHQUAKE Condition Precursor Time Formula Kinetic Equations for CHEMICAL REACTIONS Necessary Conditions for EARTHQUAKE
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Some Foreshocks and Aftershocks Associated with the Moiyabana Earthquake of 2017 in Botswana 认领
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作者 Thebeetsile A. Olebetse Matlhogonolo L. Mmese +1 位作者 Rapelang E. Simon Joseph Maritinkole 《地球科学国际期刊(英文)》 2020年第4期238-250,共13页
On the 3rd of April 2017, an earthquake of moment magnitude 6.5 occurred near Moiyabana in central Botswana. This paper is aimed at studying the spatial distribution of the foreshock and aftershock sequences associate... On the 3rd of April 2017, an earthquake of moment magnitude 6.5 occurred near Moiyabana in central Botswana. This paper is aimed at studying the spatial distribution of the foreshock and aftershock sequences associated with the Moiyabana earthquake. The foreshocks and aftershocks data used were from the Botswana Geoscience Institute (BGI) and the Seisan software was used to analyze the foreshock and aftershock events. The analyses revealed nine epicenter locations of foreshocks which are spread out across the country and most of them are located in the central and southern parts of Botswana, while the aftershocks are clustered around the mainshock. Although five of the nine foreshocks occurred far from the boundaries of major tectonic units, the other four occurred near key features such as the Zoetfontein, Lecha and Chobe faults. The spatial distribution of aftershocks indicates that the stress released by the mainshock, re-activated the planes of weakness in the vicinity of the mainshock and farther away from the mainshock. Hence, this affected the Zoetfontein fault, the boundary between Passarge basin and Magondi belt and the boundary between the Kaapvaal craton and Limpopo mobile belt. The aftershocks also show a northwest-southeast trend, which probably indicates the rupture plane;and mainly lie within the Limpopo mobile belt that is sandwiched between the Kaapvaal craton to the south and Zimbabwe craton to the north. Furthermore, the aftershocks concentration to the south reveals a close relation in demarcating the boundary of the Kaapvaal craton and the Limpopo mobile belt. 展开更多
关键词 Botswana FORESHOCKS AFTERSHOCKS EARTHQUAKE Moiyabana KAAPVAAL CRATON Zimbabwe CRATON
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The Spatial Distribution and Attribute Parameter Statistics of Landslides Triggered by the May 12th,2008,MW7.9 Wenchuan Earthquake 认领
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作者 DU Peng XU Yueren +2 位作者 TIAN Qinjian ZHANG Weiheng LIU Shuang 《中国地震研究:英文版》 CSCD 2020年第1期29-49,共21页
A complete landslide inventory and attribute database is the importantly fundamental for the study of the earthquake-induced landslide.Substantial landslides were triggered by the MW7.9 Wenchuan earthquake on May 12th... A complete landslide inventory and attribute database is the importantly fundamental for the study of the earthquake-induced landslide.Substantial landslides were triggered by the MW7.9 Wenchuan earthquake on May 12th,2008.Google Earth images of preand post-earthquakes show that 52194 co-seismic landslides were recognized and mapped,with a total landslides area of 1021 km2.Based on the statistics,we assigned all landslide parameters and established the co-seismic landslides database,which includes area,length,and width of landslides,elevation of the scarp top and foot edge,and the top and bottom elevations of each located slope.Finally,the spatial distribution and the above attribute parameters of landslides were analyzed.The results show that the spatial distribution of the co-seismic landslides is extremely uneven.The landslides that mainly occur in a rectangular area(a width of 30 km of the hanging wall of the Yingxiu-Beichuan fault and a length of 120 km between Yingxiu and Beichuan)are obviously controlled by surface rupture,terrain,and peak ground acceleration.Meanwhile,a large number of small landslides(individual landslide area less than 10000 m2)contribute less to the total landslides area.The number of landslides larger than 10000 m2 accounts for 38.7%of the total number of co-seismic landslides,while the area of those landslides account for 88%of the total landslides area.The 52194 co-seismic landslides are caused by bedrock collapse that usually consists of three parts:source area,transport area,and accumulation area.However,based on the area-volume power-law relationship,the resulting regional landslide volume may be much larger than the true landslide volume if the landslide volume is calculated using the influenced area from each landslide. 展开更多
关键词 WENCHUAN MW7.9 EARTHQUAKE Earthquake-induced LANDSLIDE Inventories database LANDSLIDE parameters LANDSLIDE area
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Simultaneous Study of VLF/ULF Anomalies Associated with Earthquakes in Japan 认领
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作者 Vikram Singh Yasuhide Hobara 《地震研究(英文)》 2020年第2期201-215,共15页
We carried out a simultaneous study of ground-based magnetic field and lower ionospheric anomalies during major earthquakes occurring around Japan in 2010 and 2012. Ultra Low Frequency (ULF) geomagnetic field waveform... We carried out a simultaneous study of ground-based magnetic field and lower ionospheric anomalies during major earthquakes occurring around Japan in 2010 and 2012. Ultra Low Frequency (ULF) geomagnetic field waveforms of Esashi station and Very Low Frequency (VLF) Japanese transmitter (JJY) electric signal amplitude received in Moshiri station Hokkaido during nighttime (22:00-02:00 LT) were used to minimize the local interference. Twenty earthquakes having magnitude greater than 5.5 were considered for the data analysis for two years. Nighttime amplitude fluctuations and polarization from the received VLF transmitter signal amplitude and ULF magnetic field respectively were calculated to identify anomalous signatures in relation to every earthquake. We found most earthquakes analyzed indicating VLF amplitude anomalies simultaneously occurred with ULF magnetic field anomalies within a week prior to the earthquakes. Stronger anomalies were observed for larger magnitude and shallower earthquakes. Focal mechanism of earthquakes was also examined to identify the effectiveness of generating anomaly. Both VLF and ULF anomalies were observed for reverse fault type earthquakes occurring under the strong pressure in the crust. Obtained results may indicate the common anomaly source both for VLF and ULF in the lithosphere and are consistent with currently proposed Lithosphere-Atmosphere-Ionosphere (LAI) coupling scenarios during the earthquake preparation period. 展开更多
关键词 VLF Transmitter IONOSPHERE PERTURBATIONS ULF VLF ANOMALIES Earthquake GEOMAGNETIC Field Focal Mechanism Precursor
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Cosmic Expansion: The Dynamic Force Source for All Planetary Tectonic Movements 认领
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作者 Jian’an Wang 《现代物理(英文)》 2020年第3期407-431,共25页
In this paper, the relationship between the geodynamics and cosmic expansion is analyzed and demonstrated from the basic physical principles and various natural phenomena, and the conclusion is drawn that cosmic expan... In this paper, the relationship between the geodynamics and cosmic expansion is analyzed and demonstrated from the basic physical principles and various natural phenomena, and the conclusion is drawn that cosmic expansion is the dynamic force source of all planetary tectonic movements in the universe. The energy for the formation and change of landscape and the energy of earthquakes and volcanic eruptions all come from the cosmic expansion. With the cosmic expansion, the energy density of space is decreasing, the atoms and molecules of all matter in the universe are growing, and the magma is expanding and producing gases. As the earth’s internal pressure rises, the mechanical energy that accumulates within the magma forms the driving force of the earth’s various tectonic movements, and the release of these energy and matter (expansive magma and high-pressure gases) leads to the formation and the changes of the landform (such as orogenesis, epeirogenesis, the formation of the earth’s plates, the Earth expansion, the seafloor spreading, and the continental drift), as well as to earthquakes and volcanic eruptions. In this paper, the causes of all kinds of earthquakes, especially deep focus earthquakes, are given and almost all known seismic phenomena are explained, the basic principle and method of earthquake prediction are given, and the direction is pointed out for the elimination of earthquakes and the utilization of earthquake energy. Based on the same principle of physics, this paper also shows that the Ice-Age is caused by the acceleration of the speed of the motion of the solar system relative to the Milky Way in certain regions of the Milky Way. The greater the speed of the solar system relative to the Milky Way, the greater the drop in Earth surface temperature. 展开更多
关键词 GEODYNAMICS Tectonic Movement SEAFLOOR SPREADING Continental Drift OROGENESIS Epeirogenesis Deep Focus Earthquakes Earthquake Prediction Ice Age
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A Possible Causal Mechanism of Geomagnetic Variations as Observed Immediately before and after the 2011 Tohoku-Oki Earthquake 认领
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作者 Yuji Enomoto Kosuke Heki +2 位作者 Tsuneaki Yamabe Shigeki Sugiura Hitoshi Kondo 《地震研究(英文)》 2020年第2期33-49,共17页
During the Mw9 Tohoku-Oki earthquake, gradual increases in both ionosphere total electron content (TEC) and geomagnetic declination signals were observed, starting from ~40 minutes before the mainshock, followed by im... During the Mw9 Tohoku-Oki earthquake, gradual increases in both ionosphere total electron content (TEC) and geomagnetic declination signals were observed, starting from ~40 minutes before the mainshock, followed by impulsive enhancements ~10 minutes after the mainshock. There have been many studies on pre-seismic TEC enhancements, including their characteristics, debates regarding whether TEC anomalies are real signals or artefacts, and the explainable models, and many studies have reported that the impulsive TEC enhancement was caused by a tsunami-induced neutral atmospheric gravity wave. Since TEC and geomagnetic declination anomalies were synchronized so that their origin should be attributed to the same seismic activities, any models must explain both anomalous phenomena, but not the case considered herein. Compared with the corresponding TEC anomalies, we re-examined the characteristics of geomagnetic variation just before and after the mainshock, focusing on the generation process of the impulsive enhancement immediately after the mainshock. We showed that the observed anomaly could be explained if there are quasi-static electric currents of 20 - 30 kA generated near the epicentre area. The possible mechanism of the current generation is discussed in terms of the ionization process in the atmosphere near the sea surface. 展开更多
关键词 Tohoku-Oki Earthquake GEOMAGNETIC DECLINATION TEC Blanchard Effect Tornado-Like Cloud
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Electromagnetic Emissions Recorded by a Borehole TOA Installment before Four Huge Destructive <i>M</i><sub>S</sub>≥ 8.0 Earthquakes in Asia 认领
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作者 Mei Li Chen Yu +5 位作者 Yan Zhang Huaxing Zhao Xuhui Zhang Wuxian Li Ping Zhang Li Zhang 《地震研究(英文)》 2020年第2期50-68,共19页
In this paper, electromagnetic emissions recorded by a borehole TOA installment with three observing channels of CH1 (0.01 - 0.1 Hz), CH2 (0.1 - 1.0 Hz) and CH3 (1 - 9 kHz) before four large earthquakes with magnitude... In this paper, electromagnetic emissions recorded by a borehole TOA installment with three observing channels of CH1 (0.01 - 0.1 Hz), CH2 (0.1 - 1.0 Hz) and CH3 (1 - 9 kHz) before four large earthquakes with magnitudes more than 8.0 have been depicted. These abnormities present different fluctuating processes from one another. For the Wenchuan MS 8.0 earthquake on 12 May 2008, the nearest one among these four events and only 660 km from the TOA station, electromagnetic information appeared at least 5 months ago in two low frequency bands of CH1 and CH2 and it was subjected to an obvious fluctuating process with several developing stages: initial information, intensive anomaly and large amplitude signals. The typical pulse-like emissions in CH2 happened group by group with large various magnitudes, which can be of 10 mV in the climax period. While during this period, compatible wave-like information with little magnitudes also happened in CH1 channel and a few pulses in CH3. Anomalous emissions occurred about 4 months prior to the 25 April 2015 Nepal MS 8.1 event, 1560 km away from the TOA station. The abnormal information in CH2 also appeared group by group but with small various magnitudes, more than 2 mV during their climax. This process is also effective for the Sumatra MS 8.9 earthquake on 26 December 2004, 2500 km from the borehole TOA, only with a different duration of 2 months and less magnitudes of 0.1 mV in CH1 and 1 mV in CH2 in this case. However, there is no obvious fluctuation and only small constant amplitude signals being ~0.15 mV appeared during 2 weeks before the Japan MS 9.0 earthquake on 11 March 2011. It is the farthest one among these four events and beyond 4000 km from the observing station. So, we can make a conclusion that there is a near relationship between the properties of the abnormities associated with these four earthquakes, such as amplitudes, duration and signal types, and the distances from TOA station: on one hand, the amplitude and duration decreases as the distance increases;o 展开更多
关键词 TOA BOREHOLE Observation Huge Earthquake Electromagnetic Emission Coseismic Response
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Is There an Earthquake Weather? 认领
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作者 Michel Parrot Jean-Louis Pin?on 《地震研究(英文)》 2020年第2期69-82,共14页
The aim of this study is to check if there is a relationship between the seismic activity and the whistlers observed by the micro-satellite DEMETER. Whistlers are the waves emitted by lightning strokes during thunders... The aim of this study is to check if there is a relationship between the seismic activity and the whistlers observed by the micro-satellite DEMETER. Whistlers are the waves emitted by lightning strokes during thunderstorm activity. They use to propagate in the Earth-ionosphere waveguide but also in the ionosphere and the magnetosphere mainly along the magnetic field lines. Due to this reason we have checked the whistler occurrence not close to earthquake epicenters but close to the magnetically conjugate point of these epicenters at the satellite altitude. The number of whistlers is given by a neural network in operation onboard the satellite. It appears that the whistler amplitude is attenuated at the satellite altitude around the magnetic equator. It is why we have removed the earthquakes occurring at low geomagnetic latitudes in the statistic. The whistler rate is normalized with a background value to take into account the seasons and the epicenter locations. A superposed epoch method is used to display the results between -15 and +5 days around the earthquake day and up to 1000 km from the conjugate point of the epicenters. It is shown that the whistler rate is higher the day before the earthquake at a distance less than 200 km. It would be unrealistic to believe in the possibility to use this study for earthquake prediction because everyday thunderstorm activity reliably masks seismic effects. But it is further evidence that there is a lithosphere-atmosphere-ionosphere coupling at the time of the seismic activity. 展开更多
关键词 DATA PROCESSING EARTHQUAKE WHISTLER IONOSPHERE
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The Use of Geomagnetic Measurements to Study Local Tectonics: Case for the NE Part of the Adria-Eurasia Collisional Zone 认领
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作者 Polona Pavlov?i?-Pre?eren Rudi ?op Miran Kuhar 《地震研究(英文)》 2020年第2期83-99,共17页
Determination of the correlation between the energy-density changes in geomagnetic field and seismic events is a challenging scientific topic that allows the study of local tectonics using magnetometers. The magnetise... Determination of the correlation between the energy-density changes in geomagnetic field and seismic events is a challenging scientific topic that allows the study of local tectonics using magnetometers. The magnetised properties of the crustal field of the Earth change due to natural sources and/or human activities that affect the environment. The latter can be avoided by setting up observatories in “geomagnetically-quiet” locations, while the natural sources, which describe the combined effects due to changes in the core, lithosphere, external or electromagnetically induced field, cannot be easily eliminated. This research focused on the investigation of local changes in the geomagnetic field in relation to evidently significant local tectonics in the vicinity of the PIA (Piran, Slovenia) geomagnetic observatory. It is obvious that geomagnetic measurements from PIA contain much higher levels of noise compared to the surrounding magnetometers in Italy and Croatia. According to previous geodynamic studies, the position of the PIA observatory is specific, since it is located at an Adriatic microplate that collides under the Eurasian plate. At this point it can be assumed that the reason for high-level noise in geomagnetic observations is due to the still ongoing Adria-Eurasia collisional process. Furthermore, the study of the earthquake on 1 November 2015 with a magnitude of 4.2 and its epicentre 150 km from PIA showed the correlation between higher energy density of the Earth’s magnetic field and the earthquake occurrence. From the results acquired by the computational strategy described in the research, it is obvious that, as expected, a few days prior and after the earthquake higher Earth’s magnetic field indicated some significant changes in the local geomagnetic field that might occur due to the increased stress in the Earth’s crust in the north-eastern part of the Adria-Eurasia collisional zone. 展开更多
关键词 GEOMAGNETIC Field Adria-Eurasia COLLISIONAL ZONE PIA OBSERVATORY Earthquake
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A Review on Electrodynamic Influence of Atmospheric Processes to the Ionosphere 认领
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作者 Valery M. Sorokin Vitaly M. Chmyrev Masashi Hayakawa 《地震研究(英文)》 2020年第2期113-141,共29页
This work is an attempt to critically analyze the existing theoretical models of the impact of earthquake preparation processes on the state of the earth’s atmosphere and ionosphere in the zone of growing seismic act... This work is an attempt to critically analyze the existing theoretical models of the impact of earthquake preparation processes on the state of the earth’s atmosphere and ionosphere in the zone of growing seismic activity, as well as the mechanisms of formation and transfer of disturbances in various media over the earthquake center. The determining factor (criterion) of the analysis is the degree of compliance of the simulation results with experimental data obtained at various phases of earthquake development by direct and remote diagnostic methods using ground and aerospace technologies. The key role is played by the model’s compliance with the results of measuring electric fields and currents in the near-ground atmosphere and ionosphere, small-scale ionospheric inhomogeneities and correlated field-aligned currents and electromagnetic ULF/ELF emissions. A full-fledged model should also explain the origin of such seismic related phenomena as the generation in the troposphere and over-horizon propagation of pulsed VHF radiation, thermal effects and associated IR emissions as well as the modification of plasma distribution in the D, E and F layers of the ionosphere. The use of this criterion in the analysis allowed us to identify a theoretical model that most fully describes the totality of the above-mentioned experimental data within a single physical mechanism. This is an electrodynamic model based on the perturbation of the conductivity current in the global atmosphere—ionosphere electric circuit due to the injection of charged aerosols into the atmosphere during the preparation and development of an earthquake. The present paper describes this model and the formation mechanisms of related phenomena in the atmosphere and ionosphere, which can be considered as short-term precursors to earthquakes. 展开更多
关键词 Earthquake (EQ) Precursors Charged Aerosol Injection Global Electric Circuit IONOSPHERIC IRREGULARITIES ULF/ELF Electromagnetic Emissions Ran-dom Discharges Radiation OVER-THE-HORIZON VHF Propagation
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Global Earthquake Prediction Systems 认领
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作者 Oleg Elshin Andrew A. Tronin 《地震研究(英文)》 2020年第2期170-180,共11页
Terra Seismic can predict most major earthquakes (M6.2 or greater) at least 2 - 5 months before they will strike. Global earthquake prediction is based on determinations of the stressed areas that will start to behave... Terra Seismic can predict most major earthquakes (M6.2 or greater) at least 2 - 5 months before they will strike. Global earthquake prediction is based on determinations of the stressed areas that will start to behave abnormally before major earthquakes. The size of the observed stressed areas roughly corresponds to estimates calculated from Dobrovolsky’s formula. To identify abnormalities and make predictions, Terra Seismic applies various methodologies, including satellite remote sensing methods and data from ground-based instruments. We currently process terabytes of information daily, and use more than 80 different multiparameter prediction systems. Alerts are issued if the abnormalities are confirmed by at least five different systems. We observed that geophysical patterns of earthquake development and stress accumulation are generally the same for all key seismic regions. Thus, the same earthquake prediction methodologies and systems can be applied successfully worldwide. Our technology has been used to retrospectively test data gathered since 1970 and it successfully detected about 90 percent of all significant quakes over the last 50 years. 展开更多
关键词 GLOBAL Earthquake Prediction EARTHQUAKES GEOPHYSICS Big Data Remote Sensing SEISMIC Analysis TERRA SEISMIC Future Technologies
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Performance-Based Design through Implementation of FEMA P-58 Methodology in Developing Countries 认领
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作者 Amir Masoumi Verki Seyed Bahram Beheshti Aval 《地震研究(英文)》 2020年第3期255-272,共18页
This paper investigates a simple approach proposed towards performance-based earthquake engineering (PBEE) which has potential applications to the performance-based design (PBD) and performance-based assessment (PBA) ... This paper investigates a simple approach proposed towards performance-based earthquake engineering (PBEE) which has potential applications to the performance-based design (PBD) and performance-based assessment (PBA) fields. The simple method of PBEE encompasses three areas of seismic risk which include seismic hazard, structural analysis, and loss models. The aim of the PBEE process, entitled as FEMA P-58, is to present essential data needed to make a rational decision regarding predicted performance, where various sources of uncertainties are involved. In developing countries, the lack of suitable real ground motions corresponding to site characteristics and seismicity particularly for larger intensities and the scarcity of demands, which makes it hard to identify the seismic capacity of a structure, is the main our motivation of using the FEMA method. In this paper, the method of FEMA P-58 is investigated, in terms of available tools and required data, in such a way that it will be applicable for developing countries which are located in high seismic hazard zones. To achieve this goal, three steel moment-resisting buildings with low and high ductility, and three steel braced-frame buildings are selected as case studies. The mean annual loss is estimated by the available software, Performance Assessment Calculation Tool (PACT). The achieved results, i.e. the loss curves, will provide a simple means by which the engineers can quantify and communicate seismic performance to other stakeholders. In the case study buildings, the braced one has less annual losses in comparison with other investigated cases, and the structure with high ductility can be considered as the next ones. Execution cost of each building should be considered by contractors. Also, seismic fragility curves of structures for various limit states, as well, the corresponding loss models are identified as the most essential data towards application of the investigated PBEE process. 展开更多
关键词 Performance-Based Earthquake Engineering (PBEE) Performance-Based De-sign (PBD) FEMA P-58 Performance-Based Assessment (PBA) Decision Making Analysis Steel Buildings Loss Estimation
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Determination of Smoothing Factor for the Inversion of Co-seismic Slip Distribution 认领
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作者 Leyang WANG Xiong ZHAO 《测绘学报(英文版)》 2020年第1期25-35,共11页
For the determination of the smoothing factor (also known as the regularization parameter) in the co-seismic slip distribution inversion, the compromise curve between the model roughness and the data fitting residual ... For the determination of the smoothing factor (also known as the regularization parameter) in the co-seismic slip distribution inversion, the compromise curve between the model roughness and the data fitting residual is generally used to determine (in order to distinguish the method proposed in this paper, the method is called “L curve” according to its shape). Based on the L-curve, the Eclectic Intersection curve as a new method is proposed to determine the smoothing factor in this paper. The results of the simulated experiment show that the inversion accuracy of the parameters of the seismic slip distribution with the smoothing factor determined by the Eclectic Intersection curve method is better than that of the L curve method. Moreover, the Eclectic Intersection curve method and the L curve method are used to determine the smoothing factor of L’Aquila earthquake and the Taiwan Meinong earthquake slip distribution inversion respectively, and the inversion results are compared and analyzed. The analysis results show that the L’Aquila and the Taiwan Meinong actual earthquake slip distribution results are in the range of other scholars at home and abroad, and compared with the L curve method, the Eclectic Intersection curve method has advantages of high computation efficiency, no need to depend on data fitting degree and more appropriate of smoothing factor and so on. 展开更多
关键词 co-seismic slip distribution SMOOTHING factor Eclectic Intersection CURVE METHOD L CURVE METHOD the L’Aquila EARTHQUAKE the Meinong EARTHQUAKE
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Progress of Applied Seismo-Electromagnetism 认领
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作者 Yukio Fujinawa Yoichi Noda 《地震研究(英文)》 2020年第1期1-18,共18页
It is a natural process of the development of technology that isolated findings are synthesized for the solution of problems for each country. We previously introduced an idea to solve one of serious global problems, ... It is a natural process of the development of technology that isolated findings are synthesized for the solution of problems for each country. We previously introduced an idea to solve one of serious global problems, i.e. energy consumption and risks threating present and future mankind. The Resilient Smart City is one of concepts in the re-adjustment of energy consumption, global warming and the increase of risks. It uses disaster mitigation information, especially the earthquake early warning (EEW) and earthquake predictions. As for EEW, Japan has had an extensive system since 2007, and has proved that the system works well enough to save considerable amount of human lives and important facilities at the times of several major earthquakes. Another tool is nothing but the earthquake prediction. Progress of seismo-electromagnetics can contribute to solving those needs. Here we present a summary of our works concerning earthquake prediction in these 30 years. 展开更多
关键词 Global Problem EARTHQUAKE WARNING Prediction ELECTROMAGNETIC PHENOMENA PRECURSOR
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Development of Automatic Earthquake Quick Report in China 认领
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作者 HUANG Zhibin 《中国地震研究:英文版》 CSCD 2020年第2期219-226,共8页
This paper summarizes the different stages of the development of earthquake automatic quick report in China. In early stage,scientists and technicians mainly focused on the realization of automatic identification of s... This paper summarizes the different stages of the development of earthquake automatic quick report in China. In early stage,scientists and technicians mainly focused on the realization of automatic identification of seismic phases and automatic positioning in the network data processing system. Then,at the end of the Tenth "Five-Year Plan "project,Fujian Earthquake Agency, Guangdong Earthquake Agency, and China Earthquake Networks Center have independently developed their earthquake automatic quick report systems. Later,by taking advantage of the"multi-channel comprehensive trigger " mechanism, China Earthquake Networks Center has innovated a comprehensive trigger system for automatic earthquake quick report, whereby earthquake information can be instantly reported and presented on Weibo,Wechat,and CENC App. 展开更多
关键词 Earthquake quick report Earthquake imformation CENC
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Earthquake小常识 认领
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作者 曾敏 《初中生学习指导》 2020年第7期32-33,共2页
Earthquakes happen both underwater and on land. Each year there are about 1 million earthquakes all over the world. Most earthquakes last only a few seconds. They are not dangerous. People usually don't even feel ... Earthquakes happen both underwater and on land. Each year there are about 1 million earthquakes all over the world. Most earthquakes last only a few seconds. They are not dangerous. People usually don't even feel the earth moving at all. The great earthquake that caused the tsunam(i海啸)of 2004 lasted about ten minutes. 展开更多
关键词 EARTHQUAKE EARTHQUAKE EARTHQUAKES
South Atlantic Anomaly, Ionospheric Signals from Seismic Events 认领
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作者 Marilia Hagen Anibal Azevedo 《自然科学期刊(英文)》 2020年第3期162-173,共12页
The purpose of this paper is to analyze the most significant events that occurred in the period 1996-2018 located under the South Atlantic Anomaly (SAA), where the earth’s magnetic field is weaker and the trapped par... The purpose of this paper is to analyze the most significant events that occurred in the period 1996-2018 located under the South Atlantic Anomaly (SAA), where the earth’s magnetic field is weaker and the trapped particles during the geomagnetic storms suffer decay over time. The time examined corresponds to the Solar Cycles 23 and 24;the area covered is defined by the following coordinates: 0N,?-50S, 40E,?-90W. Some significant events in this region reported Very Low Frequency (VLF) and Ultra Low Frequency (ULF) waves before the event, varying from minutes, hours, and even weeks before the earthquakes. Our study searches for a mechanism to explain why the crust creates electromagnetic signs detected at the ionosphere. Piezoelectric currents flow on the crust, combining with the magnetic field lines, temporarily producing pre-seismic electromagnetic pulses that are detected at the ionosphere prior to the events. The mechanism that allows electromagnetic signs to be detected at the ionosphere is also elucidated. These signs are brief, and they will cease with the beginning of the shock or shortly thereafter. However, some features contribute to making the signs impossible to detect, involving crust materials, location, magnitude, and depths. We suggest that these ionospheric events could happen for other kinds of hazard events, such as Volcanos. 展开更多
关键词 SOUTH ATLANTIC ANOMALY IONOSPHERE SIGNS Earthquake Prediction
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青藏高原边缘区地震灾后的经济韧性及恢复效率——以汶川Ms 8.0地震极重灾区为例 认领
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作者 周侃 刘宝印 樊杰 《地理学报:英文版》 SCIE CSCD 2020年第8期1363-1381,共19页
The border areas of the Tibetan Plateau and the neighboring mountainous areashave a high incidence of earthquakes with a magnitude greater than Ms 5.0, as well as havinga dense distribution of geological disasters suc... The border areas of the Tibetan Plateau and the neighboring mountainous areashave a high incidence of earthquakes with a magnitude greater than Ms 5.0, as well as havinga dense distribution of geological disasters such as collapses, landslides, and debris flows.Revealing the post-disaster economic development and recovery process is very importantfor enhancing disaster prevention and response capacity in order to formulate control policiesand recovery methods for post-disaster economic reconstruction based on economic resilience.Using long-term socioeconomic data and the autoregressive integrated moving average(ARIMA) model, this paper calculated the economic resilience index of the areas mostseverely affected by the Wenchuan Earthquake of 2008 and adopted the improved variablereturns to scale (VRS) date envelopment analysis (DEA) model and the Malmquist productivityindex to analyze the efficiency and effect of annual post-disaster recovery. The resultsshow that: (1) the economic resilience index of the areas most severely affected by theWenchuan Earthquake was 0.877. The earthquake resulted in a short-term economic recessionin the affected areas, but the economy returned to pre-quake levels within two years. Inaddition, the industrial economy was less resilient than agriculture and the service industry. (2)The comprehensive economic recovery efficiency of the disaster-stricken area in the yearfollowing the disaster was 0.603. The comprehensive efficiency, the pure technical efficiency,and the scale efficiency of the plain and hilly areas were significantly greater than those of theplateau and mountain areas. (3) The annual fluctuation in total factor productivity (TFP) followingthe disaster was considerable, and the economic recovery efficiency decreased significantly,resulting in a short-term economic recession. The TFP index returned to steadystate following decreases of 33.7% and 15.2%, respectively, in the two years following thedisaster. (4) The significant decrease in the post-disaster recovery efficiency 展开更多
关键词 economic resilience recovery efficiency Malmquist productivity index post-disaster reconstruction area Wenchuan Earthquake border areas of the Tibetan Plateau
Characteristics of Seismic Damage of Buildings:Constraints from Tilt Photography Technology 认领
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作者 LIU Jun SHUAI Xianghua +5 位作者 HONG Zhonghua TAN Ming ZHAO Shuo YAO Yuan ZHANG Meng LI Shijie 《中国地震研究:英文版》 CSCD 2020年第2期296-306,共11页
In this paper,the tilt photography data acquisition and three-dimensional modeling of the Tashkurgan MS5.5 earthquake in Xinjiang are conducted using the tilt photography system of the Rotor UAV. The three-dimensional... In this paper,the tilt photography data acquisition and three-dimensional modeling of the Tashkurgan MS5.5 earthquake in Xinjiang are conducted using the tilt photography system of the Rotor UAV. The three-dimensional model is used to interpret the earthquake damage on buildings in the mega-earthquake area in order to acquire different-level house damage in the Kuzirun village disaster area. In addition,the characteristics of seismic damage on typical buildings are analyzed. The results show that the main collapsed houses in the mega-earthquake area are sand-stone buildings,of which about 39% are sand-stone buildings. Several brick-wood buildings and brick-concrete buildings are seriously damaged,while the buildings with frame structures are mainly slightly damaged,and the houses near the macro-epicenter of the earthquake are all in good conditions. Three-dimensional tilt photography technology can vividly display the scene of earthquake disaster,and can provide significant demonstration in building damage degree together with detailed analysis of disaster situation. 展开更多
关键词 Tashkurgan MS5.5 earthquake UAV technology Tilt photography Earthquake emergency Building damage
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Preface to the Special Issue on Earthquake-Induced Landslides 认领
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作者 XU Chong JIANG Yuanjun +1 位作者 LIU Chun LU Heng 《中国地震研究:英文版》 CSCD 2020年第1期1-4,I0005,I0006共6页
Earthquake-induced landslides are the most destructive secondary geological hazards following large earthquakes that can destroy infrastructures and cause loss of lives and properties(Marano K.D.et al.,2010;Xu Chong e... Earthquake-induced landslides are the most destructive secondary geological hazards following large earthquakes that can destroy infrastructures and cause loss of lives and properties(Marano K.D.et al.,2010;Xu Chong et al.,2018).In the past few decades,earthquake-induced landslides have captured growing interests of both scientific communities and the public;more and more studies have been carried out(Xu Chong et al.,2010;Xu Chong,2018;Fan Xuanmei et al.,2019).To demonstrate the state-of-the-art on related research,we presented a special issue on earthquake-induced landslides.This special issue includes six columns,including inventory and spatial distribution,hazard assessment,numerical calculation and simulation,shaking table test,early warning,and evolution of earthquake-induced landslides,as well as a few studies about nonseismic landslides. 展开更多
关键词 EARTHQUAKE EARTHQUAKE SEISMIC
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