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The scientific connotation of oil and gas formations under deep fluids and organic-inorganic interaction
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作者 Quanyou LIU Dongya ZHU +5 位作者 Qingqiang MENG Jiayi LIU Xiaoqi WU Bing ZHOU Qi FU Zhijun JIN 《中国科学:地球科学英文版》 SCIE EI CAS CSCD 2019年第3期507-528,共22页
As a relatively stable craton block in the earth system, the petroliferous basin is influenced by the evolution of the earth system from the early development environment of source rocks, hydrocarbon formation, and re... As a relatively stable craton block in the earth system, the petroliferous basin is influenced by the evolution of the earth system from the early development environment of source rocks, hydrocarbon formation, and reservoir dissolution to hydrocarbon accumulation or destruction. As a link between the internal and external factors of the basin, deep fluids run through the whole process of hydrocarbon formation and accumulation through organic-inorganic interaction. The nutrients carried by deep fluids promote the bloom of hydrocarbon-generating organisms and extra addition of carbon and hydrogen source, which are beneficial to the development of high-quality source rock and enhancement of the hydrocarbon generation potential. The energy carried by the deep fluid promotes the early maturation of the source rock and facilitates the hydrocarbon generation by activation and hydrogenation in high-mature hydrocarbon sources. The dissolution alteration of carbonate rocks and clastic reservoirs by CO2-rich deep fluids improves the deep reservoir space, thus extending the oil and gas reservoir space into greater depth. The extraction of deeply retained crude oil by deep supercritical CO2 and the displacement of CH4 in shale have both improved the hydrocarbon fluidity in deep and tight reservoirs. Simultaneously, the energy and material carried by deep fluids(C, H, and catalytic substances) not only induce inorganic CH4 formation by Fischer-Tropsch(F-T) synthesis and "hydrothermal petroleum" generation from organic matter by thermal activity but also cause the hydrothermal alteration of crude oil from organic sources. Therefore, from the perspective of the interaction of the earth’s sphere, deep fluids not only input a significant amount of exogenous C and H into sedimentary basins but also improve the reservoir space for oil and gas, as well as their enrichment and accumulation efficiencies. 展开更多
关键词 ORGANIC-INORGANIC INTERACTION Deep fluid HYDROCARBON generation from HYDROGENATION DISSOLUTION ALTERATION Displacement
满足欧五法规THC排放的摩托车三效催化器开发(1) 预览
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作者 童硕 刘兴奇 +3 位作者 佘浩 万超 李秀 李亚荣 《摩托车技术》 2019年第10期29-32,共4页
摩托车欧五法规将于2020年1月1日正式实施,能否有效降低THC的排放将是摩托车能否满足欧五法规的关键。在欧四状态的摩托车上,通过对三效催化器涂层Ce元素含量、贵金属比例、贵金属含量、入口温度、金属载体长径比,催化器体积与摩托车排... 摩托车欧五法规将于2020年1月1日正式实施,能否有效降低THC的排放将是摩托车能否满足欧五法规的关键。在欧四状态的摩托车上,通过对三效催化器涂层Ce元素含量、贵金属比例、贵金属含量、入口温度、金属载体长径比,催化器体积与摩托车排量比以及金属载体蜂窝结构等因素开展了相关试验,考察了各因素对于降低摩托车THC排放的效果,实验结果表明通过提升催化器入口温度,选用合适的催化器体积与摩托车排量、高Ce含量涂层等能有效降低THC排放;设计了两组欧五催化器方案并在欧四状态摩托车上进行了测试,结果表明设计的催化器方案可以满足欧五法规的要求。 展开更多
关键词 摩托车 三效催化剂 碳氢化合物 欧五 排放
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Physiological Responses of Different Kinds of Vegetable Seedlings to Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons Stress 预览
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作者 Xuan TANG Minghua LONG +3 位作者 Shuangyu QIAO Pengxin LI Huimin ZHANG Yongsheng LIANG 《农业生物技术:英文版》 CAS 2019年第5期37-41,46共6页
This study was conducted to explore the effects of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) on the growth and physiological characteristics of vegetable seedlings.Cucumber,Chinese cabbage and radish were cultured under... This study was conducted to explore the effects of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) on the growth and physiological characteristics of vegetable seedlings.Cucumber,Chinese cabbage and radish were cultured under the stress of 16 PAHs at different concentrations of 0.3,0.6 and 0.9 mg/L,respectively,with the seedlings cultured without PAHs as the control,to study the growth and physiological responses of various vegetable seedlings under PAHs stress.The results showed that the leaf width,fresh weight,CAT activity and POD activity of cucumber and the chlorophyll b content and CAT activity of radish reached the minimum values when treated with 0.3 mg/L PAHs.When the treatment concentration was 0.6 mg/L,the POD activity of cucumber,the vitamin C content of Chinese cabbage and the MDA content of radish were the smallest.The dry weight of cucumber,the fresh weight of Chinese cabbage and the fresh weight and POD activity of radish reached the minimums under the treatment of 0.9 mg/L PAHs.Different concentrations of PAHs could promote the synthesis and photosynthesis of chlorophyll in cucumber and Chinese cabbage leaves and the vitamin C content in radish.With the increase of PAHs treatment concentration,the MDA contents of cucumber and Chinese cabbage were on the increase,and reached the maximums under the treatment of 0.9 mg/L PAHs.One of the reasons why different kinds of vegetable seedlings have different physiological responses to PAHs may be related to the differences in the amount of PAHs absorbed by different leaf structures. 展开更多
关键词 POLYCYCLIC aromatic HYDROCARBON Vegetable SEEDLINGS Growth PHYSIOLOGY and BIOCHEMISTRY
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Calculation of the Phase Equilibrium of CO 2 Hydrocarbon Binary Mixtures by PR-BM EOS and PR EOS 预览
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作者 Chuanyan Li Yahui Gao +2 位作者 Shuqian Xia Qiaoyan Shang Peisheng Ma 《天津大学学报:英文版》 EI CAS 2019年第5期540-548,共9页
The phase equilibrium data of CO2 hydrocarbon binary mixtures are important for the design and operation of CO 2 ood- ing, coal liquefaction, and supercritical extraction processes. Numerous pieces of binary phase equ... The phase equilibrium data of CO2 hydrocarbon binary mixtures are important for the design and operation of CO 2 ood- ing, coal liquefaction, and supercritical extraction processes. Numerous pieces of binary phase equilibrium data have been obtained. Thus, models for the accurate calculation of binary and multicomponent mixtures must be developed on the basis of existing data. In this work, 3578 vapor liquid phase equilibrium data points for 10 CO 2 hydrocarbon binary mixtures, including CO2 butane, CO 2 pentane, CO 2 isopentane, C O 2 hexane, CO 2 benzene, CO 2 heptane, CO 2 octane, C O 2 non- ane, CO 2 decane, and C O 2 undecane, were collected. The PR and PR-BM equations of state (EOS) in combination with relevant mixing rules were used to calculate the phase equilibrium data of the CO 2 hydrocarbon binary mixtures. The binary interaction parameter k ij in the PR EOS was temperature independent, whereas parameters in the PR-BM EOS were functions of temperature. Thus, the phase equilibrium data and other thermodynamic properties of the binary and multicomponent mixtures at di erent temperatures and pressures can be calculated by using the parameters obtained in this work. The PR-BM EOS performed better than the PR EOS, and the average absolute deviations over the temperature range of 255.98 408.15 K calculated by the PR EOS and PR-BM EOS were less than 5.74% and 3.36%, respectively. The results calculated by the two EOS were compared with those calculated by other models, such as PPR78, PR + LCVM + UNIFAC, KIE + PR EOS + HV, and PSRK. The phase equilibrium data of CO 2 butane decane, CO 2 hexane decane, and C O 2 octane decane ternary mixtures were calculated by the two EOS. The average overall deviations for the CO 2 mole fractions calculated by the two EOS were less than 7.66%. 展开更多
关键词 Phase EQUILIBRIUM Equation of state MIXING RULE HYDROCARBON CO 2
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江汉盆地潜江凹陷潜三段盐间烃类特征及其指示意义 预览
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作者 曹婷婷 马媛媛 +2 位作者 黎茂稳 李志明 吴世强 《西安石油大学学报:自然科学版》 CAS 北大核心 2019年第2期25-30,共6页
利用岩石热解与色谱-质谱分析方法对江汉盆地潜江凹陷潜三段页岩层系进行分子地球化学特征研究后发现,潜三段下部10韵律与11韵律层系在热解参数和分子地球化学方面具有明显差异。其中,10韵律层系岩石热解具有游离烃(S1)高、有机碳(TOC)... 利用岩石热解与色谱-质谱分析方法对江汉盆地潜江凹陷潜三段页岩层系进行分子地球化学特征研究后发现,潜三段下部10韵律与11韵律层系在热解参数和分子地球化学方面具有明显差异。其中,10韵律层系岩石热解具有游离烃(S1)高、有机碳(TOC)含量高,而热解烃峰值温度(Tmax)低的特征,生物标志物参数表现出C29甾烷异构化参数(S/(S+R)、ββ(αα+ββ))高,C35升藿烷优势,反映成熟烃源岩的特征;11韵律层系具有S1低、TOC含量低,而Tmax高的特征,生标参数表现出C29甾烷S/(S+R)低,呈未熟烃源岩的特征。综合考虑到地质因素的作用,认为潜三段10韵律存在侧向运移的烃类浸染,而其下部的11韵律则反映了源岩自身的地化特征。 展开更多
关键词 运移 生物标志物 岩石热解 潜江组 潜江凹陷 江汉盆地
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Hydrocarbon pneumonitis following fuel siphonage:A case report and literature review 预览
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作者 Yi-jung Chen Chien-chin Hsu Kuo-tai Chen 《世界急诊医学杂志(英文)》 CAS CSCD 2019年第2期69-74,共6页
BACKGROUND:People sometimes siphon fuel to fill their tanks.However,this is a potentially dangerous procedure and may cause hydrocarbon pneumonitis.We present the case of a patient with severe hydrocarbon pneumonitis ... BACKGROUND:People sometimes siphon fuel to fill their tanks.However,this is a potentially dangerous procedure and may cause hydrocarbon pneumonitis.We present the case of a patient with severe hydrocarbon pneumonitis after siphoning fuel.The patient underwent artifi cial ventilation and was admitted to hospital for 97 days.METHODS:We review the relevant literature for a better understanding of clinical features and management strategies for hydrocarbon pneumonitis following fuel siphonage.RESULTS:We reviewed 15 articles,which included 3 original articles and 12 case reports that reported the clinical features of fuel siphonage.In addition,we added our presented case for data analysis.A total of 40 cases were included in this review.The literature review found that hydrocarbon pneumonitis caused by fuel siphonage occurs worldwide and that most patients(80%)became symptomatic within 1 day of aspiration.Cough(70%),chest pain(62.5%),dyspnoea(55%),and fever(52.5%)presented in more than half of all patients.The right middle lobe(80%)was the predominantly involved lung fi eld;more than one-third of patients(36.7%)showed the involvement of two lobes.CONCLUSION:Patient history,computed tomographic scans of the chest,and bronchoalveolar lavage are the commonly used diagnostic tools.Supportive care remains the foundation of treatment,whereas antibiotics,steroids,and bronchoalveolar lavage are practical therapies.Patients’clinical improvement precedes the resolution of lesions on chest X-ray.Most complications arise from pulmonary lesions.The prognosis of patients suffering from hydrocarbon pneumonitis following fuel siphonage might be improved by accurate diagnosis and appropriate care. 展开更多
关键词 Siphonage DIESEL FUEL ASPIRATION HYDROCARBON PNEUMONITIS
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Characterization of the squalene-rich Botryococcus braunii Abt02 strain 预览
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作者 CAO Min ZHANG Fangfang +2 位作者 MAO Yunxiang KONG Fanna WANG Dongmei 《海洋湖沼学报(英文)》 SCIE CAS CSCD 2019年第2期675-684,共10页
Botryococcus braunii is widely studied due to its high hydrocarbon content. In this study, B . braunii Abt02 was subjected to several analyses, including cytological observation, hydrocarbon composition analysis by ga... Botryococcus braunii is widely studied due to its high hydrocarbon content. In this study, B . braunii Abt02 was subjected to several analyses, including cytological observation, hydrocarbon composition analysis by gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS), phylogenetic identification using known races (A, B and L) of B . braunii strains based on their 18S rDNA sequences, and qPCR-based investigation of transcript accumulation levels of hydrocarbon biosynthesis-related enzymes (DXS, MCS, DLS, SQS) during diff erent growth phases (lag phase, log phase, early stationary growth phase, late stationary growth phase) under nitrogen-replete and nitrogen-depleted growth conditions, respectively. Based on cytological observation and on the 18S rDNA phylogenetic analysis, strain Abt02 was assigned to race B. Analysis of the strain’s chemical composition showed that the B . braunii Abt02 contained high levels of hydrocarbons, which accounted for 43.75% of the cell’s dry weight. Of these hydrocarbons, squalene and its derivatives accounted for up to 87.54%. In addition, all four enzymes investigated were expressed at higher levels during the log growth phase under nitrogen depleted conditions than under nitrogen replete conditions. 展开更多
关键词 BOTRYOCOCCUS braunii cytological observation PHYLOGENETIC analysis HYDROCARBON components qPCR
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煤气化工艺水煤气脱硫方案的选择 预览
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作者 安威 赵芳 《齐鲁石油化工》 2019年第1期9-12,共4页
介绍煤化工企业硫回收装置原料气中烃类对硫磺产品的影响,详细剖析烃类在制硫反应炉中的分解过程,对含烃酸性气脱硫方案选择提供指导。
关键词 煤气化 Claus工艺
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海洋中石油烃类降解与微生物腐蚀关系研究 预览
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作者 张一梦 郑泽旭 段继周 《表面技术》 EI CAS CSCD 北大核心 2019年第7期211-219,共9页
在工程实践中,国家重要的海洋工程设施(如海底输油管线和船舶燃料系统等)发生的腐蚀破坏案例常常涉及到油水环境,并与微生物腐蚀作用密切相关,而了解海洋含油环境中石油烃类的生物转换机制是了解微生物腐蚀的关键。阐述了海洋环境中降... 在工程实践中,国家重要的海洋工程设施(如海底输油管线和船舶燃料系统等)发生的腐蚀破坏案例常常涉及到油水环境,并与微生物腐蚀作用密切相关,而了解海洋含油环境中石油烃类的生物转换机制是了解微生物腐蚀的关键。阐述了海洋环境中降解石油烃类的主要微生物及其降解机制,其在有氧和无氧条件下呈现不同的特点。微生物降解石油烃类过程中非常重要的一步即为接受电子,该过程将生物无法直接利用的化学能转换成可直接利用的能量形式,即腺苷三磷酸(ATP)。有氧条件下的烃类降解以氧气作为最终电子受体,而在缺氧条件下可利用硝酸盐、铁离子、硫酸盐等作为电子受体。海洋环境中的石油烃类会促进腐蚀性硫化物的生成,因此油水环境下的微生物腐蚀机理以硫化物的腐蚀破坏为主。此外,烃类降解过程产生的琥珀酸等酸性中间代谢物也会加剧腐蚀的发生。但目前关于海洋油水环境中微生物群落作为一个整体展现出的功能性及其对钢铁设施的破坏机理,仍然缺乏系统性的研究,而基于高通量测序的微生物组学研究技术将成为有效解决这些问题的手段之一。 展开更多
关键词 海洋 石油 碳氢化合物 微生物腐蚀 生物降解 金属 油水混合
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Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the graphene era
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作者 Xiao-Ye Wang Xuelin Yao Klaus Mullen 《中国科学:化学英文版》 SCIE EI CAS CSCD 2019年第9期1099-1144,共46页
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons(PAHs) have been the subject of interdisciplinary research in the fields of chemistry, physics,materials science, and biology. Notably, PAHs have drawn increasing attention since the di... Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons(PAHs) have been the subject of interdisciplinary research in the fields of chemistry, physics,materials science, and biology. Notably, PAHs have drawn increasing attention since the discovery of graphene, which has been regarded as the "wonder" material in the 21 st century. Different from semimetallic graphene, nanoscale graphenes, such as graphene nanoribbons and graphene quantum dots, exhibit finite band gaps owing to the quantum confinement, making them attractive semiconductors for next-generation electronic applications. Researches based on PAHs and graphenes have expanded rapidly over the past decade, thereby posing a challenge in conducting a comprehensive review. This study aims to interconnect the fields of PAHs and graphenes, which have mainly been discussed separately. In particular, by selecting representative examples, we explain how these two domains can stimulate each other. We hope that this integrated approach can offer new opportunities and further promote synergistic developments in these fields. 展开更多
关键词 POLYCYCLIC aromatic HYDROCARBON GRAPHENE GRAPHENE NANORIBBON NANOGRAPHENE GRAPHENE quantum dot carbon materials
浅析海上平台生产废水含油在线监测技术 预览
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作者 王妮 刘铭辉 +2 位作者 石文婷 刘涛 闫肃 《石化技术》 CAS 2019年第8期99-101,共3页
海上平台生产过程产生的含油污水量日益增长,正确处理采出水确保回注水的质量,实现水中石油类物质在线监测,对加强海洋石油勘探开发工作有重要意义。本文总结了水中石油类污染的检测方法,介绍了石油类在线监测系统,指出了紫外荧光法在... 海上平台生产过程产生的含油污水量日益增长,正确处理采出水确保回注水的质量,实现水中石油类物质在线监测,对加强海洋石油勘探开发工作有重要意义。本文总结了水中石油类污染的检测方法,介绍了石油类在线监测系统,指出了紫外荧光法在线监测水中石油类污染存在并需克服的问题。 展开更多
关键词 石油类 生产水 紫外荧光 海上平台 在线监测
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罐区油气挥发性有机物治理技术研究进展 预览
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作者 冯健飞 张杏锋 高波 《能源环境保护》 2019年第3期10-14,共5页
介绍了罐区油气挥发性有机物(VOCs)的来源和危害,分别针对浮顶储罐和固定顶储罐探讨了VOCs源头治理措施,阐述了冷凝-吸附、膜-吸附、吸收-吸附等VOCs回收工艺的原理、技术特征和潜在问题。对今后罐区VOCs治理的发展模式和攻关方向进行... 介绍了罐区油气挥发性有机物(VOCs)的来源和危害,分别针对浮顶储罐和固定顶储罐探讨了VOCs源头治理措施,阐述了冷凝-吸附、膜-吸附、吸收-吸附等VOCs回收工艺的原理、技术特征和潜在问题。对今后罐区VOCs治理的发展模式和攻关方向进行了展望,指出了源头治理的重要性,认为VOCs末端治理技术应向信息化、自动化、撬装化、小型化、集约化、节能化、全密闭的方向发展。 展开更多
关键词 罐区 油气 VOCS 治理技术
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丁烯裂解制丙烯的研究进展 预览
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作者 谷旭鹏 胡云峰 +2 位作者 张海燕 邓军 张洪升 《化工科技》 CAS 2019年第2期57-61,共5页
综述了丁烯裂解的生产工艺及其催化剂的进展,比较了ZSM-5分子筛与SAPO分子筛在丁烯裂解中的不同催化特性,并从拓宽裂解原料的角度出发,论述了应用更高碳数烯烃作为裂解原料的研究现状,对不同碳数烯烃的裂解机理进行阐述,从反应机理的理... 综述了丁烯裂解的生产工艺及其催化剂的进展,比较了ZSM-5分子筛与SAPO分子筛在丁烯裂解中的不同催化特性,并从拓宽裂解原料的角度出发,论述了应用更高碳数烯烃作为裂解原料的研究现状,对不同碳数烯烃的裂解机理进行阐述,从反应机理的理论研究出发分析了在既有丁烯裂解工艺与催化剂中拓展裂解原料的可行性,并对丁烯裂解制丙烯的整体应用前景进行了展望。 展开更多
关键词 丙烯 碳氢化合物 丁烯 催化剂 分子筛 反应机理
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Carbon deposition in porous nickel/yttria-stabilized zirconia anode under methane atmosphere 预览
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作者 Zhi-yuan Chen Li-jun Wang +3 位作者 Xiao-jia Du Zai-hong Sun Fu-shen Li Kuo-Chih Chou 《矿物冶金与材料学报:英文版》 SCIE EI CAS CSCD 2019年第3期350-359,共10页
A commercial solid oxide fuel cell with a Ni/YSZ anode was characterized under a pure methane atmosphere. The amount of deposited carbon increased with an increase in temperature but decreased when the temperature exc... A commercial solid oxide fuel cell with a Ni/YSZ anode was characterized under a pure methane atmosphere. The amount of deposited carbon increased with an increase in temperature but decreased when the temperature exceeded 700℃. The reactivity of carbon decreased with increasing deposition temperature. Filamentous carbon was deposited from 400 to 600℃, whereas flake carbon was deposited at 700 and 800℃. With increasing temperature, the intensity ratio of the D band over the sum of the G and D bands was constant at the beginning and then decreased with the transformation of the carbon morphology. The crystallite size increased from 2.9 to 13 nm with increasing temperature. The results also indicated that the structure of the deposited carbon was better ordered with increasing deposition temperature. In comparison with pure Ni powders, the interaction between the YSZ substrate and Ni particles could not only modify the carbon deposition kinetics but also reduce the temperature effect on the structure and reactivity variation of carbon. 展开更多
关键词 solid oxide FUEL cell COKING RAMAN spectrum HYDROCARBON FUEL ANODE
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Factors controlling the reservoir accumulation of Triassic Chang 6 Member in Jiyuan-Wuqi area,Ordos Basin,NW China 预览
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作者 CHEN Shijia LEI Junjie +5 位作者 LIU Chun YAO Jingli LI Yong LI Shixiang SU Kaiming XIAO Zhenglu 《石油勘探与开发:英文版》 2019年第2期253-264,共12页
In the Triassic Yanchang Formation, Jiyuan-Wuqi area, Ordos Basin, the Chang 6 reservoir is contacted to the Chang 7 high-quality source rock, but the oil pools are unevenly distributed, and complex in oil and water d... In the Triassic Yanchang Formation, Jiyuan-Wuqi area, Ordos Basin, the Chang 6 reservoir is contacted to the Chang 7 high-quality source rock, but the oil pools are unevenly distributed, and complex in oil and water distribution. Through cores observation and fracture statistics, combined with comprehensive analyses of physical property, mercury injection, logging and geochemical data, and comparisons of the sandbodies scales, reservoir physical properties, argillaceous laminae and fractures between source and reservoir in the eastern and western oil-bearing areas and in the central water producing area, it is found that the hydrocarbon accumulation patterns are different in the eastern, central and western areas, and the characteristics of hydrocarbon migration under the background of double-provenance were sorted out. The study results show that the crude oil in the eastern area has different Pr/Ph and sterane distribution from that in the western area. The oil and gas primarily migrated vertically. The high-quality source rocks and favorable source-reservoir-cap combinations lay the foundation for large-scale oil and gas accumulations. Vertically, the oil and gas enrichment is controlled by the scale of sandbody and the difference of physical properties, while on the plane, it is controlled by the connectivity of sandbodies, the argillaceous laminae between source rock and reservoir, the reservoir physical property and the fractures. The sandbodies of oil-rich zones in the eastern and western areas have large thickness, low shale content, good physical properties, weak heterogeneity, few argillaceous laminae and abundant fractures, all of which are favorable for the vertical migration and accumulation of oil and gas. In contrast, in the middle area with converging provenances, the reservoirs, composed of thin sandbodies, features rapid variation in lithology and physical properties, strong heterogeneity, poor continuity of sandbodies, abundant argillaceous laminae between source rock and reservoir, and few fra 展开更多
关键词 Yanchang Formation Chang 6 MEMBER oil RESERVOIR distribution hydrocarbon ACCUMULATION difference Jiyuan-Wuqi area ORDOS Basin
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关于液氧长期贮存方法的探索研究 预览
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作者 吴鹏 赵冰 +4 位作者 冯鲁迁 赵安雷 黄丹 王波 刘毅文 《低温与特气》 CAS 2019年第1期11-15,共5页
为了探索液氧长期贮存的方法,建立了液氧在小型敞口容器、中型密闭容器和主冷凝蒸发器三种不同容器中的蒸损实验模型,分析了液氧中碳氢化合物的积聚机理,并设想了一种液氧、液氮联合贮存的方案,以低温氮气冷凝回流液氧贮罐中挥发出的气... 为了探索液氧长期贮存的方法,建立了液氧在小型敞口容器、中型密闭容器和主冷凝蒸发器三种不同容器中的蒸损实验模型,分析了液氧中碳氢化合物的积聚机理,并设想了一种液氧、液氮联合贮存的方案,以低温氮气冷凝回流液氧贮罐中挥发出的气氧,通过降低液氧的蒸损率来控制碳氢化合物的积聚,以实现液氧长期贮存的目的。 展开更多
关键词 液氧 长期贮存 碳氢化合物
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2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin promotes migration ability of primary cultured rat astrocytes via aryl hydrocarbon receptor
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作者 Yangsheng Chen Rui Sha +6 位作者 Li Xu Yingjie Xia Yiyun Liu Xuejun Li Heidi Qunhui Xie Naijun Tang Bin Zhao 《环境科学学报:英文版》 SCIE EI CAS CSCD 2019年第2期368-376,共9页
Emerging evidence showed that 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) could induce expression of certain reactivation-associated genes in astrocytes, however, the consequent cellular effects and molecular mechanism... Emerging evidence showed that 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) could induce expression of certain reactivation-associated genes in astrocytes, however, the consequent cellular effects and molecular mechanisms are still unclear. During the process of astrocyte reactivation, migration is a critical cellular event. In the present study, we employed wound-healing assay and Transwell motility assay to explore the effects of TCDD on cell migration in primary cultured rat cortical astrocytes. We found that upon TCDD treatments at relative low concentrations (10^-10 and/or 10^-9mol/L), the ability of primary astrocytes to migrate horizontally and vertically was promoted. In line with this cellular effect, the mRNA expression of two pro-migratory genes, including cell division cycle 42 (CDC42) and matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP2) was induced by TCDD treatment. Dioxin exerts its toxic effects mainly through aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) pathway. So the role of AhR pathway in the pro-migratory effects of TCDD was examined using an AhR antagonist, CH223191. We found that application of CH223191 significantly reversed the pro-migratory effects of TCDD. Interestingly, the basal ability of horizontal migration as well as basal levels of CDC42 and MMP2 expression were dramatically reduced suggesting a possible physiological role of AhR in maintaining the endogenous migration ability of the primary astrocytes. These findings support the notion that dioxin promotes astrocyte reactivation at molecular and cellular levels. 展开更多
关键词 2 3 7 8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) ASTROCYTE Migration Gene expression Aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) pathway
A review of carbonates as hydrocarbon source rocks: basic geochemistry and oil–gas generation
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作者 Liu-Wen Xia Jian Cao +2 位作者 Ming Wang Ju-Lei Mi Ting-Ting Wang 《石油科学:英文版》 SCIE CAS CSCD 2019年第4期713-728,共16页
Carbonates have been known to act as hydrocarbon source rocks, but their basic geochemical and associated hydrocarbon generation characteristics remain not well understood as they occur with argillaceous source rocks ... Carbonates have been known to act as hydrocarbon source rocks, but their basic geochemical and associated hydrocarbon generation characteristics remain not well understood as they occur with argillaceous source rocks in most cases, and the hydrocarbon generation from each rock type is di cult to distinguish, forming one of puzzling issues within the field of petroleum geology and geochemistry. To improve the understanding of this critical issue, this paper reviews recent advances in this field and provides a summary of key areas that can be studied in future. Results show that carbonate source rocks are generally associated with high-salinity environments with low amounts of terrestrial inputs and low dissolved oxygen contents. Petrographically, these source rocks are dark gray or black, fine-grained, stratified, and contain bacterial and algal bioprecursors along with some other impurities. They generally have low organic matter contents, although these can vary significantly in di erent cases(e.g., the total organic carbon contents of marine and lacustrine carbonate source rocks in China are generally 0.1%–1.0% and 0.4%–4.0%, respectively). These rocks contain type I and type II kerogen, meaning there is a lack of vitrinites. This means that assessment of the maturity of the organic matter in these sediments needs to use non-traditional techniques rather than vitrinite reflectance. In terms of molecular geochemistry, carbonate source rocks have typical characteristics indicative of generally reducing and saline environments and lower organism-dominated bioprecursors of organic matter, e.g., high contents of sulfur compounds, low Pr/Ph ratios, and dominance of n-alkanes. Most of the carbonate source rocks are typically dominated by D-type organic facies in an oxidized shallow water mass, although high-quality source rocks generally contain A-and B-type organic facies in saline lacustrine and marine-reducing environments, respectively. The hydrocarbon generation model for the carbonate source rocks can involv 展开更多
关键词 SALINE LACUSTRINE source ROCKS CARBONATES Organic FACIES HYDROCARBON generation
Hydrocarbon generation characteristics and exploration prospects of Proterozoic source rocks in China
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作者 Wenzhi ZHAO Xiaomei WANG +6 位作者 Suyun HU Shuichang ZHANG Huajian WANG Shuwei GUAN Yuntao YE Rong REN Tongshan WANG 《中国科学:地球科学英文版》 SCIE EI CAS CSCD 2019年第6期909-934,共26页
A large number of primary oil and gas reservoirs have been discovered in Proterozoic strata all over the globe.Proterozoic sequences are widely distributed in China, and the discovery of large Sinian-aged gas reservoi... A large number of primary oil and gas reservoirs have been discovered in Proterozoic strata all over the globe.Proterozoic sequences are widely distributed in China, and the discovery of large Sinian-aged gas reservoirs in the Sichuan Basin and Mesoproterozoic liquid oil seepages in North China shows that attention should be paid to the exploration potential of Proterozoic strata. In this paper, the main controlling factors of Proterozoic source rocks are discussed. Principally, active atmospheric circulation and astronomical cycles may have driven intense upwelling and runoff to provide nutrients;oxygenated oceanic surface waters could have provided suitable environments for the organisms to thrive;volcanic activity and terrestrial weathering caused by continental break-up would have injected large amounts of nutrients into the ocean, leading to persistent blooms of marine organisms;and extensive anoxic deep waters may have created ideal conditions for the preservation of organic matter. Additionally, the appearance of eukaryotes resulted in diversified hydrocarbon parent material, which effectively improved the generation potential for oil and gas. Through the comparison of Formations across different cratons, seven sets of Proterozoic organic-rich source rocks have been recognized in China, which mainly developed during interglacial periods and are also comparable worldwide. The Hongshuizhuang and Xiamaling Formations in North China have already been identified previously as Mesoproterozoic source rocks. The early Proterozoic Changchengian System is highly promising as a potential source rock in the Ordos Basin. In the Upper Yangtze area, the Neoproterozoic Datangpo and Doushantuo Formations are extensively distributed, and represent the major source rocks for Sinian gas reservoirs in the Sichuan Basin. Moreover, the Nanhuan System may contain abundant shales with high organic matter contents in the Tarim Basin, although this possibility still needs to be verified. Indeed, all three cratons may contain source 展开更多
关键词 PROTEROZOIC Source rocks HYDROCARBON generation CHARACTERISTICS REPLACEMENT field
Seasonal Effect on Biomarkers of Exposure to Petroleum Hydrocarbons in the Coasts of North Western Suez Gulf,Egypt 预览
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作者 Omayma E.Ahmed Mustafa M.Emara +2 位作者 Nazik A.Farid1 Enas A.El-Sabagh Eman M.Kamal 《地球与环境科学(英文)》 2019年第1期38-48,共11页
Petroleum hydrocarbons of surface water were collected from eight loca-tions of from the coasts of north western Suez Gulf,Egypt.The extracted petroleum hydrocarbons were determined by gas chromatography-flame ionizat... Petroleum hydrocarbons of surface water were collected from eight loca-tions of from the coasts of north western Suez Gulf,Egypt.The extracted petroleum hydrocarbons were determined by gas chromatography-flame ionization detector and quantified by integrating the areas of both the resolved and unresolved components.The results confirm that the con-centration is relatively higher than the recommended in the regulations of the Egyptian low of Environment of No.4/1994 of petroleum products.At various locations.The dissolved petroleum hydrocarbons ranged from 5.639 to 74.8 and 1.868 to 65.698 mg/ml for summer and winter sea-sons,respectively.This indicates that chronic oil pollution,in addition to hydrocarbon concentrations,the diagnostic indices used shows that the hydrocarbons in the area were comes from biogenic,petrogenic and anthropogenic sources.FT-IR spectrometric analysis confirms die petro-genic nature of pollutants. 展开更多
关键词 EGYPT Oil HYDROCARBON PHYSICOCHEMICAL Diagnostic Gas CHROMATOGRAPHY Suez CANAL
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