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Poverty Alleviation Model of "Three Stresses and Three Commentaries" to Stimulate Endogenous Motivation in Xundian County 预览
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作者 Chenhao LU Zisheng Yang 《亚洲农业研究:英文版》 2019年第6期64-70,共7页
Poverty alleviation has entered a decisive period. If we want to maintain poverty alleviation results,it is unsustainable to rely on solely on external forces but must rely on its endogenous motivation. Xundian County... Poverty alleviation has entered a decisive period. If we want to maintain poverty alleviation results,it is unsustainable to rely on solely on external forces but must rely on its endogenous motivation. Xundian County is located in the Wumeng Mountain area in the upper reaches of the Yangtze River which is a concentrated contiguous extreme poverty-stricken area. Although the natural conditions are poor and the foundation is weak,it took the lead in poverty alleviation throughout the province at the end of 2017 with a poverty rate of 0. 35%. Moreover,the poverty alleviation achievements have been stabilized,and the incidence of poverty declined to 0. 25% in 2018. These are inseparable from the unique " three stresses and three commentaries" to stimulate endogenous motivation. This article systematically studies the poverty alleviation model of " three stresses and three commentaries" to stimulate endogenous motivation in the county. Through in-depth analysis of the specific content,operation process,work achievements and typical cases of the model,the internal mechanism of action is obtained,and its experience worthy of reference are summarized. It is believed that stimulating endogenous motivation will make poverty alleviation more targeted and poverty alleviation achievements more stable,and it is a mature practice worth promoting to the whole country. 展开更多
关键词 Targeted POVERTY alleviation ENDOGENOUS motivation "Three stresses and THREE commentaries" Xundian Hui and Yi Autonomous COUNTY
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Transcriptome analysis reveals the effects of alkali stress on root system architecture and endogenous hormones in apple rootstocks 预览
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作者 LIU Xuan LIANG Wei +5 位作者 LI Yu-xing LI Ming-jun MA Bai-quan LIU Chang-hai MA Feng-wang LI Cui-ying 《农业科学学报:英文版》 SCIE CAS CSCD 2019年第10期2264-2271,共8页
Soil alkalinity is a major factor that restricts the growth of apple roots.To analyze the response of apple roots to alkali stress, the root structure and endogenous hormones of two apple rootstocks, Malus prunifolia ... Soil alkalinity is a major factor that restricts the growth of apple roots.To analyze the response of apple roots to alkali stress, the root structure and endogenous hormones of two apple rootstocks, Malus prunifolia (alkali-tolerant) and Malus hupehensis (alkali-sensitive), were compared. To understand alkali tolerance of M. prunifolia at the molecular level, transcriptome analysis was performed. When plants were cultured in alkaline conditions for 15 d, the root growth of M. hupehensis with weak alkali tolerance decreased significantly. Analysis of endogenous hormone levels showed that the concentrations of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and zeatin riboside (ZR) in M. hupehensis under alkali stress were lower than those in the control. However, the trend for IAA and ZR in M. prunifolia was the opposite. The concentration of abscisic acid (ABA) in the roots of the two apple rootstocks under alkali stress increased, but the concentration of ABA in the roots of M. prunifolia was higher than that in M. hupehensis. The expression of IAA-related genes ARF5, GH3.6, SAUR36, and SAUR32 and the Cytokinin (CTK)-related gene IPT5 in M. prunifolia was higher than those in the control, but the expression of these genes in M. hupehensis was lower than those in the control. The expression of ABA-related genes CIPK1 and AHK1 increased in the two apple rootstocks under alkali stress, but the expression of CIPK1 and AHK1 in M. prunifolia was higher than in M. hupehensis. These results demonstrated that under alkali stress, the increase of IAA, ZR, and ABA in roots and the increase of the expression of related genes promoted the growth of roots and improved the alkali tolerance of apple rootstocks. 展开更多
关键词 ALKALI stress apple ROOTSTOCK ENDOGENOUS HORMONE root architecture TRANSCRIPTOME analysis
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Effect of Tong Xie Yao Fang on endogenous metabolites in urine of irritable bowel syndrome model rats 预览
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作者 Xue-Ying Zhao Jian-Wei Wang +3 位作者 Yue Yin Kai Li Miao Zhang Fu-Ping Yan 《世界胃肠病学杂志:英文版》 SCIE CAS 2019年第34期5134-5151,共18页
BACKGROUND Tong Xie Yao Fang is a representative traditional Chinese prescription for the treatment of liver and spleen deficiency,abdominal pain and diarrhea.It has a unique function in the treatment of gastrointesti... BACKGROUND Tong Xie Yao Fang is a representative traditional Chinese prescription for the treatment of liver and spleen deficiency,abdominal pain and diarrhea.It has a unique function in the treatment of gastrointestinal dysfunction including irritable bowel syndrome(IBS),is a common functional bowel disease.Its main symptoms are recurrent abdominal pain,diarrhea,constipation or alternations between diarrhea and constipation.There are obvious differences in metabolites between TCM syndromes.By comparing the body fluid metabolism maps of model animals,metabolomics can discover disease biomarkers,analyze the differences in metabolic pathways and understand the pathological process and the metabolic pathways of substances in the body.Thus,the evaluation of animal models tends to be comprehensive and objective.This may provide further understanding between the interaction between Tong Xie Yao Fang and the IBS model.AIM To evaluate the effect of Tong Xie Yao Fang on IBS rats by using metabolomics method.METHODS Wistar rats were used to establish IBS models,and then randomly divided into four groups:A model control group and three Tong Xie Yao Fang treatment groups(high,medium and low doses).A normal,non-IBS group was established.The rats were treated for 2 wk.On days 0 and 14 of the experimental model,urine was collected for 12 h and was analyzed by ultra-performance liquid chromatography quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry.Nine potential biomarkers were identified,and six major metabolic pathways were found to be related to IBS.RESULTS In the study of metabonomics,nine potential biomarkers including L-serine,4-methylgallic acid,L-threonine,succinylacetone,prolyl-hydroxyproline,valylserine,acetyl citrate,marmesin rutinoside and 5-hydroxy-L-tryptophan were identified in urine,which were assigned to amino acids,organic acids,succinyl and glycosides.Furthermore,the metabolic pathway of L-serine,L-threonine and 5-hydroxy-L-tryptophan was found in the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes,which mainly involved th 展开更多
关键词 Tong Xie YAO Fang IRRITABLE BOWEL syndrome Liver-spleen disharmony ENDOGENOUS METABOLITES Metabolomics
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Recovery of Chitin and Protein from Shrimp Head Waste by Endogenous Enzyme Autolysis and Fermentation 预览
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作者 GUO Na SUN Jianan +1 位作者 ZHANG Zhaohui MAO Xiangzhao 《中国海洋大学学报:英文版》 SCIE CAS CSCD 2019年第3期719-726,共8页
The industrial processing of shrimp produces massive quantities of solid waste that is a notable source of animal protein, chitin, carotenoids, and other bioactive compounds that are not appropriately utilized. In the... The industrial processing of shrimp produces massive quantities of solid waste that is a notable source of animal protein, chitin, carotenoids, and other bioactive compounds that are not appropriately utilized. In the present study, chitin and protein extraction from shrimp head with autolysis and fermentation using Bacillus licheniformis were investigated. The results showed that when shrimp heads were autolyzed with a natural pH at 50℃ for 4 h, the total amino acid nitrogen in the supernatant was 5.01 mg mL^-1. Then, when a 50%(v/m) inoculum of the hydrolysate was incubated at 60℃ for 10 h, a deproteinization rate of 88.3% could be obtained. The fermented supernatant was processed into a dry protein powder, while the residues were demineralized by 10% citric acid for chitin. The recovered protein powder contained 5.5% moisture, 11.5% ash, and 66.7% protein, while the chitin contained 3.5% moisture, 2.1% ash, and 3.1% protein. In addition, amino acids, minerals, heavy metals, the degree of acetylation, microstructure, and Fourier-transform infrared(FT-IR) spectroscopy results were analyzed. Furthermore, the statistics of the large scale trial after treatment with 20 kg of shrimp heads were analyzed. Thus, this work made the shrimp waste utilization environmentally sound and valuable. 展开更多
关键词 SHRIMP head WASTE ENDOGENOUS enzyme AUTOLYSIS FERMENTATION CHITIN
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Comparison of Five Endogenous Reference Genes for Specific PCR Detection and Quantification of Rice 预览
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作者 ZHANG Xiujie JIN Wujun +4 位作者 XU Wentao LI Xiaying SHANG Ying LI Sha OUYANG Hongsheng 《水稻科学:英文版》 CSCD 2019年第4期248-256,I0006,I0007共11页
Endogenous reference genes (ERGs) provide vital information regarding genetically modified organisms (GMOs). The successful detection of ERGs can identity GMOs and the source of genes, verify stability and reliability... Endogenous reference genes (ERGs) provide vital information regarding genetically modified organisms (GMOs). The successful detection of ERGs can identity GMOs and the source of genes, verify stability and reliability of the detection system, and calculate the level of genetically modified (GM) ingredients in mixtures. The reported ERGs in rice include sucrose-phosphate synthase (SPS), phospholipase D (PLD), RBE4 and rice root-specific GOS9 genes. Based on the characteristics of ERGs, a new ERG gene, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC), was selected, and further compared with the four existing genes. A total of 18 rice varieties and 29 non-rice crops were used to verify the interspecies specificity, intraspecies consistency, sensitivity, stability and reliability of these five ERGs using qualitative and quantitative PCR. Qualitative detection indicated that SPS and PEPC displayed sufficient specificity, and the detection sensitivity was 0.05% and 0.005%, respectively. Although the specificity of both RBE4 and GOS9 were adequate, the amplicons were small and easily confused with primer dimers. Non-specific amplification of the PLD gene was present in maize and potato. Real-time quantitative PCR detection indicated that PLD, SPS and PEPC displayed good specificity, with R2 of the standard curve greater than 0.98, while the amplification efficiency ranged between 90% and 110%. Both the detection sensitivities of PLD and PEPC were five copies and that of SPS was ten copies. RBE4 showed typical amplification in maize, beet and Arabidopsis, while GOS9 was found in maize, tobacco and oats. PEPC exhibited excellent detection sensitivity and species specificity, which made it a potentially useful application in GM-rice supervision and administration. Additionally, SPS and PLD are also suitable for GM-rice detection. This study effectively established a foundation for GMO detection, which not only provides vital technical support for GMO identification, but also is of great significance for enhancing the comparability o 展开更多
关键词 ENDOGENOUS reference GENE RICE genetically modified crop PHOSPHOENOLPYRUVATE CARBOXYLASE GENE sucrose-phosphate synthase GENE phospholipase D GENE starch branching enzyme 4 GENE RICE root-specific GOS9 GENE
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环境管制方式对能源效率影响的差异性——基于内生视角下的PVAR方法的分析 预览
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作者 杨慧慧 《商业研究》 CSSCI 北大核心 2019年第7期67-76,共10页
环境管制作为政府环境管理的重要手段,其相关节能减排措施必然会影响到企业的能源使用效率。本文在微观经济理论分析的基础上,基于内生视角的PVAR数据模型,以2000-2016年中国省际面板数据实证检验环境管制与能源效率之间的长期均衡关系... 环境管制作为政府环境管理的重要手段,其相关节能减排措施必然会影响到企业的能源使用效率。本文在微观经济理论分析的基础上,基于内生视角的PVAR数据模型,以2000-2016年中国省际面板数据实证检验环境管制与能源效率之间的长期均衡关系与变动效应。研究发现:命令控制型环境管制方式对能源效率有正向促进作用和较强的正向冲击,经济激励型环境管制方式对能源效率也有正向促进作用,但正向冲击强度不大,自愿意识型环境管制方式统计上不显著,且呈负向冲击;但从方差分解各种管制方式对能源效率增长的长期累积贡献来看,自愿意识型环境管制的贡献均高于其他两种方式。上述结论表明,环境管制对于能源效率提高有一定影响,未来管制方式要从命令控制到经济激励和自愿意识的多元化方向发展。 展开更多
关键词 环境管制 能源效率 内生性 PVAR
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超声引导下输尿管软镜与单纯输尿管软镜治疗内生型肾囊肿的疗效对比
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作者 王荣江 王叶锋 +4 位作者 陈煜 沈俊文 汤健儿 高建国 方志海 《中华泌尿外科杂志》 CAS CSCD 北大核心 2019年第7期511-516,共6页
目的探讨超声引导下输尿管软镜与单纯输尿管软镜治疗内生型肾囊肿的疗效及安全性。方法回顾性分析2015年1月至2017年12月收治的64例内生型肾囊肿患者的病例资料,男38例,女26例。患者术前行增强CT尿路造影及超声检查。肾囊肿Bosniak分级... 目的探讨超声引导下输尿管软镜与单纯输尿管软镜治疗内生型肾囊肿的疗效及安全性。方法回顾性分析2015年1月至2017年12月收治的64例内生型肾囊肿患者的病例资料,男38例,女26例。患者术前行增强CT尿路造影及超声检查。肾囊肿Bosniak分级Ⅰ级59例,Ⅱ级5例。32例行单纯输尿管软镜手术(A组),男20例,女12例;平均年龄(54.2±6.6)岁;单侧囊肿19例,双侧囊肿13例;单发囊肿24例,多发囊肿8例;囊肿最大径为(5.4±1.3)cm;合并肾结石8例,肾积水7例;既往行腹腔镜肾囊肿减压术1例,经皮肾囊肿穿刺引流术1例。32例行超声引导下输尿管软镜手术(B组),平均年龄(52.3±9.3)岁;单侧囊肿21例,双侧囊肿11例;单发囊肿25例,多发囊肿7例;囊肿最大径为(5.3±1.2)cm;合并肾结石9例,合并肾积水8例;既往行腹腔镜肾囊肿减压术2例,经皮肾囊肿穿刺引流术1例。64例均行输尿管软镜下钬激光内切开引流术,术前均预置双J管2周。手术采用电子输尿管软镜,200μm钬激光光纤,激光能量0.8J、频率20Hz。B组术中采用超声实时监测软镜镜头在肾集合系统中的方向及与囊肿的最近距离。钬激光切开囊壁时超声影像显示囊腔内呈明显"炊烟状",且软镜进入囊腔内定义为切开成功。术后复查CT测量囊肿最大径缩小≥80%或残留囊肿最大径<1cm为治愈,缩小50%~79%为好转,缩小30%~49%为一般,缩小<30%或囊肿未切开为无效。总有效率=(治愈+好转)病例数/总病例数×100%。比较两组的手术时间、手术效果、手术安全性及并发症。结果A组和B组的手术时间分别为(33.4±6.7)min和(35.1±8.6)min,差异无统计学意义(P>0.05)。A组和B组的囊肿切开例数分别为24例和30例,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。64例术后随访8~30个月,平均(14.6±4.5)个月,A组和B组的总有效率分别为62.5%(20/32)和87.5%(28/32),差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。A组发生并发症8例(25%),分别为出血3例、泌尿系� 展开更多
关键词 输尿管软镜 超声引导 肾囊肿 内生型
Lanthanum chloride improves maize grain yield by promoting photosynthetic characteristics, antioxidants enzymes and endogenous hormone at reproductive stages
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作者 Wenwen Cui Muhammad Kamran +3 位作者 Quanhao Song Bingyun Zuo Zhikuan Jia Qingfang Han 《中国稀土学报:英文版》 SCIE EI CAS CSCD 2019年第7期781-790,共10页
Despite an increase in application spectrum of rare earth elements in agriculture, all studies show that the suitable accumulation of rare earth elements can improve the crop seedling growth, but there is little resea... Despite an increase in application spectrum of rare earth elements in agriculture, all studies show that the suitable accumulation of rare earth elements can improve the crop seedling growth, but there is little research about REEs on physiological mechanisms of crops at reproductive stages. Therefore, this study was conducted to examine the possible potential benefits of lanthanum chloride(LaCl3) on the senescence and grain yield responses of maize. In this study, maize seeds were pre-treated by soaking with LaCl3 at the concentrations of 0(CK), 400(LC1), 800(LC2) and 1200(LC3) μmol/L, to evaluate its effect on the green leaf area, chlorophyll contents, photosynthesis, antioxidants, endogenous hormones in the later crop growth stages. The results show that LC1 and LC2 treatments evidently increase green leaf area, above ground dry biomass, accompanied by a distinct increase in the chlorophyll contents, and photo synthetic capacity, which promote the ear characteristics and grain yield of maize. In addition, LC1 and LC2 treatments simultaneously increase the activities of antioxidants, including superoxide dismutases, catalases, peroxidases, soluble protein, and enhanced levels of auxin, gibberellin and zeatin,following a dose-response tendency. Themalondialdehyde and abscisic acid levels transiently increase with the progression in the growth stage of the crop but are markedly decreased at LC1 and LC2 treatments, while LC3 treatment has no significant effect on malondialdehyde and even accelerates the accumulation of abscisic acid in maize leaves. Our data suggest that seed priming with LaCl3 at a suitable concentration range(400-800 μmol/L) can prolong the functional periods of leaves, increase photosynthetic capacity, enhance antioxidant activity, and alter endogenous hormone levels at reproductive stages, resulting in delaying leaf senescence rate and increasing yield. However, the moderate concentration of LaCl3 for maize is LC2(800 μmol/L), and can be effectively used to improve grain yield of maize. 展开更多
关键词 Seed PRIMING LACL3 MAIZE Photosynthesis ANTIOXIDANTS Endogenous HORMONES
In vivo bioluminescence imaging to elucidate stem cell graft differentiation 预览
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作者 Stefanie Vogel Mathias Hoehn Markus Aswendt 《中国神经再生研究:英文版》 SCIE CAS CSCD 2020年第1期61-62,共2页
Neurological disorders including neurodegeneration(e.g.,Alzheimer’s disease and Parkinson’s disease)and acute injuries(e.g.,stroke and traumatic brain injury)are the leading cause group of disability-adjusted life y... Neurological disorders including neurodegeneration(e.g.,Alzheimer’s disease and Parkinson’s disease)and acute injuries(e.g.,stroke and traumatic brain injury)are the leading cause group of disability-adjusted life years and the second leading cause group of deaths.Different to other tissues,the adult brain retains only a very limited repair potential.Adult neurogenesis,the lifelong generation of new neurons,declines with age and in degenerative diseases,such as Alzheimer’s disease.Nevertheless,independently of age,the proliferation and migration of endogenous stem cells is stimulated after brain injuries and might be related to recovery processes(Adamczak et al.,2017).The limited number of endogenous stem cells during adulthood is one of the major limitations for an efficient regeneration of the injury affected brain regions.Therefore,the transplantation of neural stem or progenitor cells(NSCs/NPCs)is extensively studied in mouse models and applied in first clinical trials with the aim to replace dysfunctional or lost neural cells and thus to restore brain function. 展开更多
关键词 INJURIES ENDOGENOUS replace
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健康与老年人劳动供给关系研究综述 预览
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作者 李琴 谭娜 《电子科技大学学报:社会科学版》 2019年第3期38-47,共10页
随着人口老龄化的到来,探讨健康与老年人劳动供给之间的关系尤为必要。健康是一个多维度的指标,度量人们的健康状况是一个难点。健康状况通过影响人们的劳动生产率以及对闲暇的偏好从而影响到老年人的劳动参与和劳动时间,同时退休反过... 随着人口老龄化的到来,探讨健康与老年人劳动供给之间的关系尤为必要。健康是一个多维度的指标,度量人们的健康状况是一个难点。健康状况通过影响人们的劳动生产率以及对闲暇的偏好从而影响到老年人的劳动参与和劳动时间,同时退休反过来又影响到老年人的健康状况。对此,通过了解多种度量老年人健康状况的指标,梳理国内外健康与老年人劳动供给的相关文献,阐述了估计健康与劳动供给二者因果关系时所遭遇的内生性来源以及克服内生性问题所采用的不同的研究方法,最后分析了研究健康与老年人劳动供给这一问题隐含的政策意蕴以及提出了未来的研究方向。 展开更多
关键词 健康 劳动供给 退休 内生性
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内生与外力共同建构——重庆民族乡传统手工技艺的传承与发展 预览
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作者 董素云 《重庆三峡学院学报》 2019年第1期9-15,共7页
在漫长的历史长河中,生活于重庆民族乡的土家、汉、苗等民族相互融合,相互吸收,创造了丰富多样的非物质文化遗产,传统手工技艺是其主要代表。重庆民族乡传统手工技艺的类型多样,内容丰富多彩,是民族传统文化的重要组成部分,具有突出的... 在漫长的历史长河中,生活于重庆民族乡的土家、汉、苗等民族相互融合,相互吸收,创造了丰富多样的非物质文化遗产,传统手工技艺是其主要代表。重庆民族乡传统手工技艺的类型多样,内容丰富多彩,是民族传统文化的重要组成部分,具有突出的文化价值和经济价值。在现代工业社会的背景下,民族乡的传统手工技艺面临着传承乏人,发展停滞不前,甚至濒临消亡的困境。因此,需要依靠内生力量与外在力量的共同建构,更好地推进重庆民族乡传统手工技艺的传承与发展。 展开更多
关键词 重庆民族乡 传统手工技艺 内生 外在
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A high-performance bio-tissue imaging method using air flow-assisted desorption electrospray ionization coupled with a high-resolution mass spectrometer
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作者 Yiwei Lv Tiegang Li +9 位作者 Chengan Guo Chenglong Sun Fei Tang Luojiao Huang Zhigang Luo Xin Li Ruiping Zhang Qingce Zang Jiuming He Zeper AbliZ 《中国化学快报:英文版》 SCIE CAS CSCD 2019年第2期461-464,共4页
Mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) technology can simultaneously obtain the spatial distribution of thousands of chemical compounds and has unique advantages compared to other techniques that allow mapping the surface of... Mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) technology can simultaneously obtain the spatial distribution of thousands of chemical compounds and has unique advantages compared to other techniques that allow mapping the surface of bio-tissue. Here, we combined an air flow-assisted desorption electrospray ionization (AFADESI) MSI device with a high-resolution mass spectrometer to optimize the system parameters and achieve more accurate spatial distribution characteristics for compounds of interest while investigating bio-tissue sections. The platform set-up, required instrumentation, sample pretreatment, parameter optimization and bio-tissue characterization are described and discussed.Finally, the parameter conditions that can provide optimal ionic intensity and enhanced resolution were confirmed. The reasonable resolution and sensitivity improvements of AFADESI-MSI have been achieved through tandem a high-resolution mass spectrometer system, therefore, it would be a promising technique for the bio-tissue imaging analysis. 展开更多
关键词 MASS SPECTROMETRY imaging Air flow-assisted desorption electrospray ionization HIGH-RESOLUTION MASS SPECTROMETRY Endogenous metabolites Bio-tissue imaging
金融化与实体经济:金融本质再考察 被引量:1
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作者 方芳 黄汝南 《教学与研究》 CSSCI 北大核心 2019年第2期15-27,共13页
本文首先考察了自1870年以来两轮经济金融化的特征事实;然后基于相关理论,以16个国家发生的系统性银行危机为样本,从增长与分配两个维度实证分析了危机前各国实体经济与金融系统的普遍特征;最后从金融的内生性与风险性角度阐述金融的本... 本文首先考察了自1870年以来两轮经济金融化的特征事实;然后基于相关理论,以16个国家发生的系统性银行危机为样本,从增长与分配两个维度实证分析了危机前各国实体经济与金融系统的普遍特征;最后从金融的内生性与风险性角度阐述金融的本质。主要结论有:第一,19世纪70年代到1929年大萧条前的第一轮金融化特征为经济货币化与商业银行资产扩张,20世纪70年代至今的第二轮金融化特征为金融结构向市场主导型变迁,银行资产结构也向市场化方向调整;第二,适度金融化有利于经济增长,改善收入分配,而过度金融化普遍导致资本积累放缓、生产率下降、贫富差距扩大等现象,这些现象又会进一步强化实体经济与金融失衡;第三,金融部门对实体经济具有内生性影响,促使实体部门风险结构复杂化,需要相应的政策抑制过度金融化倾向。 展开更多
关键词 金融化 实体经济 金融本质 内生性 风险性
传统规约的现代治理转型——基于苗、侗村落社区内源式治理资源的调查分析 预览
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作者 周恩宇 王飞 《贵州大学学报:社会科学版》 2019年第4期122-127,共6页
西南苗、侗等民族社区广泛存在榔规、侗款等内源治理资源和规范。这些规范村民认同度高,是村落社会文化的制度载体,保障了村落的有序运行。在乡村振兴背景下,乡村社会文化面临转型,需要构建起“自治、法治、德治”相融合的乡村治理体系... 西南苗、侗等民族社区广泛存在榔规、侗款等内源治理资源和规范。这些规范村民认同度高,是村落社会文化的制度载体,保障了村落的有序运行。在乡村振兴背景下,乡村社会文化面临转型,需要构建起“自治、法治、德治”相融合的乡村治理体系。本文在充分挖掘苗侗社区传统规约等内源治理资源的基础上,探析其内在逻辑,试图在符合国家法律和村民自治法的前提下,形成民族地区乡村治理“三治”融合的典型案例,为实现乡村治理有效提供经验借鉴。 展开更多
关键词 苗侗社区 内源式 传统规约 治理转型
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The Belt and Road Initiative from Three Theoretical Perspectives 预览
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作者 Fu Mengzi 《现代国际关系:英文版》 2019年第2期1-33,共33页
Efforts have generally been made from policy considerations to interpret reasons for the proposition of the Belt and Road Initiative and its global layout.Though they are of some significance,such a grand initiative c... Efforts have generally been made from policy considerations to interpret reasons for the proposition of the Belt and Road Initiative and its global layout.Though they are of some significance,such a grand initiative certainly has its own internal theoretical basis.This paper is in the opinion that the spillover effect of oversized economy,the extension of the value chain and its climbing effect,as well as channel suitability and location orientation constitute the endogenous driving forces of the Belt and Road Initiative.Each of the three theoretical perspectives has its own internal realistic basis,all of which may offer some reference that is conducive to understanding the practice and future development of the Belt and Road Initiative. 展开更多
关键词 the BELT and ROAD INITIATIVE ENDOGENOUS driving force theoretical BASIS in terconnection and interworki ng
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Effects of dietary fiber content and different fiber-rich ingredients on endogenous loss of fat and fatty acids in growing pigs 预览
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作者 Yifan Chen Zhenyu Wang +5 位作者 Jian Ding Dongxu Ming Wenhui Wang Zhaoning Jiang Ling Liu Fenglai Wang 《畜牧与生物技术杂志:英文版》 SCIE CAS CSCD 2019年第3期745-758,共14页
Background: Determination of the endogenous loss of fat(ELF) is used to adjust for the estimation of true total tract digestibility(TTTD) of fat in diets and ingredients.Any factor which affected ELF may further affec... Background: Determination of the endogenous loss of fat(ELF) is used to adjust for the estimation of true total tract digestibility(TTTD) of fat in diets and ingredients.Any factor which affected ELF may further affect the digestibility of fat,including sources and concentrations of fat and fiber in the diet.There are some reports of determining the ELF using regression methods based on different levels of fat intake,while reports on effects of dietary fiber content and different fiber-rich ingredients in pig diets on ELF are very limited.Therefore,the objective of this study was to determine the effects of dietary fiber content and different fiber-rich ingredients on endogenous losses of fat and fatty acids at the end of ileum and throughout the entire intestinal tract in growing pigs.Methods: In Exp.1,the effect of fiber content on endogenous loss of fat was determined using six growing pigs(Duroc × Landrace × Yorkshire;27.6 ± 2.4 kg),fitted with a T-cannula at the end of ileum.The experimental design was a 6 × 6 complete Latin square design with six periods of feeding and six diets.The six experimental fat-free diets were formulated to include graded levels of neutral detergent fiber(NDF)(0,40,80,120,160 and 200 g/kg) and soybean hull(SH) was the only fiber source,providing 0,75,150,225,300 and 375 g/kg,respectively.Chromic oxide was included at4 g/kg in all diets as an indigestible marker.In Exp.2,six crossbred growing barrows(27.6 ± 1.6 kg) were used and the experimental design was the same as for Exp.1.The six fat-free diets were formulated to include six common fiber-rich ingredients and the concentration of NDF was 100 g/kg.The six fiber-rich ingredients were defatted rice bran(DRB),sugar beet pulp(SBP),rice hull(RH),corn germ meal(CGM),SH and wheat bran(WB) and they were fed at represented250,270,145,250,170 and 280 g/kg in the diet,respectively.Results: In Exp.1,the endogenous loss of fatty acids profile did not change as dietary NDF increased in growing pigs.The endogenous losses of fat,C16:0,C18: 展开更多
关键词 ENDOGENOUS LOSS FAT Fatty acids FIBER content Fiber-rich INGREDIENTS Growing pigs
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Stromal cell-derived factor-1α promotes recruitment and differentiation of nucleus pulposus-derived stem cells 预览
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作者 Jin-Wei Ying Tian-Yong Wen +2 位作者 Shi-Shen Pei Ling-Hao Su Di-Ke Ruan 《世界干细胞杂志:英文版(电子版)》 2019年第3期196-211,共16页
BACKGROUND Intervertebral disc (IVD) degeneration is a condition characterized by a reduction in the water and extracellular matrix content of the nucleus pulposus (NP) and is considered as one of the dominating contr... BACKGROUND Intervertebral disc (IVD) degeneration is a condition characterized by a reduction in the water and extracellular matrix content of the nucleus pulposus (NP) and is considered as one of the dominating contributing factors to low back pain. Recent evidence suggests that stromal cell-derived factor 1α(SDF-1α) and its receptor CX- C chemokine receptor type 4 (CXCR4) direct the migration of stem cells associated with injury repair in different musculoskeletal tissues. AIM To investigate the effects of SDF-1α on recruitment and chondrogenic differentiation of nucleus pulposus-derived stem cells (NPSCs). METHODS We performed real-time RT-PCR and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to examine the expression of SDF-1α in nucleus pulposus cells after treatment with pro-inflammatory cytokines in vitro. An animal model of IVD degeneration was established using annular fibrosus puncture in rat coccygeal discs. Tissue samples were collected from normal control and degeneration groups. Differences in the expression of SDF-1α between the normal and degenerative IVDs were analyzed by immunohistochemistry. The migration capacity of NPSCs induced by SDF-1α was evaluated using wound healing and transwell migration assays. To determine the effect of SDF-1α on chondrogenic differentiation of NPSCs, we conducted cell micromass culture and examined the expression levels of Sox-9, aggrecan, and collagen II. Moreover, the roles of SDF-1/CXCR4 axis in the migration and chondrogenesis differentiation of NPSCs were analyzed by immunofluorescence, immunoblotting, and real-time RT-PCR.RESULTS SDF-1α was significantly upregulated in the native IVD cells cultured in vitro with pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as interleukin-1β and tumor necrosis factor-α, mimicking the degenerative settings. Immunohistochemical staining showed that the level of SDF-1α was also significantly higher in the degenerative group than in the normal group. SDF-1α enhanced the migration capacity of NPSCs in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, SDF- 展开更多
关键词 STROMAL cell-derived factor CXC CHEMOKINE receptor 4 Nucleus pulposusderived stem cells INTERVERTEBRAL disc degeneration Endogenous regeneration
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Sustainable land management practices, off-farm work participation and vulnerability among farmers in Ghana: Is there a nexus? 预览
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作者 Gazali Issahaku Awal Abdul-Rahaman 《国际水土保持研究(英文)》 2019年第1期18-26,共9页
Addressing issues of agricultural sustainability and vulnerability to poverty under climate change are major challenges to development in the 21st century.Accounting for the trade-off and synergies between off-farm wo... Addressing issues of agricultural sustainability and vulnerability to poverty under climate change are major challenges to development in the 21st century.Accounting for the trade-off and synergies between off-farm work participation and sustainable land management on one hand,and vulnerability to poverty on the other hand,will therefore be useful to policy.In this study,we use recent farm household data from Ghana to examine the effect of off-farm work participation on intensity of adoption of sustainable land management (SLM) practices and impact of off-farm work participation on vulnerability to poverty.We employed a bivariate Tobit model to examine the determinants of SLM adoption intensity,and endogenous switching probit model to assess the impact of off-farm work participation on vulnerability to poverty.The results reveal that participation in off-farm is positively and significantly associated with adoption intensity of bunds,and organic manure.The results also show that off-farm work participation significantly reduces household vulnerability to poverty by 13%.Based on these findings,we conclude that rural development through non-farm work opportunities can lead to positive synergies between sustainable agricultural production,off-farm employment and poverty alleviation. 展开更多
关键词 Sustainable land management ADOPTION intensity VULNERABILITY BIVARIATE TOBIT Endogenous switching PROBIT
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Endogenous automatic nerve discharge promotes nerve repair: an optimized animal model 预览
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作者 Jing Rui Ying-Jie Zhou +3 位作者 Xin Zhao Ji-Feng Li Yu-Dong Gu Jie Lao 《中国神经再生研究:英文版》 SCIE CAS CSCD 2019年第2期306-312,共7页
Exogenous electrical nerve stimulation has been reported to promote nerve regeneration. Our previous study has suggested that endogenous automatic nerve discharge of the phrenic nerve and intercostal nerve has a posit... Exogenous electrical nerve stimulation has been reported to promote nerve regeneration. Our previous study has suggested that endogenous automatic nerve discharge of the phrenic nerve and intercostal nerve has a positive effect on nerve regeneration at 1 month postoperatively, but a negative effect at 2 months postoperatively, which may be caused by scar compression. In this study, we designed four different rat models to avoid the negative effect from scar compression. The control group received musculocutaneous nerve cut and repair. The other three groups were subjected to side-to-side transfer of either the phrenic (phrenic nerve group), intercostal (intercostal nerve group) or thoracodorsal nerves (thoracic dorsal nerve group), with sural nerve autograft distal to the anastomosis site. Musculocutaneous nerve regeneration was assessed by electrophysiology of the musculocutaneous nerve, muscle tension, muscle wet weight, maximum cross-sectional area of biceps, and myelinated fiber numbers of the proximal and distal ends of the anastomosis site of the musculocutaneous nerve and the middle of the nerve graft. At 1 month postoperatively, compound muscle action potential amplitude of the biceps in the phrenic nerve group and the intercostal nerve group was statistically higher than that in the control group. The myelinated nerve fiber numbers in the distal end of the musculocutaneous nerve and nerve graft anastomosis in the phrenic nerve and the intercostal nerve groups were statistically higher than those in the control and thoracic dorsal nerve groups. The neural degeneration rate in the middle of the nerve graft in the thoracic dorsal nerve group was statistically higher than that in the phrenic nerve and the intercostal nerve groups. At 2 and 3 months postoperatively, no significant difference was detected between the groups in all the assessments. These findings confirm that the phrenic nerve and intercostal nerve have a positive effect on nerve regeneration at the early stage of recovery. This study establish 展开更多
关键词 NERVE REGENERATION peripheral NERVE REGENERATION ENDOGENOUS AUTOMATIC DISCHARGE side-to-side NERVE anastomosis phrenic NERVE intercostal NERVE animal model electrical treatment rats NERVE compression neural REGENERATION
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Effects of gibberellic acid on tiller-bulb number and growth performance of Lilium davidii var.unicolor 预览
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作者 YuHui He ZhongKui Xie +3 位作者 XinPing Liu YaJun Wang YuBao Zhang Yang Qiu 《寒旱区科学:英文版》 CSCD 2019年第4期327-334,共8页
Lilium davidii var.unicolor(Lanzhou lily)is an important economic crop in the northwest cold and arid regions of China.Effective regulation of tiller-bulb development and plant growth is the key to improving yield and... Lilium davidii var.unicolor(Lanzhou lily)is an important economic crop in the northwest cold and arid regions of China.Effective regulation of tiller-bulb development and plant growth is the key to improving yield and quality of the lily.This study attempted to evaluate the effect of gibberellic acid(GA3)on tiller-bulb development and plant growth of Lanzhou lily by applying GA3 at various concentrations(0 mg/L,10 mg/L,30 mg/L,60 mg/L,and 100 mg/L)before planting and in the seedling period.Results showed that the 60-mg/L GA3 application had an inhibiting effect on tiller-bulb formation and increased the ratios of single and double bulbs but decreased the ratios of bulbs with three or more tiller bulbs,as com pared to the control(CK)and other GA3 treatments.The difference in flower number did not reach significant levels among the treatments.The tillering-related endogenous hormones IAA(indole-3-acetic acid)and Z(zeatin)content de creased,while IAA/Z increased with the 60-mg/L GA3 treatment during tiller initiation.And also,the shoot-bulb number and total daughter-bulb number decreased significantly with the 60-mg/L GA3 treatment.Furthermore,the 10-mg/L GA3 application promoted growth of Lanzhou lily significantly and resulted in an increase in plant height;bulb diameter;bulb circumference;and biomass of shoots,bulbs,fibrous roots,and the whole plant.Therefore,GA3 application is promising as a new regulation method for inhibiting tiller-bulb development and promoting bulb growth in Lanzhou lily production. 展开更多
关键词 Gibberellic acid TILLER BULB ENDOGENOUS HORMONE content height biomass
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