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1TZSF-240/8型水稻条耕施肥机的设计与试验 预览
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作者 宋江 巩大伟 +3 位作者 刘丽华 吕艳东 李红宇 王磊 《农机化研究》 北大核心 2020年第1期122-128,共7页
针对水稻局部少耕、旱种水管技术提出的碎土质量好、耕层深、耕作带底部平整度高,以及适时调整排肥量的要求,设计了一款立式水稻条耕施肥机。该机主要由条耕和电动排肥装置组成,采用相似设计原理,建立旋刀几何参数关系;利用图解法推导... 针对水稻局部少耕、旱种水管技术提出的碎土质量好、耕层深、耕作带底部平整度高,以及适时调整排肥量的要求,设计了一款立式水稻条耕施肥机。该机主要由条耕和电动排肥装置组成,采用相似设计原理,建立旋刀几何参数关系;利用图解法推导出正切面刃角、侧切面刃角与行走速度、刀具转速、旋刀旋转半径之间的关系式,并得出该机作业过程中侧切面刃角为24°和正切面刃角为41°;按照农艺要求,确定电机的转速为50~60r/min之间可调。水稻条耕施肥机田间试验表明:该机耕层深,碎土能力强,沟底平整度较好,作业顺畅、性能稳定,匹配动力为66~92kW,耕深平均值15 cm,稳定系数90%土壤颗粒小于8cm的碎土率为85.2%,施肥量稳定性变异系数1.23%,施肥均匀性变异系数17.05%,满足行业标准规定和农艺要求。该研究为下一步水稻条耕施肥播种一体机的研发和水稻局部少耕、旱种水管技术大面积的应用与推广提供了理论依据和技术参考。 展开更多
关键词 水稻 条耕 施肥
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银川市郊温棚种植者化肥施用及禁限用重金属超标复混肥知晓情况 预览
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作者 柴茹 周健 +2 位作者 朱玲勤 曹博 杨惠芳 《宁夏医科大学学报》 2019年第7期739-742,共4页
目的了解银川市郊温棚种植者的化肥施用情况、对化肥危害的知晓情况及禁限用重金属超标复合肥知晓情况。方法采用随机整群抽样的方法,在银川市郊区良田镇随机抽取2个蔬菜温棚种植村庄,每个村庄中再随机抽取从事蔬菜温棚作业1年以上、在... 目的了解银川市郊温棚种植者的化肥施用情况、对化肥危害的知晓情况及禁限用重金属超标复合肥知晓情况。方法采用随机整群抽样的方法,在银川市郊区良田镇随机抽取2个蔬菜温棚种植村庄,每个村庄中再随机抽取从事蔬菜温棚作业1年以上、在本地居住5年以上的130例温棚种植者为调查对象,进行问卷调查。结果共收集到有效问卷121份,银川市郊区良田镇温棚种植者文化程度偏低,小学及以下者占72.8%;仅有19.8%的人参加过有关化肥施用或农作物质量安全方面的培训学习;54.5%的被调查者表示在施肥时无任何防护措施;不同年龄段的温棚种植者对于禁限用重金属含量超标的复混肥知晓率差异有统计意义(P<0.01);小学及以下学历种植者对禁限用重金属含量超标复混肥的知晓情况低于初中及以上学历者(P<0.01);与未向零售商咨询化肥施用知识、未接受专业培训、未采取防护措施的温棚种植者相比,向零售商咨询化肥施用知识、接受专业培训以及采取防护措施的温棚种植者的禁限用重金属含量超标复混肥知晓率均较高(P均<0.01)。结论银川市郊区良田镇温棚种植者文化水平相对较低,对于化肥合理施用以及重金属超标复混肥相关知识匮乏。建议有关部门积极开展安全使用技术培训,进一步提高温棚种植者有关化肥施用方面的知识水平。 展开更多
关键词 温棚种植 化肥 知晓情况 重金属含量 复混肥
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Effects of urea enhanced with different weathered coal-derived humic acid components on maize yield and fate of fertilizer nitrogen 预览
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作者 ZHANG Shui-qin YUAN Liang +4 位作者 LI Wei LIN Zhi-an LI Yan-ting HU Shu-wen ZHAO Bing-qiang 《农业科学学报:英文版》 SCIE CAS CSCD 2019年第3期656-666,共11页
Humic acid(HA) is a readily available and low-cost material that is used to enhance crop production and reduce nitrogen(N) loss. However, there is little consensus on the efficacy of different HA components. In the cu... Humic acid(HA) is a readily available and low-cost material that is used to enhance crop production and reduce nitrogen(N) loss. However, there is little consensus on the efficacy of different HA components. In the current study, a soil column experiment was conducted using the 15N tracer technique in Dezhou City, Shandong Province, China, to compare the effects of urea with and without the addition of weathered coal-derived HA components on maize yield and the fate of fertilizerderived N(fertilizer N). The HA components were incorporated into urea by blending different HA components into molten urea to obtain the three different types of HA-enhanced urea(HAU). At harvest, the aboveground dry biomass of plants grown with HAU was enhanced by 11.50–21.33% when compared to that of plants grown with U. More significantly, the grain yields under the HAU treatments were 5.58–18.67% higher than the yield under the urea treatment. These higher yields were due to an increase in the number of kernels per plant rather than the weight of individual kernels. The uptake of fertilizer N under the HAU treatments was also higher than that under the urea treatment by 11.49–29.46%, while the unaccounted N loss decreased by 12.37–30.05%. More fertilizer-derived N was retained in the 0–30 cm soil layer under the HAU treatments than that under the urea treatment, while less N was retained in the 30–90 cm soil layer. The total residual amount of fertilizer N in the soil column, however, did not differ significantly between the treatments. Of the three HAU treatments investigated, the one with an HA fraction derived from extraction with pH values ranging from 6 to 7, resulted in the best improvement in all assessment targets. This is likely due to the abundance of the COO/C–N=O group in this HA component. 展开更多
关键词 HUMIC acid ENHANCED UREA maize ABOVEGROUND dry biomass FERTILIZER N uptake FERTILIZER N residue
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Effect of Missing Nutrient Elements on Grain Yield of Wet Season Rice in Bangladesh 预览
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作者 Md Mozammel Haque Abdul Latif Sha +3 位作者 Jatish Chandra Biswas Md Rafiqul Islam Aminul Islam Umme Aminun Naher 《美国植物学期刊(英文)》 2019年第4期631-639,共9页
Background and objective: Long-term fertility study is one of the important factors to monitor changes in yield because of different nutrient management options and cropping systems involved in Asian regions. Many sho... Background and objective: Long-term fertility study is one of the important factors to monitor changes in yield because of different nutrient management options and cropping systems involved in Asian regions. Many short-term and long-term fertilizer trials were conducted for intensive irrigated rice cropping patterns mostly to provide fertilizer rate, but did not considered sustainable soil management for soil health. The objective of the present study was to examine the effect of missing nutrient elements for a long time on rice yield, photosynthetic rate and residual soil fertility. Materials and Methods: The experiment was initiated on a permanent layout at the Bangladesh Rice Research Institute (BRRI) farm, Gazipur during 2000 to 2008 in wet season. Seven treatments in randomized complete block design with four replications were imposed. Grain yield was determined at physiological maturity from three 5 m2 areas within each plot followed by bagging and threshing. Photosynthetic was measure by Li Cor 6400 (USA) machine during study period. Soil sample was analyzed for following standard methods. Results: It was found that grain yield was in decreasing trends for the missing elements that were similar with BR 11 and BRRI dhan 31. On an average, grain yield reductions were 11.6, 7.0, 10.6, 1.1 and 3.4 percent for -N, -P, -K, -S and -Zn, than complete fertilizer treatment (NPKSZn) respectively. Under no fertilization, the ability of soil was to produce 2.9 t&middot;ha-1 of BR11 and 3.1 t&middot;ha-1 of BRRI dhan 31 respectively. Photosynthetic rate of rice plant was always higher in complete fertilizer treatment (NPKSZn) than missing of any nutrient element. The decrease in photosynthetic rate was more pronounced with N missing than others for both the rice varieties. Conclusion: It is concluded that balance chemical fertilizers (NPKSZn) are to be used for sustained and/or increased rice production and to maintain soil fertility. 展开更多
关键词 Long-Term FERTILIZER Soil NUTRIENT Status PHOTOSYNTHETIC Rate VARIETY Yield Pattern
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Fluid Mechanics and Heat-Transfer Operations Combination Involved in Urea Unit of Fertilizer Complex 预览
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作者 Muhammad Imran Rashid Naveed Ramzan 《非金属材料科学(英文)》 2019年第1期5-10,共6页
Fertilizer plants are most complex plants in the world (Rashid et al., 2013, Process Safety Progress) and its good opportunity to learn science from operations involved in these plants. Fluid mechanics and heat transf... Fertilizer plants are most complex plants in the world (Rashid et al., 2013, Process Safety Progress) and its good opportunity to learn science from operations involved in these plants. Fluid mechanics and heat transfer operations combination involved in fertilizer complexes are explored in this article. 展开更多
关键词 FERTILIZER plants FERTILIZER COMPLEX Fluid MECHANICS HEAT-TRANSFER UREA
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3ZFS-520型中耕深施肥机施肥铲仿真分析与试验 预览
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作者 罗文华 肖宏儒 +1 位作者 马方 金月 《中国农机化学报》 北大核心 2019年第8期7-11,共5页
针对现有中耕施肥机追肥深度不足的问题,研制3ZFS-520型中耕深施肥机,增加施肥深度,并就施肥铲进行仿真分析和改进设计。本研究利用土壤坚实度测量仪测量破土阻力,采用Creo 5.0对施肥铲进行建模后导入Ansys Workbench软件,分析破土阻力... 针对现有中耕施肥机追肥深度不足的问题,研制3ZFS-520型中耕深施肥机,增加施肥深度,并就施肥铲进行仿真分析和改进设计。本研究利用土壤坚实度测量仪测量破土阻力,采用Creo 5.0对施肥铲进行建模后导入Ansys Workbench软件,分析破土阻力对施肥铲表面应力、应变及位移的影响,并对施肥铲的振动情况进行模态分析,分析结果表明当入土角取20°,入土隙角取7°,铲尖曲率半径取120 mm,铲体长度取600 mm,铲体宽度取15 mm时,施肥铲应力、应变、位移及振动情况均可满足要求。将施肥铲按仿真分析尺寸进行加工,并安装于3ZFS-520型中耕深施肥机,经试验测试,该施肥机各项作业性能指标满足行业标准要求,通用性及适应性强,施肥深度可达20 cm,作业性能稳定。 展开更多
关键词 中耕机 施肥 施肥铲 破土率
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生物炭对盐碱土壤氨挥发的影响
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作者 王一宇 王圣森 戴九兰 《环境科学》 EI CAS CSCD 北大核心 2019年第8期3738-3745,共8页
为探明生物炭对黄河三角洲盐碱土壤氨(NH3)挥发的影响,通过室内连续培养的方式,先测定改良的通气法对土壤NH3挥发的回收率,再对比施加肥料颗粒与肥料水溶液对土壤NH3挥发的影响,最后探究生物炭的种类、添加量及施肥种类对NH3挥发速率和... 为探明生物炭对黄河三角洲盐碱土壤氨(NH3)挥发的影响,通过室内连续培养的方式,先测定改良的通气法对土壤NH3挥发的回收率,再对比施加肥料颗粒与肥料水溶液对土壤NH3挥发的影响,最后探究生物炭的种类、添加量及施肥种类对NH3挥发速率和总量的影响.结果表明,以硫酸铵为氮源进行的NH3挥发捕集实验,NH3回收率平均值高达100. 30%.在相同施氮量下,施加尿素水溶液的处理比施加尿素颗粒的处理NH3挥发减少了60. 29%,施加硫酸铵水溶液的处理比施加硫酸铵颗粒的处理NH3挥发减少了61. 40%.相较于不添加生物炭只施用硫酸铵水溶液的空白处理,添加0. 5%生物炭且施加生物炭种类为水稻300℃(RB-300)、水稻600℃(RB-600)、棉花300℃(CB-300)和棉花600℃(CB-600)的处理,NH3挥发总量分别减少了18. 68%、16. 16%、9. 35%和8. 26%,且施肥后2d内NH3挥发速率最大,占总挥发量的53. 80%~64. 02%.添加生物炭后,NH3挥发量随生物炭添加量的增加呈现出先降低后增加的趋势.因此,田间施肥前添加少量生物炭并结合水肥一体化管理技术,可以有效地减少NH3挥发并提高氮肥利用率. 展开更多
关键词 生物炭 NH3挥发 肥料 盐碱土 水肥一体化技术
渐缩式比例施肥器的设计与试验 预览
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作者 鄢碧鹏 王磊 +1 位作者 郑春来 叶飞 《灌溉排水学报》 CSCD 北大核心 2019年第11期36-41,共6页
【目的】解决压差施肥罐施肥质量浓度随时间衰减的问题。【方法】采用在压力罐中设置可变形的肥袋,压力罐、肥袋与主管连接点中间设置减压阀的方法,研制了一种通过压力罐向管道注肥的渐缩式比例施肥器,实现了比例施肥。理论分析了其并... 【目的】解决压差施肥罐施肥质量浓度随时间衰减的问题。【方法】采用在压力罐中设置可变形的肥袋,压力罐、肥袋与主管连接点中间设置减压阀的方法,研制了一种通过压力罐向管道注肥的渐缩式比例施肥器,实现了比例施肥。理论分析了其并联特性,在此基础上试制了样机,开展了性能试验,测试了4种管道工况下施肥质量浓度变化。【结果】可变形肥袋起到了水肥分隔、水肥等量置换作用,其水力系统为并联管道系统,当结构形式一定时,施肥比例是常数,其仅与2个支路管径以及局部损失系数有关,不受来水管道压力、流量变化影响,同一工况、不同时刻出水管道肥液质量浓度最大偏差为4.7%,来水管道工况变化时平均质量浓度最大偏差为3.5%,属于均匀施肥,施肥器的最大水头损失为0.47 m,施肥比例可在0~10%范围内调节。【结论】研制的渐缩式比例施肥具有施肥质量浓度稳定、水头损失小,适合各种管道压力的特点,可应用于设施农业喷灌、滴灌系统加药、施肥。 展开更多
关键词 施肥器 比例施肥 可变形肥袋 设施农业
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Application of Bio-organic Fertilizer Containing High-efficient Nitrogen-fixing Bacillus amyloliquefaciens on Strawberry 预览
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作者 Lili JIANG Kaiyun WANG +2 位作者 Yuguo WU Kaiyuan WANG Xinjun FANG 《农业生物技术:英文版》 CAS 2019年第1期121-125,共5页
With strawberry as a test material,the effects of the bio-organic fertilizer containing high-efficiency nitrogen-fixing Bacillus amyloliquefaciens on nutrient contents in strawberry-planted soil,wilt occurrence and st... With strawberry as a test material,the effects of the bio-organic fertilizer containing high-efficiency nitrogen-fixing Bacillus amyloliquefaciens on nutrient contents in strawberry-planted soil,wilt occurrence and strawberry yield and quality were studied by a plot experiment,so as to provide reference for scientific use of the bio-organic fertilizer and green production of strawberry.The results showed that after hole-applying the bio-organic fertilizer at a rate of 22.5 t/hm 2,the contents of NH+4-N,available P,available K and organic matter did not change much with time;and when replacing 50%of chemical fertilizers with the bio-organic fertilizer at a rate of 11.25 t/hm 2(K 3),the contents of NH+4-N and available P in the soil did not change much with time,and the contents of available K and organic matter decreased slightly with time,but were both higher than the CK(the unfertilized treatment).Meanwhile,the disease index values of strawberry wilt disease in treatments K 2 and K 3 were significantly lower than those of the CK and the conventional fertilization treatment(K 1),and the vitamin C contents of strawberry fruit in the two treatments were significantly higher than that of the CK.The yield determination showed that the cumulative yields of treatments K 2 and K 3 increased by 9.8%and 3.3%,respectively,and the increase rates of the early yields(before the Spring Festival)were 30.6%and 21.9%,respectively.Therefore,the application of the bio-organic fertilizer can replace chemical fertilizers,and can achieve the effects of reducing the occurrence of wilt,improving the early yield of fruit commodity and improving fruit quality. 展开更多
关键词 BACILLUS amyloliquefaciens Bio-organic FERTILIZER STRAWBERRY FERTILIZER efficiency FRUIT quality
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肥料配施枯草芽孢杆菌对夏玉米产量及养分利用的影响 预览
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作者 李荣发 刘鹏 +2 位作者 董树亭 张吉旺 赵斌 《植物营养与肥料学报》 CAS CSCD 北大核心 2019年第9期1607-1614,共8页
[目的]枯草芽孢杆菌能增加土壤养分、改善土壤结构、提高化肥利用率,并能促使土壤中的有机质分解,促进作物生长,提高产量。研究枯草芽孢杆菌与肥料配施对夏玉米产量、肥料吸收利用的影响,为提高肥料的增产效果、降低农业面源污染提供理... [目的]枯草芽孢杆菌能增加土壤养分、改善土壤结构、提高化肥利用率,并能促使土壤中的有机质分解,促进作物生长,提高产量。研究枯草芽孢杆菌与肥料配施对夏玉米产量、肥料吸收利用的影响,为提高肥料的增产效果、降低农业面源污染提供理论指导。[方法]2016 和 2017 年以登海 605(DH605)为试验材料,设置不施氮肥(CK)、单施化肥(N)、单施牛粪(M)、牛粪+枯草芽孢杆菌(MB)、化肥+枯草芽孢杆菌(NB) 5 个处理,分析了夏玉米产量和肥料吸收利用状况。[结果]牛粪配施枯草芽孢杆菌处理的籽粒产量及肥料利用效率最高,显著高于单施牛粪处理。与单施牛粪相比,牛粪配施枯草芽孢杆菌两年产量平均增幅为 20.2%,植株氮、磷、钾积累量平均增幅分别为 30.8%、63.5%、30.8%,肥料偏生产力平均提高 20.7%;化肥配施枯草芽孢杆菌两年产量平均值比单施化肥提高 2.55%,植株氮、磷、钾积累量平均增幅分别为 12.5%、10.6%、3.84%,肥料偏生产力平均提高 3.18%。牛粪配施枯草芽孢杆菌的经济效益比单施牛粪提高 16.9%,化肥配施枯草芽孢杆菌的经济效益与单施化肥基本相同。分析表明,植株干物质积累量和氮素积累量,尤其是花后干物质和氮素积累的增加是增产增效的主要原因。其中牛粪配施枯草芽孢杆菌的效果要优于化肥配施枯草芽孢杆菌。[结论]肥料配施枯草芽孢杆菌能显著增加夏玉米的干物质积累量及产量,促进肥料的吸收利用。在施用氮肥的基础上,配施适量的枯草芽孢杆菌不仅能实现增产增效的目的,还能提高玉米的经济效益。有机肥配施枯草芽孢杆菌是实现夏玉米节肥增效的有效措施之一。 展开更多
关键词 肥料 枯草芽孢杆菌 夏玉米 产量 肥料利用
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Effects of Water-Soluble Fertilizer on Yield and Quality of Asparagus in Greenhouse under Chemical Fertilizer Reduction 预览
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作者 Jieqiong FENG Ying WENG Yingjun XU 《亚洲农业研究:英文版》 2019年第8期66-68,70共4页
In order to understand the effects of water-soluble fertilizer on the yield and quality of asparagus in greenhouse,taking conventional fertilization as a control,in the case of a decrease in total nutrient of chemical... In order to understand the effects of water-soluble fertilizer on the yield and quality of asparagus in greenhouse,taking conventional fertilization as a control,in the case of a decrease in total nutrient of chemical fertilizer,the application effect of humic acid-contained watersoluble fertilizer in asparagus was studied by experiment. The results show that,under the condition that the conventional fertilizer was reduced by 30% and 50%,the application of humic acid-contained water-soluble fertilizer to asparagus in greenhouse can improve the shoot length,single shoot weight,shoot diameter and shoot growth( degree of scatter) of asparagus,improve effectively the quality of asparagus( e. g. increasing the content of vitamin C and decreasing the nitrate content in asparagus shoots),and increase the yield of asparagus shoots( by 2 583 and 4 218 kg/ha compared with the conventional fertilization,with growth rates of 10. 3% and 16. 8%,respectively). 展开更多
关键词 Water SOLUBLE FERTILIZER FERTILIZER REDUCTION ASPARAGUS
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Fertirrigation with Low-Pressure Multi-Gate Irrigation Systems in Sugarcane Agroecosystems:A Review
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作者 Arturo GARC′IA-SALDA?NA Ces′areo LANDEROS-S′ANCHEZ +3 位作者 Mar′?a del Refugio CASTA?NEDA-CH′AVEZ Juan Pablo MART′INEZ-D′AVILA Arturo P′EREZ-V′AZQUEZ Eugenio CARRILLO-′AVILA 《土壤圈:英文版》 SCIE CAS CSCD 2019年第1期1-11,共11页
There are very few studies on the application of fertilizers through irrigation water(fertirrigation) using a multi-gate irrigation system in sugarcane AES. Through fertirrigation, the application of fertilizers can b... There are very few studies on the application of fertilizers through irrigation water(fertirrigation) using a multi-gate irrigation system in sugarcane AES. Through fertirrigation, the application of fertilizers can be simplified, and their distribution uniformity in sugarcane fields improved. This paper provides an overview of the state of the art regarding fertirrigation with multi-gate irrigation in sugarcane agroecosystems(AES). In order to systematize, organize, and discuss the scientific data on fertirrigation with low-pressure multi-gate irrigation systems in sugarcane AES, bibliographic material from the following full-text scientific journal databases was screened: the Elsevier Science Direct Freedom Collection, Springer Link, and the International Society for Horticultural Science. Next,a matrix of keywords was used to analyze the interrelationships among the available literature, current issues, and the recent findings.We conclude that development of fertirrigation technologies with low-pressure multi-gate irrigation is much needed. 展开更多
关键词 climate change crop WATER requirement FERTILIZER application FERTILIZER distribution UNIFORMITY SUGARCANE industry WATER use efficiency
肥沙对微孔陶瓷灌水器堵塞的影响研究 预览
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作者 董爱红 蔡耀辉 +2 位作者 赵笑 陈玺 张林 《节水灌溉》 北大核心 2019年第1期32-35,39共5页
为了揭示水肥一体化灌溉过程中肥沙对微孔陶瓷灌水器堵塞的影响和机理,研究了肥沙(质量浓度为3%的尿素和浓度为2 g/L的泥沙)和肥水(质量浓度为3%的尿素)对微孔陶瓷灌水器堵塞的影响,并利用XRD分析灌水器内沉积物的成分。结果表明:以平... 为了揭示水肥一体化灌溉过程中肥沙对微孔陶瓷灌水器堵塞的影响和机理,研究了肥沙(质量浓度为3%的尿素和浓度为2 g/L的泥沙)和肥水(质量浓度为3%的尿素)对微孔陶瓷灌水器堵塞的影响,并利用XRD分析灌水器内沉积物的成分。结果表明:以平均相对流量的75%作为堵塞的评判标准,肥沙耦合条件下,在灌溉200 h以后,微孔陶瓷灌水器会发生严重堵塞。肥水灌溉条件下不会发生严重堵塞,泥沙颗粒会在微孔陶瓷灌水器内壁逐渐形成一层泥沙膜,泥沙膜的主要成分为SiO2、碳酸钙和硅酸钙,在灌溉过程中逐渐沉积在微孔陶瓷灌水器的内壁,并不会进入微孔陶瓷灌水器的微孔中。泥沙膜的形成是引起微孔陶瓷灌水器发生堵塞的主要原因。 展开更多
关键词 微孔陶瓷灌水器 堵塞 肥水 肥沙 流量
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Effects of Sowing Time,Density and Fertilizer Application on the Economic Characters of Zhuoyou 058 预览
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作者 Hua WANG Fuwen KE +1 位作者 Hailin WANG Yao ZHAO 《农业生物技术:英文版》 CAS 2019年第3期54-56,63共4页
In order to study the high-yield cultivation techniques of Zhuoyou 058,the single-factor test design method was applied to study the effects of sowing time,density,and fertilizer application on plant traits,yield trai... In order to study the high-yield cultivation techniques of Zhuoyou 058,the single-factor test design method was applied to study the effects of sowing time,density,and fertilizer application on plant traits,yield traits and yield.The results showed that with the delay of sowing,the plant height and the first branch height decreased,the whole growth period was shortened,and the yield was the highest at 197.50 kg/666.7 m^2 in the treatment of sowing on October 1,so the most suitable sowing date should be before October 9.With the increase of the planting density,the plant height and the first branch height increased,the yield traits decreased significantly,and lodging occurred.The yield per unit area was the highest at 201.44 kg/666.7 m^2 under the density of 12 000 plants/666.7 m^2,and the lowest at 155.47 kg/666.7 m^2 under the density of 6 000 plants/666.7 m^2.Therefore,the best density was 9 000-15 000 plants/666.7 m^2.As the fertilizing amount increased,the plant height,the first branch height,the number of effective branches and the number of effect pods all increased,and the yield was the highest at 194.93 kg/666.7 m^2 under the fertilizing amount of 50 kg/666.7 m^2,and the lowest at 135.16 kg/666.7 m^2 under the fertilizing amount of 30 kg/666.7 m^2.The gross profit was the highest at 854.20 yuan/666.7 m^2 under the density of 12 000 plants/666.7 m^2,and the second highest at 836.65 yuan/666.7 m^2 under the fertilizing amount of 50 kg/666.7 m^2.The best fertilizing amount should be 40-50 kg/666.7 m^2 in cultivation. 展开更多
关键词 Zhuoyou 058 SOWING TIME DENSITY FERTILIZER YIELD
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八步区水稻秸杆还田化肥减量增效研究初报 预览
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作者 陈华明 《现代农业研究》 2019年第8期54-56,共3页
为实现化肥使用量零增长,八步区逐年控制主要农作物化肥使用量,发展绿肥种植,推广秸杆还田技术,增施有机肥,普及测土配方施肥技术,开展集成推广化肥减量增效技术,八步区2018年7月-12月进行了水稻秸杆还田化肥减量增效试验研究。结果表明... 为实现化肥使用量零增长,八步区逐年控制主要农作物化肥使用量,发展绿肥种植,推广秸杆还田技术,增施有机肥,普及测土配方施肥技术,开展集成推广化肥减量增效技术,八步区2018年7月-12月进行了水稻秸杆还田化肥减量增效试验研究。结果表明:水稻秸杆还田,能提高产量,再结合减少化肥使用量,水稻产量最高,效益最好。处理3在植株性状表现、产量、效益等方面均表现最好,因此初步推荐处理3的化肥用量为八步区水稻生产化肥的最使佳用量。 展开更多
关键词 水稻 秸杆还田 化肥 减量增效 产量
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Carbon cycle in response to residue management and fertilizer application in a cotton field in arid Northwest China 预览
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作者 ZHANG Peng-peng XU Shou-zhen +3 位作者 ZHANG Guo-juan PU Xiao-zhen WANG Jin ZHANG Wang-feng 《农业科学学报:英文版》 SCIE CAS CSCD 2019年第5期1103-1119,共17页
Understanding the influence of farming practices on carbon(C) cycling is important for maintaining soil quality and mitigating climate change, especially in arid regions where soil infertility, water deficiency, and c... Understanding the influence of farming practices on carbon(C) cycling is important for maintaining soil quality and mitigating climate change, especially in arid regions where soil infertility, water deficiency, and climate change had significantly influenced on agroecosystem. A field experiment was set up in 2009 to examine the influence of residue management and fertilizer application on the C cycle in a cotton field in the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region of Northwest China. The study included two residue management practices(residue incorporation(S) and residue removal(NS)) and four fertilizer treatments(no fertilizer(CK), organic manure(OM), chemical fertilizer(NPK), chemical fertilizer plus organic manure(NPK+OM)). Soil organic carbon(SOC) and some of its labile fractions, soil CO2 flux, and canopy apparent photosynthesis were measured during the cotton growing seasons in 2015 and 2016. The results showed that SOC, labile SOC fractions, canopy apparent photosynthesis, and soil CO2 emission were significantly greater in S+NPK+OM(residue incorporation+chemical fertilizer) than in the other treatments. Analysis of all data showed that canopy apparent photosynthesis and soil CO2 emission increased as SOC increased. The S+OM(residue incorporation+organic manure) and S+NPK+OM treatments were greater for soil C sequestration, whereas the other treatments resulted in soil C loss. The S+NPK treatment is currently the standard management practice in Xinjiang. The results of this study indicate that S+NPK cannot offset soil C losses due to organic matter decomposition and autotrophic respiration. Residue return combined with NPK fertilizer and organic manure application is the preferred strategy in arid regions for increasing soil C sequestration. 展开更多
关键词 residue fertilizer SOC pool CANOPY apparent PHOTOSYNTHESIS SOIL RESPIRATION SOIL C balance
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Impacts of Bioinoculants Pseudomonas jesenii MP1 and Rhodococcus qingshengii S10107 on Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) Yield and Soil Nitrogen St at us
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作者 Divya JOSHI Ramesh CHANDRA +2 位作者 Deep Chandra SUYAL Saurabh KUMAR Reeta GOEL 《土壤圈:英文版》 SCIE CAS CSCD 2019年第3期388-399,共12页
Cold-adapted bioinoculants are considered as harbingers of sustainable hill agriculture. Therefore, two previously characterized psychrotolerant diazotrophs, Pseudomonas jesenii MP1 and Rhodococcus qingshengii S10107,... Cold-adapted bioinoculants are considered as harbingers of sustainable hill agriculture. Therefore, two previously characterized psychrotolerant diazotrophs, Pseudomonas jesenii MP1 and Rhodococcus qingshengii S10107, were evaluated for their plant growthpromoting potential for chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) grown under natural field conditions. Comparative analysis of agronomical and biochemical crop parameters revealed the irrelevance of chemical fertilizers for chickpea production;the diazotrophs alone were sufficient to fulfil the crop's nutritional requirement. However, the integrated use of bacterial strains in combination with urea at 20 kg N ha^-1 as urea was being recommended for higher crop yield and better soil nitrogen status. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE)-based soil bacterial dynamics unveiled the persistence of both diazotrophs until the end of the crop maturation period without affecting the native micro-flora. Therefore, these bioinoculants can be explored as natural nitrogen resource, and an additional incentive in their bio-formulation will be a step towards agricultural sustainability. 展开更多
关键词 agricultural sustainability denaturing gradient gel ELECTROPHORESIS (DGGE) HILL agriculture psychrotolerance N fertilizer N fixation N uptake quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR)
施用有机-无机复混肥对桑树根际土壤细菌与根系内生细菌多样性的影响
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作者 王帅帅 林刚云 +2 位作者 黄小丹 杨尚东 屈达才 《蚕业科学》 CAS CSCD 北大核心 2019年第4期494-500,共7页
基于Illumina MiSeq高通量测序技术,分析施用有机-无机复混肥对桑树根际土壤细菌与根系内生细菌多样性的影响,为进一步调节土壤细菌结构提供参考依据。结果表明,与单施复合肥相比,施用有机-无机复混肥可提高桑树根际土壤细菌与根系内生... 基于Illumina MiSeq高通量测序技术,分析施用有机-无机复混肥对桑树根际土壤细菌与根系内生细菌多样性的影响,为进一步调节土壤细菌结构提供参考依据。结果表明,与单施复合肥相比,施用有机-无机复混肥可提高桑树根际土壤细菌与根系内生细菌的丰富度、多样性和均匀度;虽然单施复合肥与有机-无机复混肥处理在科、属水平上细菌群落结构具有很高的相似性,但有机-无机复混肥处理中特有的菌群更为多样,表明有机-无机复混肥处理更有利于提高桑树根际土壤和内生细菌群落的组成。在属分类水平上,分枝杆菌属(Mycobacterium)、酸化菌属(Acidibacter)、慢生根瘤菌属(Bradyrhizobium)、热酸菌属(Acidothermus)、马杜拉放线菌属(Actinomadura)、红孢子丝菌属(Thermosporothrix)、胸腺杆菌属(Steroidobacter)、放线短链孢菌属(Actinocatenispora)、Haliangium和根瘤菌属(Rhizobium)是2种肥料处理条件下桑树根际土壤细菌的优势菌属,泛菌属(Pantoea)、赖氏菌属(Leifsonia)、肠杆菌属(Enterobacter)、黄杆菌属(Xanthomonas)、芽孢杆菌属(Bacillus)、类芽孢杆菌属(Paenibacillus)、草螺菌属(Herbaspirillum)、假节杆菌属(Pseudarthrobacter)、短小杆菌属(Curtobacterium)和假单胞菌属(Pseudomonas)是2种肥料处理条件下根系内生细菌的优势菌属,但有机-无机复混肥处理桑树根际土壤细菌和根系内生细菌优势菌属的比例与组成比单一的化肥处理更为多样与均衡。综上所述,有机-无机复混肥处理不仅具有提高桑树根际土壤细菌以及桑树根系内生细菌丰富度、均匀度和多样性的效果,而且改变了桑树根际土壤与根系内生细菌的群落组成。 展开更多
关键词 肥料 桑树 高通量测序 根际 细菌
沟灌肥液入渗硝态氮运移特性数值模拟及影响因素分析 预览
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作者 聂坤堃 聂卫波 白清俊 《农业工程学报》 EI CAS CSCD 北大核心 2019年第17期128-139,共12页
为探明沟灌肥液(硝酸钾,KNO3)入渗特性,选取杨凌区砂壤土和黏壤土作为供试土壤,以室内试验资料为基础,对不同肥液浓度条件下的土壤水力特性参数与溶质运移参数进行了反演,并模拟分析了不同因素对沟灌肥液入渗过程中硝态氮(NO3^--N)的运... 为探明沟灌肥液(硝酸钾,KNO3)入渗特性,选取杨凌区砂壤土和黏壤土作为供试土壤,以室内试验资料为基础,对不同肥液浓度条件下的土壤水力特性参数与溶质运移参数进行了反演,并模拟分析了不同因素对沟灌肥液入渗过程中硝态氮(NO3^--N)的运移规律。结果表明:肥液浓度变化对土壤水力特性参数有一定的影响,其中土壤饱和含水率θs、形状系数n、饱和导水率Ks随肥液浓度的增大呈增加趋势,但进气吸力倒数a值则呈现减小趋势;采用反演所得参数对沟灌肥液入渗过程进行了模拟,其中不同位置处土壤水分和NO3^--N模拟值与实测值相对误差绝对值均值最高分别为6.52%和11.49%,说明反演所得土壤水力特性参数和溶质运移参数是可靠的;土壤初始含水率和肥液浓度对NO3^--N分布的影响较显著,其中NO3^--N分布范围随着土壤初始含水率和肥液浓度的增大而增大;沟中水深和沟底宽对NO3^--N竖直向分布影响较小,但对水平向分布影响较大,其水平向分布范围随着沟中水深和沟底宽的增大而增大。研究结果可为农田沟灌施肥系统的设计与管理提供理论依据。 展开更多
关键词 肥料 灌溉 入渗 数值反演 溶质运移
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短季棉新品种德0720生长环境优化研究 预览
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作者 李凤瑞 史加亮 +4 位作者 董灵艳 张东楼 赵文超 李子双 杨秀凤 《核农学报》 CAS CSCD 北大核心 2019年第2期355-362,共8页
为探究密度、肥料和化控共同作用对短季棉新品种德0720个体发育、冠层结构及产量品质的影响,本研究于2014-2015年进行大田试验,采用五因素四二二二二水平正交试验设计,共设置8个处理(T1~T8),研究不同密度、肥料和化控水平下,德0720个体... 为探究密度、肥料和化控共同作用对短季棉新品种德0720个体发育、冠层结构及产量品质的影响,本研究于2014-2015年进行大田试验,采用五因素四二二二二水平正交试验设计,共设置8个处理(T1~T8),研究不同密度、肥料和化控水平下,德0720个体发育、冠层结构的动态变化及相关性状。结果表明,不同处理下德0720的株高均表现出相同的动态变化规律,从见蕾期到盛花期增长迅速,盛花期(7月30日)打顶后基本停止生长,从盛花期到吐絮期,株高随着密度增大而增加,随着化控量增大而降低;茎粗从见蕾期到盛花期迅速增粗,盛花期(7月30日)打顶后增速减慢,盛铃期(8月15日)后逐渐趋于稳定,随着生育进程的推进,茎粗随着密度的增大而减小;叶面积指数(LAI)从盛蕾期至盛铃期持续增长,盛铃期后明显下降;底层透光率表现出与叶面积指数相反的变化规律,以盛铃期底层透光率为4.8%时产量最高;德0720霜前皮棉产量结果2014年依次表现为T6>T2>T3>T7>T8>T4>T5>T1,2015年表现为T6>T7>T3>T8>T4>T1>T5,其中T6和T2极显著高于其它处理,通过偏最小二乘回归建模对2年产量结果进行分析,T6为最佳处理组合,2014年霜前皮棉产量达到1 776.0 kg·hm^-2,2015年霜前皮棉产量达到1 470.0 kg·hm^-2;不同处理下德0720的纤维品质差异不显著。本研究结果为充分发挥短季棉新品种德0720增产潜力和科学开发利用该品种提供了理论依据。 展开更多
关键词 密度 肥料 化控 冠层结构 产量
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