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Broiler gut microbiota and expressions of gut barrier genes affected by cereal type and phytogenic inclusion
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作者 Vasileios Paraskeuas Konstantinos C.Mountzouris 《动物营养:英文版》 2019年第1期22-31,共10页
The present study assessed the effects of cereal type and the inclusion level of a phytogenic feed additive(PFA) on broiler ileal and cecal gut microbiota composition, volatile fatty acids(VFA) and gene expression of ... The present study assessed the effects of cereal type and the inclusion level of a phytogenic feed additive(PFA) on broiler ileal and cecal gut microbiota composition, volatile fatty acids(VFA) and gene expression of toll like receptors(TLR), tight junction proteins, mucin 2(MUC2) and secretory immunoglobulin A(sIgA). Depending on cereal type(i.e. maize or wheat) and PFA inclusion level(i.e. 0, 100 and 150 mg/kg diet), 450 one-day-old male broilers were allocated in 6 treatments according to a 2 × 3 factorial arrangement with 5 replicates of 15 broilers each, for 42 d. Significant interactions(P 0.05) between cereal type and PFA were shown for cecal digesta Bacteroides and Clostridium cluster XIVa, ileal digesta propionic and branched VFA, ileal s IgA gene expression, as well as cecal digesta branched and other VFA molar ratios. Cereal type affected the cecal microbiota composition. In particular, wheat-fed broilers had higher levels of mucosa-associated Lactobacillus(PCT= 0.007) and digesta Bifidobacterium(PCT< 0.001),as well as lower levels of total bacteria(PCT= 0.004) and Clostridia clusters I, IV and XIVa(PCT 0.05),compared with maize-fed ones. In addition, cereal type gave differences in fermentation intensity(PCT= 0.021) and in certain individual VFA molar ratios. Wheat-fed broilers had higher(P 0.05) ileal zonula occluden 2(ZO-2) and lower ileal and cecal TLR2 and sIgA levels, compared with maize-fed broilers. On the other hand, PFA inclusion at 150 mg/kg had a stimulating effect on microbial fermentation at ileum and a retarding effect in ceca with additional variable VFA molar patterns. In addition, PFA inclusion at 100 mg/kg increased the ileal mucosa expression of claudin 5(CLDN5)(PPFA= 0.023) and MUC2(PPFA= 0.001) genes, and at 150 mg/kg decreased cecal TLR2(PPFA= 0.022) gene expression compared with the un-supplemented controls. In conclusion, cereal type and PFA affected in combination and independently broiler gut microbiota composition and metabolic activity as well as the expression of critical 展开更多
关键词 Maize Wheat Phytogenics GUT MICROBIOTA TOLL like receptors GUT BARRIER
Correlation of Gut Microbiome Between ASD Children and Mothers and Potential Biomarkers for Risk Assessment
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作者 Ning Li Junjie Yang +14 位作者 Jiaming Zhang Cheng Liang Ying Wang Bin Chen Changying Zhao Jingwen Wang Guangye Zhang Dongmei Zhao Yi Liu Lehai Zhang Jun Yang Guimei Li Zhongtao Gai Lei Zhang Guoping Zhao 《基因组蛋白质组与生物信息学报:英文版》 CAS CSCD 2019年第1期26-38,共13页
Variation of maternal gut microbiota may increase the risk of autism spectrum disorders(ASDs)in offspring.Animal studies have indicated that maternal gut microbiota is related to neurodevelopmental abnormalities in mo... Variation of maternal gut microbiota may increase the risk of autism spectrum disorders(ASDs)in offspring.Animal studies have indicated that maternal gut microbiota is related to neurodevelopmental abnormalities in mouse offspring,while it is unclear whether there is a correlation between gut microbiota of ASD children and their mothers.We examined the relationships between gut microbiome profiles of ASD children and those of their mothers,and evaluated the clinical discriminatory power of discovered bacterial biomarkers.Gut microbiome was profiled and evaluated by 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequencing in stool samples of 59 mother-child pairs of ASD children and 30 matched mother-child pairs of healthy children.Significant differences were observed in the gut microbiome composition between ASD and healthy children in our Chinese cohort.Several unique bacterial biomarkers,such as Alcaligenaceae and Acinetobacter,were identified.Mothers of ASD children had more Proteobacteria,Alphaproteobacteria,Moraxellaceae,and Acinetobacter than mothers of healthy children.There was a clear correlation between gut microbiome profiles of children and their mothers;however,children with ASD still had unique bacterial biomarkers,such as Alcaligenaceae,Enterobacteriaceae,and Clostridium.Candidate biomarkers discovered in this study had remarkable discriminatory power.The identified patterns of mother-child gut microbiome profiles may be important for assessing risks during the early stage and planning of person?alized treatment and prevention of ASD via microbiota modulation. 展开更多
关键词 AUTISM spectrum DISORDERS GUT MICROBIOME Biomarker Mother-child pair Microbiota-gut-immunebrain axis
Roles of short-chain fatty acids in kidney diseases
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作者 Ling-Zhi Li Si-Bei Tao +1 位作者 Liang Ma Ping Fu 《中华医学杂志:英文版》 SCIE CAS CSCD 2019年第10期1228-1232,共5页
Objective: In kidney diseases, uncontrolled blood pressure, inflammation, oxidative stress, imbalanced immunity response, metabolic dysfunction were associated with the progressive deterioration of renal function. Sho... Objective: In kidney diseases, uncontrolled blood pressure, inflammation, oxidative stress, imbalanced immunity response, metabolic dysfunction were associated with the progressive deterioration of renal function. Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), as a group of metabolites fermented by gut microbiota exerted regulatory effects on kidney diseases through their activation of transmembrane G protein-coupled receptors and their inhibition of histone acetylation. In this review article, we updated recent research advances that provided an opportunity to explore our understanding in physiology and function of SCFAs in kidney disease. Data sources: We performed a comprehensive search in both PubMed and Embase using short-chain fatty acids55 and "kidney" with no restrictions on publication date. Study selection: After reading through the title and abstract for early screening, the full text of relevant studies was identified and reviewed to summarize the roles of SCFAs in kidney diseases. Results: Though controversial, growing evidence suggested SCFAs appeared to have a complex but yet poorly understood communications with cellular and molecular processes that affected kidney function and responses to injury. From recent studies, SCFAs influenced multiple aspects of renal physiology including inflammation and immunity, fibrosis, blood pressure, and energy metabolism. Conclusions: The roles of intestinal SCFAs in kidney diseases were exciting regions in recent years;however, clinical trials and animal experiments in kidney diseases were still lacked. Thus, more research would be needed to obtain better understanding of SCFAs' potential effects in kidney diseases. 展开更多
关键词 GUT MICROBIOME Short-chain FATTY acid KIDNEY disease Gut-kidney AXIS
An insoluble polysaccharide from the sclerotium of Poria cocos improves hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia and hepatic steatosis in ob/ob mice via modulation of gut microbiota
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作者 SUN Shan-Shan WANG Kai +2 位作者 MA Ke BAO Li LIU Hong-Wei 《中国天然药物:英文版》 SCIE CAS CSCD 2019年第1期3-14,共12页
Metabolic syndrome characterized by obesity, hyperglycemia and liver steatosis is becoming prevalent all over the world. Herein, a water insoluble polysaccharide(WIP) was isolated and identified from the sclerotium of... Metabolic syndrome characterized by obesity, hyperglycemia and liver steatosis is becoming prevalent all over the world. Herein, a water insoluble polysaccharide(WIP) was isolated and identified from the sclerotium of Poria cocos, a widely used Traditional Chinese Medicine. WIP was confirmed to be a(1-3)-β-D-glucan with an average Mw of 4.486 × 10~6 Da by NMR and SEC-RI-MALLS analyses. Furthermore, oral treatment with WIP from P. cocos significantly improved glucose and lipid metabolism and alleviated hepatic steatosis in ob/ob mice. 16 S DNA sequencing analysis of cecum content from WIP-treated mice indicated the increase of butyrate-producing bacteria Lachnospiracea, Clostridium. It was also observed that WIP treatment elevated the level of butyrate in gut, improved the gut mucosal integrity and activated the intestinal PPAR-γ pathway. Fecal transplantation experiments definitely confirmed the causative role of gut microbiota in mediating the benefits of WIP. It is the first report that the water insoluble polysaccharide from the sclerotium of P. cocos modulates gut microbiota to improve hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia. Thereby, WIP from P. cocos, as a prebiotic, has the potential for the prevention or cure of metabolic diseases and may elucidate new mechanism for the efficacies of this traditional herbal medicine on the regulation of lipid and glucose metabolism. 展开更多
关键词 Poria COCOS Water insoluble polysaccharide Metabolic syndrome PREBIOTICS Gut MICROBIOTA
Growth performance, gastrointestinal weight, microbial metabolites and apparent retention of components in broiler chickens fed up to 11% rice bran in a corn-soybean meal diet without or with a multi-enzyme supplement
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作者 Juan Sanchez Aizwarya Thanabalan +3 位作者 Tanka Khanal Rob Patterson Bogdan A.Slominski Elijah Kiarie 《动物营养:英文版》 2019年第1期41-48,共8页
We investigated the effects of adding up to 11% rice bran(RB) in corn-soybean meal diets fed to broiler chickens without or with a multi-enzyme supplement(MES). The MES supplied xylanase, b-glucanase invertase, protea... We investigated the effects of adding up to 11% rice bran(RB) in corn-soybean meal diets fed to broiler chickens without or with a multi-enzyme supplement(MES). The MES supplied xylanase, b-glucanase invertase, protease, cellulase, a-amylase and mannanase with targeted activity of 2,500, 300, 700, 10,0001,200, 24,000, and 20 U/kg of feed, respectively. The study used a two-phase feeding program(starter d 0 to 24;finisher, d 25 to 35) with RB added at 5% and 11%, respectively creating 4 diets in each phase Diets were iso-caloric and iso-nitrogenous and contained phytase(500 FTU/kg) and TiO2 as a digestibility marker. Three hundred and sixty d-old male Ross 708 broiler chicks were placed in cages based on BW(15 birds/cage) and allocated to 4 diets(n = 6). Birds had free access to feed and water. Body weight and feed intake were recorded. Excreta samples were collected 3 d prior to the end of each phase for apparent retention(AR) of components. Samples of birds were sacrificed on d 24 and 35 for gut weight and ceca digesta for organic acid content. There was no interaction(P > 0.10) between RB and MES on BWG and FCR in starter or finisher phase. In finisher phase, birds fed MES had better BWG(961 versus 858 g) and FCR(1.69 versus 1.86) than birds fed non-MES diets(P < 0.01). Feeding RB reduced(P = 0.02) BWG in finisher phase resulting in lower d 35 BW. Birds fed RB had higher(P 0.01) gizzard weight on d 24 and 35 than non-RB birds. An interaction(P 0.01) between RB and MES on concentrations of propionic and iso-butyric acids in ceca digesta showed that MES reduced these acids in non-RB diet. The AR of gross energy was higher(P < 0.02) for MES versus non-MES birds in starter and finisher phases. In conclusion independently, RB increased gizzard weight and reduced final BW whereas MES improved growth and energy utilization. 展开更多
关键词 BROILER chickens Growth performance Gut WEIGHT Microbial activity Multi-enzyme SUPPLEMENT Rice BRAN
Antibiotic Treatment Drives the Diversification of the Human Gut Resistome
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作者 Jun Li Elizabeth A.Rettedal +3 位作者 Eric van der Helm Mostafa Ellabaan Gianni Panagiotou Morten O.A. Sommer 《基因组蛋白质组与生物信息学报:英文版》 CAS CSCD 2019年第1期39-51,共13页
Despite the documented antibiotic-induced disruption of the gut microbiota,the impact of antibiotic intake on strain-level dynamics,evolution of resistance genes,and factors influencing resistance dissemination potent... Despite the documented antibiotic-induced disruption of the gut microbiota,the impact of antibiotic intake on strain-level dynamics,evolution of resistance genes,and factors influencing resistance dissemination potential remains poorly understood.To address this gap we analyzed public metagenomic datasets from 24 antibiotic treated subjects and controls,combined with an in-depth prospective functional study with two subjects investigating the bacterial community dynamics based on cultivation-dependent and independent methods.We observed that shortterm antibiotic treatment shifted and diversified the resistome composition,increased the average copy number of antibiotic resistance genes,and altered the dominant strain genotypes in an individual-specific manner.More than 30%of the resistance genes underwent strong differentiation at the single nucleotide level during antibiotic treatment.We found that the increased potential for horizontal gene transfer,due to antibiotic administration,was-3-fold stronger in the differentiated resistance genes than the non-differentiated ones.This study highlights how antibiotic treatment has individualized impacts on the resistome and strain level composition,and drives the adaptive evolution of the gut microbiota. 展开更多
关键词 ANTIBIOTICS Resistome GUT MICROBIOME Strain Evolution HORIZONTAL gene transfer
Inulin Can Alleviate Metabolism Disorders in ob/ob Mice by Partially Restoring Leptin-related Pathways Mediated by Gut Microbiota
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作者 Xiaofeng Song Liang Zhong +9 位作者 Na Lyu Fei Liu Boxing Li Yanan Hao Yong Xue Jing Li Yuqing Feng Yue Ma Yongfei Hu Baoli Zhu 《基因组蛋白质组与生物信息学报:英文版》 CAS CSCD 2019年第1期64-75,共12页
Inulin has been used as a prebiotic to alleviate glucose and lipid metabolism disorders in mice and humans by modulating the gut microbiota.However,the mechanism underlying the alleviation of metabolic disorders by in... Inulin has been used as a prebiotic to alleviate glucose and lipid metabolism disorders in mice and humans by modulating the gut microbiota.However,the mechanism underlying the alleviation of metabolic disorders by inulin through interactions between the gut microbiota and host cells is unclear.We use ob/ob mice as a model to study the effect of inulin on the cecal microbiota by 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing and its interaction with host cells by transcriptomics.The inulin-supplemented diet improved glucose and lipid metabolism disorder parameters in ob/ob mice,alleviating fat accumulation and glucose intolerance.The a diversity of gut microbial community of oblob mice was reduced after inulin treatment,while the p diversity tended to return to the level of wild type mice.Interestingly,Prevotellaceae UCG 001(family Prevotellaceae)was obviously enriched after inulin treatment.A comparative analysis of the gene expression profile showed that the cecal transcriptome was changed in leptin gene deficiency mice,whereas the inulin-supplemented diet partially reversed the changes in leptin gene-related signaling pathways,especially AMPK signaling pathway,where the levels of gene expression became comparable to those in wild type mice.Further analysis indicated that Prevotellaceae UCG 001 was positively correlated with the AMPK signaling pathway,which was negatively correlated with markers of glycolipid metabolism disorders.Our results suggest that the inulin-supplemented diet alleviates glucose and lipid metabolism disorders by partially restoring leptin related pathways mediated by gut microbiota. 展开更多
关键词 PREBIOTICS Gut MICROBIOTA Obesity TRANSCRIPTOME Metabolic DISORDERS
How Microbes Shape Their Communities? A Microbial Community Model Based on Functional Genes
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作者 Xiaoqing Jiang Xin Li +4 位作者 Longshu Yang Chunhong Liu Qi Wang Weilai Chi Huaiqiu Zhu 《基因组蛋白质组与生物信息学报:英文版》 CAS CSCD 2019年第1期91-105,共15页
Exploring the mechanisms of maintaining microbial community structure is important to understand biofilm development or microbiota dysbiosis.In this paper,we propose a functional gene-based composition prediction(FCP)... Exploring the mechanisms of maintaining microbial community structure is important to understand biofilm development or microbiota dysbiosis.In this paper,we propose a functional gene-based composition prediction(FCP)model to predict the population structure composition within a microbial community.The model predicts the community composition well in both a low-complexity community as acid mine drainage(AMD)microbiota,and a complex community as human gut microbiota.Furthermore,we define community structure shaping(CSS)genes as functional genes crucial for shaping the microbial community.We have identified CSS genes in AMD and human gut microbiota samples with FCP model and find that CSS genes change with the conditions.Compared to essential genes for microbes,CSS genes are significantly enriched in the genes involved in mobile genetic elements,cell motility,and defense mechanisms,indicating that the functions of CSS genes are focused on communication and strategies in response to the environment factors.We further find that it is the minority,rather than the majority,which contributes to maintaining community structure.Compared to health control samples,we find that some functional genes associated with metabolism of amino acids,nucleotides,and lipopolysaccharide are more likely to be CSS genes in the disease group.CSS genes may help us to understand critical cellular processes and be useful in seeking addable gene circuitries to maintain artificial self^sustainable communities.Our study suggests that functional genes are important to the assembly of microbial communities. 展开更多
关键词 METAGENOMICS Dynamics MODEL Community structure Acid mine drainage Human GUT MICROBIOTA
Stereotypes About Entero type:the Old and New Ideas
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作者 Mingyue Cheng Kang Ning 《基因组蛋白质组与生物信息学报:英文版》 CAS CSCD 2019年第1期4-12,共9页
In 2011,the term"enterotype”first appeared to the general public in Nature,which refers to stratification of human gut microbiota.However,with more studies on enterotypes conducted nowadays,doubts about the exis... In 2011,the term"enterotype”first appeared to the general public in Nature,which refers to stratification of human gut microbiota.However,with more studies on enterotypes conducted nowadays,doubts about the existence and robustness of enterotypes have also emerged.Here we reviewed current opinions about enterotypes from both conceptual and analytical points of view.We firstly illustrated the definition of the enterotype and various factors influencing enterotypes,such as diet,administration of antibiotics,and age.Then we summarized lines of evidence that pose the concept against the enterotype,and described the current methods for enterotype analysis.Finally,we showed that the concept of enterotype has been extended to other ecological niches.Based on current studies on enterotypes,it has been clear that more studies with larger sample sizes are needed to characterize the enterotypes.Improved computational methods are also required to build sophisticated models,reflecting the dynamics and resilience of enterotypes. 展开更多
关键词 Enterotype GUT MICROBIOME BIOMARKER CONTINUITY COMPUTATIONAL methods
Linkage of microbiota and osteoporosis:A mini literature review 预览
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作者 David Yatsonsky II Karen Pan +2 位作者 Vithal B Shendge Jiayong Liu Nabil A Ebraheim 《世界骨科杂志(英文版)》 2019年第3期123-127,共5页
The gut microbiota(GM)has become a recent topic of interest in the role of many disease states.Assessing patients with osteoporosis(OP),there is a strong correlation between gut microbe dysregulation and decreased bon... The gut microbiota(GM)has become a recent topic of interest in the role of many disease states.Assessing patients with osteoporosis(OP),there is a strong correlation between gut microbe dysregulation and decreased bone density.Gut dysbiosis may lead to inflammation,dysregulation of nutrient and calcium transport across the intestine into circulation and systemic inflammation.Investigation of microbial profile relative to normal gut microbiomes,assessment of inflammatory markers such as interleukin-1(IL-1),IL-6,and tumor necrosis factor-alpha.Therapies to normalize GM in patients with OP or prevent occurrence of OP to be investigated include:High fiber prebiotic diets to promote growth of normal gut bacteria and short chain fatty acid production,Probiotics to encourage growth of normal gut microbes, and antibiotic treatment followed byfecal matter transplant. 展开更多
关键词 OSTEOPOROSIS MICROBIOTA LINKAGE BONE density GUT MICROBIOTA
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Recent advances in fermented feeds towards improved broiler chicken performance, gastrointestinal tract microecology and immune responses: A review
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作者 Sugiharto Sugiharto Samir Ranjitkar 《动物营养:英文版》 2019年第1期1-10,共10页
Previously, fermentation has been associated with methods that improve the nutritional value of unconventional feed ingredients for broilers. In recent decades, the fermentation process has been employed to produce fu... Previously, fermentation has been associated with methods that improve the nutritional value of unconventional feed ingredients for broilers. In recent decades, the fermentation process has been employed to produce functional feeds that have the potential to improve broiler gastrointestinal tract microecology, health and production performance. Some of the functional ingredients found in fermented feed include lactic acid bacteria(LAB), lactic acid and other organic acids, and appear to play major roles in determining the beneficial effects of fermented feed on broiler gut health and performance. Unlike the pig, the available literature on broiler fermented feed is still rather limited. This review describes recent advances in the use of fermented feed(on the basis of conventional and unconventional feed ingredients) in broilers. Similarly, this review also shows that additional research is necessary to exploit fermented feed as a viable food source in broiler nutrition. 展开更多
关键词 BROILER FERMENTED feed Growth PERFORMANCE GUT health Immunity
Metagenomic comparison of the rectal microbiota between rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta),and cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis)
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作者 Yan-Fang Cui Feng-Jie Wang +2 位作者 Lei Yu Hua-Hu Ye Gui-Bo Yang 《动物学研究》 CAS CSCD 2019年第2期89-93,共5页
Rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta)and cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis)are frequently used in establishing animal models for human diseases.To determine the differences in.gut microbiota between these species,re... Rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta)and cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis)are frequently used in establishing animal models for human diseases.To determine the differences in.gut microbiota between these species,rectal swabs from 20 rhesus macaques and 21 cynomolgus macaques were collected,and the microbial composition was examined by deep sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene.We found that the rectal microbiota of cynomolgus macaques exhibited significantly higher alpha diversity than that of rhesus macaques,although the observed number of operational taxonomic units (OTUs)was almost the same.The dominant taxa at both the phylum and genus levels were similar between the two species,although the relative abundances of these dominant taxa were significantly different between them.Phylogenetic Investigation of Communities by Reconstruction of Unobserved States (PICRUSt)showed significant differences in the functional components between the microbiota of the two species,in particular the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)synthesis proteins.The above data indicated significant differences-in microbial composition and function between these two closely related macaque species,which should be taken into consideration in the future selection of these animals for disease models. 展开更多
关键词 RHESUS MACAQUES CYNOMOLGUS MACAQUES Gut MICROBIOTA Next generation sequencing
Alterations of the Gut Microbiota Associated with Oral and Esophageal Carcinogenesis in Mice 预览
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作者 Lan Huang Bo Tang Yu JiaZheng 《肿瘤营养学杂志(英文)》 2019年第1期40-46,共7页
The gut microbiota plays an essential role in intestinal homeostasis. Recent studies indicated that dysbiosis of the gut microbiome may contribute to the development of many disorders, including colon cancer. However,... The gut microbiota plays an essential role in intestinal homeostasis. Recent studies indicated that dysbiosis of the gut microbiome may contribute to the development of many disorders, including colon cancer. However, little is known about the profile of microbial populations during upper gastrointestinal carcinogenesis. In this study, a chemical mutagen, 4-nitroquinoline-1-oxide (4NQO), was used to induce oral and esophageal carcinoma in eight-week old male C57BL/6 mice through their drinking water. The changes in the gut microbiota during oral and esophageal carcinogenesis were investigated through 16S sequencing of DNA extracted from fecal samples. Histological analyses of tissue sections demonstrated various stages of lesions in the tongue and esophagus of mice after 4NQO treatment. There was no significant difference in the diversity of gut microbiota between the 4NQO group and the control group. However, the bacterial composition of gut microbiota was significantly different in the 4NQO group compared with the control group. In conclusion, the current murine model suggests that the gut microbiota may be involved in the occurrence of chemically-induced squamous cell carcinoma in the tongue and esophagus. A better understanding of the definite relationship between the microbiome and upper gastrointestinal carcinogenesis might provide potential targets for the prevention and treatment of related diseases. 展开更多
关键词 CARCINOGENESIS ESOPHAGUS GUT MICROBIOTA 4-nitroquinoline-1-oxide TONGUE
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Crosstalk between gut microbiota and antidiabetic drug action 预览
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作者 Yevheniia Kyriachenko Tetyana Falalyeyeva +2 位作者 Oleksandr Korotkyi Nataliia Molochek Nazarii Kobyliak 《世界糖尿病杂志:英文版(电子版)》 2019年第3期154-168,共15页
Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is a disorder characterized by chronic inflated blood glucose levels (hyperglycemia), at first due to insulin resistance and unregulated insulin secretion but with tendency towards global spreadi... Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is a disorder characterized by chronic inflated blood glucose levels (hyperglycemia), at first due to insulin resistance and unregulated insulin secretion but with tendency towards global spreading. The gut microbiota is recognized to have an influence on T2D, although surveys have not formed a clear overview to date. Because of the interactions between gut microbiota and host homeostasis, intestinal bacteria are believed to play a large role in various diseases, including metabolic syndrome, obesity and associated disease. In this review, we highlight the animal and human studies which have elucidated the roles of metformin,α-glucosidase inhibitors, glucagon-like peptide-1 agonists, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors γ agonists, inhibitors of dipeptidyl peptidase-4, sodium/glucose cotransporter inhibitors, and other less studied medications on gut microbiota. This review is dedicated to one of the most widespread diseases, T2D, and the currently used antidiabetic drugs and most promising new findings. In general, the gut microbiota has been shown to have an influence on host metabolism, food consumption, satiety, glucose homoeostasis, and weight gain. Altered intestinal microbiota composition has been noticed in cardiovascular diseases, colon cancer, rheumatoid arthritis, T2D, and obesity. Therefore, the main effect of antidiabetic drugs is on the microbiome composition, basically increasing the short-chain fatty acids-producing bacteria, responsible for losing weight and suppressing inflammation. 展开更多
关键词 Type 2 diabetes Gut microbiota Metformin Α-GLUCOSIDASE INHIBITORS Glucagon-like peptide-1 AGONISTS PEROXISOME proliferator-activated receptors γ AGONISTS Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 INHIBITORS Sodium/glucose COTRANSPORTER INHIBITORS
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Characteristic dysbiosis of gut microbiota of Chinese patients with diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome by an insight into the pan-microbiome
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作者 Zhe Wang Cong-Min Xu +8 位作者 Yi-Xuan Liu Xiao-Qi Wang Lu Zhang Mo Li Shi-Wei Zhu Zhong-Jie Xie Pei-Hong Wang Li-Ping Duan Huai-Qiu Zhu 《中华医学杂志:英文版》 SCIE CAS CSCD 2019年第8期889-904,共16页
Background:Irritable bowel syndrome(IBS)is reported associated with the alteration of gut microbial composition termed as dysbiosis.However,the pathogenic mechanism of IBS remains unclear,while the studies of Chinese ... Background:Irritable bowel syndrome(IBS)is reported associated with the alteration of gut microbial composition termed as dysbiosis.However,the pathogenic mechanism of IBS remains unclear,while the studies of Chinese individuals are scarce.This study aimed to understand the concept of dysbiosis among patients with Chinese diarrhea-predominant IBS(IBS-D),as a degree of variance between the gut microbiomes of IBS-D population and that of a healthy population.Methods:The patients with IBS-D were recruited(assessed according to the Rome III criteria,by IBS symptom severity score)from the Outpatient Department of Gastroenterology of Peking University Third Hosp让al,and volunteers as healthy controls(HCs)were enrolled,during 2013.The 16S rRNA sequences were extracted from fecal samples.Ribosomal database project resources,basic local alignment search tool,and SparCC software were used to obtain the phylotype composition of samples and the internal interactions of the microbial community.Herein,the non-parametric test,Wilcoxon rank-sum test was carried out to find the statistical significance between HC and IBS-D groups.All the P values were adjusted to q values to decrease the error rate.Results:The study characterized the gut microbiomes of Chinese patients with IBS-D,and demonstrated that the dysbiosis could be characterized as directed alteration of the microbiome composition leading to greater disparity between relative abundance of two phyla,Bacteroidetes(Z=4.77,q=1.59×10^-5)and Firmicutes(Z=-3.87,q=5.83×10^-4).Moreover,it indicated that the IBS symptom features were associated with the dysbiosis of whole gut microbiome,instead of one or several certain genera even they were dominating.Two genera,Bacteroides and Lachnospiracea incertae sedis,were identified as the core genera,meanwhile,the non-core genera contribute to a larger pan-microbiome of the gut microbiome.Furthermore,the dysbiosis in patients with IBS-D was associated with a reduction of network complexity of the interacted microbial community(HC us.IB 展开更多
关键词 IRRITABLE bowel syndrome GUT MICROBIOME DYSBIOSIS MICROBIAL diversity Community network COMPLEXITY
Short-term propamocarb exposure induces hepatic metabolism disorder associated with gut microbiota dysbiosis in adult male zebrafish
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作者 Rui Zhang Zihong Pan +4 位作者 Xiaoyu Wang Manlu Shen Jiajie Zhou Zhengwei Fu Yuanxiang Jin 《生物化学与生物物理学报:英文版》 SCIE CAS CSCD 2019年第1期88-96,共9页
Propamocarb (PM) is a pesticide that is widely used to protect cucumbers and other plants from downy mildew.Recently,some studies indicated that PM exposure had potential toxic effects in animals.In this study,adult m... Propamocarb (PM) is a pesticide that is widely used to protect cucumbers and other plants from downy mildew.Recently,some studies indicated that PM exposure had potential toxic effects in animals.In this study,adult male zebrafish were exposed to 100 and 1000 μg/l PM for 7 days to assess its effects on metabolism and the gut microbiota.We observed a significant decrease in triglyceride (TG) in the livers of zebrafish that were exposed to 1000 μg/l PM for 7 days.At the same time,some genes related to glycolysis and lipid metabolism in the livers of zebrafish,including hexokinase-1 (HK1),pyruvate kinase (PK),acyi-CoA oxidase (Aco),peroxisome proliferator activated receptor alpha (Ppar-α),apolipoprotein A-Ⅳ-like (Apo),Acetyl CoA carboxylase-1 (Acc1),diacylglycerol acyltransferase (Dgat),and fatty acid synthase (Fas),were also decreased significantly after PM exposure.Based on GC-MS metabolomics analysis,a total of 48 metabolites changed significantly in the 1000 μg/l PM treatment group in comparison with the control group.These altered metabolites were mainly associated with the glycolysis,amino acid metabolism,and lipid metabolism pathways.Interestingly,we further found that the 1000 μg/l PM treatment group also showed significant elevations in Proteobacteria,Bacteroidetes,and Firmicutes at the phylum level.Sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene in the V3-V4 region also showed a significant change in the abundance and diversity of the gut microbiota in the 1000 μg/l PM treatment group.Our results indicated that exposure to PM for a short time could induce hepatic metabolic disorders and gut microbiota dysbiosis in adult male zebrafish. 展开更多
关键词 PROPAMOCARB hepatic metabolism GUT MICROBIOTA ZEBRAFISH
Bariatric surgery in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease-from pathophysiology to clinical effects 预览
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作者 Tea L Laursen Christoffer A Hagemann +4 位作者 Chunshan Wei Konstantin Kazankov Karen L Thomsen Filip K Knop Henning Grφb?k 《世界肝病学杂志:英文版(电子版)》 2019年第2期138-149,共12页
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease(NAFLD)is increasingly recognized as a significant liver disease,and it covers the disease spectrum from simple steatosis with a risk of development of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis(NA... Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease(NAFLD)is increasingly recognized as a significant liver disease,and it covers the disease spectrum from simple steatosis with a risk of development of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis(NASH)to fibrosis,subsequent cirrhosis,end-stage liver failure,and liver cancer with a potential need for liver transplantation.NAFLD and NASH are closely related to obesity,metabolic syndrome,and type 2 diabetes(T2D).The role of gut hormones,especially glucagon-like peptide 1(GLP-1),is important in NAFLD.Bariatric surgery has the potential for inducing great weight loss and may improve the symptoms of metabolic syndrome and T2D.Recent data demonstrated significant effects of bariatric surgery on GLP-1 and other gut hormones and important lipid metabolic and inflammatory abnormalities in the pathophysiology of NAFLD.Therefore,bariatric surgery may reverse the pathological liver changes in NAFLD and NASH patients.In the present review,we describe NAFLD and NASH pathophysiology and the primary effects of bariatric surgery on metabolic pathways.We performed a systematic review of the beneficial and harmful effects and focused on changes in liver disease severity in NAFLD and NASH patients.The specific focus was liver histopathology as assessed by the invasive liver biopsy.Additionally,we reviewed several non-invasive methods used for the assessment of liver disease severity following bariatric surgery. 展开更多
关键词 Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis BARIATRIC surgery Insulin resistance Gut HORMONES Glucagon-like peptide 1 STEATOSIS Inflammation Fibrosis
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Intestinal toxicity of deoxynivalenol is limited by supplementation with Lactobacillus plantarum JM113 and consequentially altered gut microbiota in broiler chickens 预览
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作者 Shengru Wu Yanli Liu +5 位作者 Yongle Duan Fangyuan Wang Fangshen Guo Fang Yan Xiaojun Yang Xin Yang 《畜牧与生物技术杂志:英文版》 SCIE CAS CSCD 2019年第1期218-230,共13页
Background: Limited research has focused on the effect of Lactobacillus on the intestinal toxicity of deoxynivalenol(DON).The present study was conducted to investigate the role of Lactobacillus plantarum(L.plantarum)... Background: Limited research has focused on the effect of Lactobacillus on the intestinal toxicity of deoxynivalenol(DON).The present study was conducted to investigate the role of Lactobacillus plantarum(L.plantarum) JM113 in protecting against the intestinal toxicity caused by DON.Methods: A total of 144 one-day-old healthy Arbor Acres broilers were randomly distributed into 3 treatments,including the CON(basal diet),the DON(extra 10 mg/kg deoxynivalenol),and the DL(extra 1 × 109 CFU/kg L.plantarum JM113 based on DON group) treatments.The growth performance,organ indexes,intestinal morphology,pancreatic digestive enzymes,intestinal secreted immunoglobulin A(sIgA),jejunal transcriptome,and intestinal microbiota were evaluated.Results: Compared with the CON and DL groups,the DON supplementation altered intestinal morphology,especially in duodenum and jejunum,where villi were shorter and crypts were deeper(P < 0.05).Meanwhile,the significantly decreased mRNA expression of jejunal claudin-1 and occludin(P < 0.05),ileal rBAT and jejunal GLUT1 of 21-day-old broilers(P < 0.05),as well as duodenal PepT1 and ileal rBAT of 42-day-old broilers were identified in the DON group.Moreover,supplementation with L.plantarum JM113 could increase duodenal expression of IL-10 and IL-12 of 21-dayold broilers,ileal s IgA of 42-day-old broilers,and the bursa of Fabricius index of 21-day-old broilers.Further jejunal transcriptome proved that the genes related to the intestinal absorption and metabolism were significantly reduced in the DON group but a significant increase when supplemented with extra L.plantarum JM113.Furthermore,the bacteria related to nutrient utilization,including the Proteobacteria,Escherichia,Cc-115(P < 0.05),Lactobacillus and Prevotella(P < 0.1) were all decreased in the DON group.By contrast,supplementation with L.plantarum JM113 increased the relative abundance of beneficial bacterium,including the Bacteroidetes,Roseburia,Anaerofustis,Anaerostipe,and Ruminococcus bromi(P < 0.05).Specifically,the increased abun 展开更多
关键词 BROILER CHICKENS DEOXYNIVALENOL Gut microbiota Lactobacillus PLANTARUM JM113 mRNA SEQUENCING 16S rRNA gene SEQUENCING
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Quantification of Panax notoginseng saponins metabolites in rat plasma with in vivo gut microbiota-mediated biotransformation by HPLC-MS/MS
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作者 GUO Yin-Ping CHEN Man-Yun +4 位作者 SHAO Li ZHANG Wei RAO Tai ZHOU Hong-Hao HUANG Wei-Hua 《中国天然药物:英文版》 SCIE CAS CSCD 2019年第3期231-240,共10页
Panax notoginseng saponins (PNS) are the major components of Panax notoginseng, with multiple pharmacological activities but poor oral bioavailability. PNS could be metabolized by gut microbiota in vitro, while the ex... Panax notoginseng saponins (PNS) are the major components of Panax notoginseng, with multiple pharmacological activities but poor oral bioavailability. PNS could be metabolized by gut microbiota in vitro, while the exact role of gut microbiota of PNS metabolism in vivo remains poorly understood. In this study, pseudo germ-free rat models were constructed by using broad-spectrum antibiotics to validate the gut microbiota-mediated transformation of PNS in vivo. Moreover, a high performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS/MS) was developed for quantitative analysis of four metabolites of PNS, including ginsenoside F1 (GF1), ginsenoside Rh2 (GRh2), ginsenoside compound K (GCK) and protopanaxatriol (PPT). The results showed that the four metabolites could be detected in the control rat plasma, while they could not be determined in pseudo germ-free rat plasma. The results implied that PNS could not be biotransformed effectively when gut microbiota was disrupted. In conclusion, gut microbiota plays an important role in biotransformation of PNS into metabolites in vivo. 展开更多
关键词 PANAX notoginseng Gut MICROBIOTA HPLC-MS/MS SAPONINS GINSENOSIDE compound K Protopanaxatriol
Anti-tumor necrosis factor α therapy associates to type 17 helper T lymphocytes immunological shift and significant microbial changes in dextran sodium sulphate colitis 预览
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作者 Valentina Petito Cristina Graziani +13 位作者 Loris R Lopetuso Marco Fossati Alessandra Battaglia Vincenzo Arena Domenico Scannone Gianluca Quaranta Andrea Quagliariello Federica Del Chierico Lorenza Putignani Luca Masucci Maurizio Sanguinetti Alessandro Sgambato Antonio Gasbarrini Franco Scaldaferri 《世界胃肠病学杂志:英文版》 SCIE CAS 2019年第12期1465-1477,共13页
BACKGROUND Anti-tumor necrosis factor α(TNFα) represents the best therapeutic option to induce mucosal healing and clinical remission in patients with moderate-severe ulcerative colitis. On the other side gut microb... BACKGROUND Anti-tumor necrosis factor α(TNFα) represents the best therapeutic option to induce mucosal healing and clinical remission in patients with moderate-severe ulcerative colitis. On the other side gut microbiota plays a crucial role in pathogenesis of ulcerative colitis but few information exists on how microbiota changes following anti-TNFα therapy and on microbiota role in mucosal healing. AIM To elucidate whether gut microbiota and immune system changes appear following anti TNFα therapy during dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) colitis. METHODS Eighty C57BL/6 mice were divided into four groups:“No DSS”,“No DSS+anti- TNFα”,“DSS” and “DSS+anti-TNFα”.“DSS” and “DSS+anti-TNFα” were treated for 5 d with 3% DSS. At day 3, mice whithin “No DSS+anti-TNFα” and “DSS+anti-TNFα” group received 5 mg/kg of an anti-TNFα agent. Forty mice were sacrificed at day 5, forty at day 12, after one week of recovery post DSS. The severity of colitis was assessed by a clinical score (Disease Activity Index), colon length and histology. Bacteria such as Bacteroides, Clostridiaceae, Enterococcaceae and Fecalibacterium prausnitzii (F. prausnitzii) were evaluated by quantitative PCR. Type 1 helper T lymphocytes (Th1), type 17 helper T lymphocytes (Th17) and CD4+ regulatory T lymphocytes (Treg) distributions in the mesenteric lymph node (MLN) were studied by flow cytometry. RESULTS Bacteria associated with a healthy state (i.e., such as Bacteroides, Clostridiaceae and F. prausnitzii) decreased during colitis and increased in course of anti-TNFα treatment. Conversely, microorganisms belonging to Enterococcaceae genera, which are linked to inflammatory processes, showed an opposite trend. Furthermore, in colitic mice treated with anti-TNFα microbial changes were associated with an initial increase (day 5 of the colitis) in Treg cells and a consequent decrease (day 12 post DSS) in Th1 and Th17 frequency cells. Healthy mice treated with anti-TNFα showed the same histological, microbial and immune 展开更多
关键词 Gut MICROBIOTA DEXTRAN sodium sulphate COLITIS Immune system T cells MESENCHYMAL lymphnode Tumor necrosis factor α
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