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医疗大数据的隐私伦理问题研究 预览
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作者 郭向凝 张洪江 《锦州医科大学学报:社会科学版》 2019年第3期21-24,共4页
医疗大数据的开发和利用,搭建了医疗资源数据信息共享的平台,提高了医疗资源的利用效率。同时,开放性的医疗大数据具有较高的商业价值,人们利用大数据中的医疗资源数据信息能够获取更大的利益,这就激发了人们深度挖掘医疗资源数据信息... 医疗大数据的开发和利用,搭建了医疗资源数据信息共享的平台,提高了医疗资源的利用效率。同时,开放性的医疗大数据具有较高的商业价值,人们利用大数据中的医疗资源数据信息能够获取更大的利益,这就激发了人们深度挖掘医疗资源数据信息的欲望,加之现行的制度和现有的技术,在隐私保护方面都存在短板,使得隐私泄露问题时有发生,医疗大数据隐私伦理问题亟待解决。 展开更多
关键词 医疗大数据 隐私 隐私保护 隐私伦理
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Privacy Cost Analysis and Privacy Protection Based on Big Data 预览
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作者 周蔷 岳开旭 段垚 《东华大学学报:英文版》 EI CAS 2019年第1期96-105,共10页
A comprehensive analysis of the impact privacy incidents on its market value is given.A broad set of instances of the exposure of personal information from a summary of some security mechanisms and the corresponding r... A comprehensive analysis of the impact privacy incidents on its market value is given.A broad set of instances of the exposure of personal information from a summary of some security mechanisms and the corresponding results are presented. The cumulative effect increases in magnitude over day following the breach announcement, but then decreases. Besides, a new privacy protection property, that is, p-sensitive k-anonymity is presented in this paper to protect against identity disclosure. We illustrated the inclusion of the two necessary conditions in the algorithm for computing a p-k-minimal generalization. Algorithms such as k-anonymity and l-diversity remain all sensitive attributes intact and apply generalization and suppression to the quasi-identifiers. This will keep the data 'truthful' and provide good utility for data-mining applications, while achieving less perfect privacy. We aim to get the problem based on the prior analysis, and study the issue of privacy protection from the perspective of the model-benefit. 展开更多
关键词 PRIVACY SECURITY ECONOMICS PRIVACY PROTECTION BIG DATA
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大数据环境下加强个人信息安全与隐私保护的对策建议 预览
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作者 魏来 陈洋 《沈阳工程学院学报:社会科学版》 2019年第2期167-171,共5页
从文献研究入手分析大数据环境下个人信息的属性及应用,通过问卷调查在隐私内容认知、隐私关注、隐私信任等方面得出结论,进一步分析个人信息利用过程中存在过度收集个人信息、擅自披露及提供个人信息、个人信息交易市场不规范、个人信... 从文献研究入手分析大数据环境下个人信息的属性及应用,通过问卷调查在隐私内容认知、隐私关注、隐私信任等方面得出结论,进一步分析个人信息利用过程中存在过度收集个人信息、擅自披露及提供个人信息、个人信息交易市场不规范、个人信息收集方未尽到信息安全责任等法律问题。最终从完善企业自治制度、增强信息主体数据控制权、规制政府的个人信息处理行为、健全个人信息保护救济机制四个方面提出对策建议。 展开更多
关键词 大数据 个人信息 个人数据 隐私 隐私保护
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Information Privacy, Data Surveillance and Security——How Australian Privacy Law Fully Plays Its Role in the Age of Big Data 预览
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作者 Jiexin Zang 《教育理论与管理杂志(英文)》 2019年第1期22-30,共9页
Privacy and the protection of privacy is a common topic studied by many scholars. From the very beginning of human culture, people have personal privacy, which is not willing for them to be unveiled by others. With th... Privacy and the protection of privacy is a common topic studied by many scholars. From the very beginning of human culture, people have personal privacy, which is not willing for them to be unveiled by others. With the development of information technology, especially the internet, knowledge and information are dealt by internet users in conscious or unconscious way, and personal information has been rapidly and quickly distributed and disseminated all over the world. Personal data can be collected by hackers or interlinks from the website, internet not only provides people an era with internet links, but also an age with information collections, a big data age. With the background of big data, this essay tries to put forward the correlative relationship between the protection of information privacy and the privacy law in Australia. It ??rst has an overview of the concepts of information privacy and data surveillance under the background of big data, then highlights the importance of data security in the age of big data;with a literature review on the development of Australian privacy acts, it further claims that privacy acts or regulations by the federal or states provided strong support for the protection of personal data. Then relationship between the protection information privacy and the need of judicial guarantee is further studied for thorough methods or regimes in data protection. With these points studied, this essay aims to highlight the importance of data protection and information privacy. On the other hand, it aims to provide awareness for readers the vital role privacy laws can play in the protection of people’s personal information and emphases the importance of a continuous evolution for privacy law system in the age of big data. 展开更多
关键词 A big DATA age The protection of information PRIVACY The PRIVACY LAW in AUSTRALIA
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Research on Data Privacy Protection Algorithm with Homomorphism Mechanism Based on Redundant Slice Technology in Wireless Sensor Networks 预览
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作者 Peng Li Chao Xu +2 位作者 He Xu Lu Dong Ruchuan Wang 《中国通信:英文版》 SCIE CSCD 2019年第5期158-170,共13页
Wireless transmission method in wireless sensor networks has put forward higher requirements for private protection technology. According to the packet loss problem of private protection algorithm based on slice techn... Wireless transmission method in wireless sensor networks has put forward higher requirements for private protection technology. According to the packet loss problem of private protection algorithm based on slice technology, this paper proposes the data private protection algorithm with redundancy mechanism, which ensures privacy by privacy homomorphism mechanism and guarantees redundancy by carrying hidden data. Moreover,it selects the routing tree generated by CTP(Collection Tree Protocol) as routing path for data transmission. By dividing at the source node, it adds the hidden information and also the privacy homomorphism. At the same time,the information feedback tree is established between the destination node and the source node. In addition, the destination node immediately sends the packet loss information and the encryption key via the information feedback tree to the source node. As a result,it improves the reliability and privacy of data transmission and ensures the data redundancy. 展开更多
关键词 wireless sensor network PRIVACY PROTECTION SLICE TECHNOLOGY PRIVACY HOMOMORPHISM collection tree protocol
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无感伤害:大数据时代隐私侵权的新特点
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作者 顾理平 《新闻大学》 CSSCI 北大核心 2019年第2期24-32,118共10页
大数据时代,公民的隐私往往以整合型隐私的方式呈现出来,因此,隐私主体对隐私侵权行为造成的'精神痛苦'会'无感'。'无感'并不意味着伤害没有发生,而是因为隐私主体对这种伤害不能及时感知,使这种伤害具有滞后性... 大数据时代,公民的隐私往往以整合型隐私的方式呈现出来,因此,隐私主体对隐私侵权行为造成的'精神痛苦'会'无感'。'无感'并不意味着伤害没有发生,而是因为隐私主体对这种伤害不能及时感知,使这种伤害具有滞后性,因而其造成的'精神痛苦'往往会更严重。这是大数据时代隐私侵权的一个新特点。 展开更多
关键词 隐私 隐私侵权 无感伤害 大数据
论隐私的社会生成机制——以习俗和法律关系为视角
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作者 岳林 《学术月刊》 CSSCI 北大核心 2019年第6期104-116,共13页
隐私是一种普遍存在的社会制度。它不仅有助于人们维护人格尊严和抵御社会压力,也有助于人群组织或者社会的构成与团结。隐私可以生成为习俗、契约和权利等多种形态。在传统社会,隐私主要以习俗为载体;进入现代社会后,隐私权则成为更主... 隐私是一种普遍存在的社会制度。它不仅有助于人们维护人格尊严和抵御社会压力,也有助于人群组织或者社会的构成与团结。隐私可以生成为习俗、契约和权利等多种形态。在传统社会,隐私主要以习俗为载体;进入现代社会后,隐私权则成为更主要的隐私制度,出现这一转变的原因在于:信息技术的进步,打破了传统社会阶层之间的信息壁垒;社会物质条件的改善,让人们享有更为独立的私人空间,以及形成了多元化的社会生活场景;人与人之间的亲密性,也因为空间结构以及公私关系的改变,变得越来越淡薄。传统隐私习俗已经不能满足新的社会需求,而隐私权则能更好地适应隐私制度碎片化和个人化的趋势。但是只要人们依然需要社会生活,那么也就需要在人群、组织以及社会范围内分享隐私。因此在现代社会,隐私权不能成为唯一的隐私制度,而隐私习俗依然具有新生的可能性。 展开更多
关键词 隐私 习俗 信息 空间 亲密性
Privacy preserving ciphertext-policy attribute-based broadcast encryption in smart city
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作者 Cui Yilei Zhang Leyou 《中国邮电高校学报:英文版》 EI CSCD 2019年第1期21-31,共11页
With the development and application of in formation technology,the problem of personal privacy leakage is becoming more and more serious.Most attribute-based broadcast encryption(ABBE)schemes focus on data security,w... With the development and application of in formation technology,the problem of personal privacy leakage is becoming more and more serious.Most attribute-based broadcast encryption(ABBE)schemes focus on data security,while ignoring the protection of the personal privacy of users in access structure and identity.To address this problem,a privacy preserving ABBE scheme is proposed,which ensures the data confidentiality and protects personal privacy as well.In addition,the authenticity of encrypted data can be verified.It is proved that the proposed scheme achieves full security by dual system encryption. 展开更多
关键词 smart city ATTRIBUTE-BASED BROADCAST ENCRYPTION PRIVACY PRESERVING full security
Privacy Protection for Blockchains with Account and Multi-Asset Model 预览
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作者 Donghui Ding Kang Li +3 位作者 Linpeng Jia Zhongcheng Li Jun Li Yi Sun 《中国通信:英文版》 SCIE CSCD 2019年第6期69-79,共11页
The blockchain technology has been applied to wide areas.However,the open and transparent properties of the blockchains pose serious challenges to users’privacy.Among all the schemes for the privacy protection,the ze... The blockchain technology has been applied to wide areas.However,the open and transparent properties of the blockchains pose serious challenges to users’privacy.Among all the schemes for the privacy protection,the zero-knowledge proof algorithm conceals most of the private information in a transaction,while participants of the blockchain can validate this transaction without the private information.However,current schemes are only aimed at blockchains with the UTXO model,and only one type of assets circulates on these blockchains.Based on the zero-knowledge proof algorithm,this paper proposes a privacy protection scheme for blockchains that use the account and multi-asset model.We design the transaction structure,anonymous addresses and anonymous asset metadata,and also propose the methods of the asset transfer and double-spending detection.The zk-SNARKs algorithm is used to generate and to verify the zero-knowledge proof.And finally,we conduct the experiments to evaluate our scheme. 展开更多
关键词 blockchain PRIVACY protection ZERO-KNOWLEDGE proof algorithm ACCOUNT and multi-asset MODEL
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Differentially Private Top-K Items Based on Least Mean Square——Take E-Commerce Platforms for Example
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作者 CAO Mengyue WU Fusheng +3 位作者 NI Mingtao XIONG Xingxing LIU Shubo WANG Jun 《武汉大学学报:自然科学英文版》 CAS CSCD 2019年第2期98-106,共9页
User preference data broadly collected from e-commerce platforms have benefits to improve the user's experience of individual purchasing recommendation by data mining and analyzing, which may bring users the risk ... User preference data broadly collected from e-commerce platforms have benefits to improve the user's experience of individual purchasing recommendation by data mining and analyzing, which may bring users the risk of privacy disclosure .In this paper, we explore the problem of differential private top-k items based on least mean square. Specifically, we consider the balance between utility and privacy level of released data and improve the precision of top-k based on post-processing. We show that our algorithm can achieve differential privacy over streaming data collected and published periodically by server provider. We evaluate our algorithm with three real datasets, and the experimental results show that the precision of our method reaches 85% with strong privacy protection, which outperforms the Kalman filter-based existing methods. 展开更多
关键词 TOP-K differential PRIVACY least mean square STREAMING data
A Method for Time-Series Location Data Publication Based on Differential Privacy
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作者 KANG Haiyan ZHANG Shuxuan JIA Qianqian 《武汉大学学报:自然科学英文版》 CAS CSCD 2019年第2期107-115,共9页
In the age of information sharing, logistics information sharing also faces the risk of privacy leakage. In regard to the privacy leakage of time-series location information in the field of logistics, this paper propo... In the age of information sharing, logistics information sharing also faces the risk of privacy leakage. In regard to the privacy leakage of time-series location information in the field of logistics, this paper proposes a method based on differential privacy for time-series location data publication. Firstly, it constructs public region of interest (PRO!) related to time by using clustering optimal algorithm. And it adopts the method of the centroid point to ensure the public interest point (PIP) representing the location of the public interest zone. Secondly, according to the PIP, we can construct location search tree (LST) that is a commonly used index structure of spatial data, in order to ensure the inherent relation among location data. Thirdly, we add Laplace noise to the node of LST, which means fewer times to add Laplace noise on the original data set and ensures the data availability. Finally, experiments show that this method not only ensures the security of sequential location data publishing, but also has better data availability than the general differential privacy method, which achieves a good balance between the security and availability of data. 展开更多
关键词 sequential LOCATION DATA PUBLISHING region of INTEREST LOCATION search tree differential PRIVACY
Differentially private high-dimensional data publication via grouping and truncating techniques
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作者 Ning WANG Yu GU +2 位作者 Jia XU Fangfang LI Ge YU 《中国计算机科学前沿:英文版》 SCIE EI CSCD 2019年第2期382-395,共14页
The count of one column for high-dimensional datasets, i.e., the number of records containing this column, has been widely used in nuinerous applications such as analyzing popular spots based on check-in location info... The count of one column for high-dimensional datasets, i.e., the number of records containing this column, has been widely used in nuinerous applications such as analyzing popular spots based on check-in location information and mining valuable items from shopping records. However, this poses a privacy threat when directly publishing this information. Differential privacy (DP), as a notable paradigm for strong privacy guarantees, is thereby adopted to publish all column counts. Prior studies have verified that truncating records or grouping columns can effectively improve the accuracy of published results. To leverage the advantages of the two techniques, we combine these studies to further boost the accuracy of published results. However, the traditional penalty function, which measures the error imported by a given pair of parameters including truncating length and group size, is so sensitive that the derived parameters deviate from the optimal parameters significantly. To output preferable parameters, we first design a smart penalty function that is less sensitive than the traditional function. Moreover, a two-phase selection method is proposed to compute these parameters efficiently, together with the improvement in accuracy. Extensive experiments on a broad spectrum of real-world datasets validate the effectiveness of our proposals. 展开更多
关键词 differential PRIVACY HIGH-DIMENSIONAL data TRUNCATION optimization GROUPING PENALTY function
精准医疗与人工智能整合中的隐私伦理问题探究 预览
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作者 王强芬 《医学争鸣》 CAS 2019年第4期62-65,共4页
人工智能(AI)对于提升精准医疗的诊断效率和精准度起着重要作用,但AI应用于精准医疗对于训练样本的需求也给患者隐私保护带来新的挑战,需要对二者整合的必要性及存在的隐私风险进行探究。精准医疗AI这种新型医疗实践模式在数据样本使用... 人工智能(AI)对于提升精准医疗的诊断效率和精准度起着重要作用,但AI应用于精准医疗对于训练样本的需求也给患者隐私保护带来新的挑战,需要对二者整合的必要性及存在的隐私风险进行探究。精准医疗AI这种新型医疗实践模式在数据样本使用的度、应对二者的发展变化、隐私保护的整体性,以及伦理、法律和技术等方面的协同护翼有助于解决其存在的隐私伦理风险问题,助推精准医疗的发展。 展开更多
关键词 人工智能 精准医疗 隐私
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本土化语境下的“被遗忘权”:个人信息权的程序性建构 预览
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作者 李立丰 《武汉大学学报:哲学社会科学版》 CSSCI 北大核心 2019年第3期145-155,共11页
大数据时代,个人信息因具备"不被遗忘"的特殊属性而成为有价值的商品,并引发了一系列权属论争。其中,个人信息主体是否可以凭借所谓的被遗忘权对抗互联网搜索服务提供商的所谓"表达自由权",已成为世界各国关注的焦... 大数据时代,个人信息因具备"不被遗忘"的特殊属性而成为有价值的商品,并引发了一系列权属论争。其中,个人信息主体是否可以凭借所谓的被遗忘权对抗互联网搜索服务提供商的所谓"表达自由权",已成为世界各国关注的焦点问题之一。结合域外相关立法、司法实践经验与理论,从我国相关立法与基本国情出发,应当肯定被遗忘权的本土存在价值与独立属性。但对于这一新兴权利的合理建构,基于实用主义立场,应当扬弃隐私权或自由权等传统法理的解说进路,以一种程序性权利而非实体性权利的建构思路,平衡个人信息主体与互联网搜索服务业者之间的利益矛盾,缓解大数据时代个人信息主体所面临的现实困境。 展开更多
关键词 大数据 个人信息权 被遗忘权 搜索引擎 人格 隐私 算法 新兴权利
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大数据时代个人信息安全防护 预览
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作者 吴凯佳 李结映 陈艇 《数字技术与应用》 2019年第3期196-196,198共2页
随着互联网和信息行业的快速发展,网上产生的数据越来越多,个人信息安全的保护迫在眉睫。本文分析了大数据给人们带来的利与弊,并探讨如何在日常生活中保护个人信息的安全。
关键词 大数据 个人信息安全 隐私
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人工智能环境下高校档案管理的策略研究 预览
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作者 刘洋 《办公自动化》 2019年第2期22-24,14共4页
人工智能技术的发展给高校档案管理的创新和变革提供了契机,高校档案馆要转变思想,注重对档案全流程、多维度、非结构化数据的收集,构建档案大数据平台,并依靠人工智能算法对大数据进行分析挖掘,以解决档案管理中的各种创新难题,如智能... 人工智能技术的发展给高校档案管理的创新和变革提供了契机,高校档案馆要转变思想,注重对档案全流程、多维度、非结构化数据的收集,构建档案大数据平台,并依靠人工智能算法对大数据进行分析挖掘,以解决档案管理中的各种创新难题,如智能推荐和咨询服务、自动回答和编研汇总、主动服务和个性化服务等,提高档案管理水平。但另一方面,人工智能技术对用户隐私和档案安全等可能造成一定的侵害,需要引起高校档案工作者的重视。 展开更多
关键词 人工智能 高校档案管理 大数据 RFID 隐私 档案安全
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大数据在网格化社会治理中的法律保障问题研究 预览
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作者 刘恺 汤谦 +2 位作者 倪瑾 周韫哲 杨瑞 《大数据时代》 2019年第6期32-39,共8页
网格化社会治理就是把基层社区划分成若干责任网格,将人、地、物、事、组织全部纳入具体网格的一种治理模式。网格化社会治理过程中会产生大量记录着行政区域自然、政治、经济、文化、社会等方面历史与现状的数据。大数据的应用有助于... 网格化社会治理就是把基层社区划分成若干责任网格,将人、地、物、事、组织全部纳入具体网格的一种治理模式。网格化社会治理过程中会产生大量记录着行政区域自然、政治、经济、文化、社会等方面历史与现状的数据。大数据的应用有助于提高社会治理的智能化、专业化水平,但与此同时,大数据本身具有一定的法律风险,本文从隐私权和储存过程中的法律风险防控角度探讨大数据在网格化社会治理中的法律保障问题。 展开更多
关键词 大数据 网格化社会治理 法律保障 隐私权 数据储存
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社区共同体何以可能:人格化社会交往的消失与重建
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作者 熊易寒 《南京社会科学》 CSSCI 北大核心 2019年第8期71-76,共6页
为什么中国城市居民缺乏社区认同?为什么封闭式社区难以成为认同的基础?本文通过对社区、广场、街区等空间的分析,认为主要原因在于:社区的空间安排无法为居民创造人格化社会交往的机会,导致邻里关系的消失。居委会所构建的积极分子网... 为什么中国城市居民缺乏社区认同?为什么封闭式社区难以成为认同的基础?本文通过对社区、广场、街区等空间的分析,认为主要原因在于:社区的空间安排无法为居民创造人格化社会交往的机会,导致邻里关系的消失。居委会所构建的积极分子网络无法将年轻人纳入其中;社区广场或街心公园所构建的以儿童或老人为中心的社会关系网络则是以街区为单位的浅互惠关系。社会关系网络是以相互让渡一部分隐私为前提的,高度私密性的封闭式社区不利于私人信息的交换。共同体不仅仅基于利益和认同,也是一个分享传说、故事、流言和隐私的社会群体。以老人和儿童为突破口,从空间安排上让社区居民跨越'熟人门槛',是构建社区认同和街区认同的关键。 展开更多
关键词 空间 隐私 社会关系网络 熟人门槛 人格化社会交往
Improving Data Utility Through Game Theory in Personalized Differential Privacy
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作者 Lei Cui Youyang Qu +3 位作者 Mohammad Reza Nosouhi Shui Yu Jian-Wei Niu Gang Xie 《计算机科学技术学报:英文版》 SCIE EI CSCD 2019年第2期272-286,共15页
Due to dramatically increasing information published in social networks,privacy issues have given rise to public concerns.Although the presence of differential privacy provides privacy protection with theoretical foun... Due to dramatically increasing information published in social networks,privacy issues have given rise to public concerns.Although the presence of differential privacy provides privacy protection with theoretical foundations,the trade-off between privacy and data utility still demands further improvement.However,most existing studies do not consider the quantitative impact of the adversary when measuring data utility.In this paper,we firstly propose a personalized differential privacy method based on social distance.Then,we analyze the maximum data utility when users and adversaries are blind to the strategy sets of each other.We formalize all the payoff functions in the differential privacy sense,which is followed by the establishment of a static Bayesian game.The trade-off is calculated by deriving the Bayesian Nash equilibrium with a modified reinforcement learning algorithm.The proposed method achieves fast convergence by reducing the cardinality from n to 2.In addition,the in-place trade-off can maximize the user's data utility if the action sets of the user and the adversary are public while the strategy sets are unrevealed.Our extensive experiments on the real-world dataset prove the proposed model is effective and feasible. 展开更多
关键词 PERSONALIZED PRIVACY protection GAME theory trade-off REINFORCEMENT learning
物联网设备自身缺陷对隐私安全的挑战 预览
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作者 俞杨建 《无线互联科技》 2019年第2期27-28,59共3页
文章研究了物联网设备自身缺陷对隐私安全的挑战。在物联网时代,物联网设备将汇集更多的个人资料,其中不乏大量隐私资料。这些资料的处理、利用没有足够的透明度,当事人也不了解其个人资料可能被用于何处。如果物联网设备自身存在安全缺... 文章研究了物联网设备自身缺陷对隐私安全的挑战。在物联网时代,物联网设备将汇集更多的个人资料,其中不乏大量隐私资料。这些资料的处理、利用没有足够的透明度,当事人也不了解其个人资料可能被用于何处。如果物联网设备自身存在安全缺陷,将导致个人资料未经授权而被滥用并传输至其他设备,使得个人隐私直接暴露于网络,给当事人带来巨大的隐私安全风险。因此,在发展物联网的同时,其设备自身安全性应引起足够的重视。 展开更多
关键词 物联网 隐私 安全
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