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A Review of Atmospheric Electricity Research in China from 2011 to 2018 预览
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作者 Xiushu QIE Yijun ZHANG 《大气科学进展:英文版》 SCIE CAS CSCD 2019年第9期994-1014,共21页
Atmospheric electricity research has been conducted actively in China,having profited from the development and application of high temporal and spatial resolution lightning detection and location technologies.This pap... Atmospheric electricity research has been conducted actively in China,having profited from the development and application of high temporal and spatial resolution lightning detection and location technologies.This paper reviews the scientific advances made in the field of atmospheric electricity in China from 2011 to 2018,covering the following five aspects:(1)lightning detection and location techniques;(2)discharge processes and parameters associated with rocket-triggered lightning;(3)physical processes in natural lightning and attachment to the ground;(4)lightning activities and charge structure in different thunderstorms;and(5)effects of thunderstorms on the upper atmosphere.In addition,some outstanding questions for future research are outlined. 展开更多
关键词 ATMOSPHERIC ELECTRICITY LIGHTNING THUNDERSTORM LIGHTNING LOCATION TECHNIQUES
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Characteristics of size distributions and sources of water-soluble ions in Lhasa during monsoon and non-monsoon seasons
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作者 Nannan Wei Zhiyou Xu +5 位作者 Junwen Liu Guanghua Wang Wei Liu Deqing Zhuoga Detao Xiao Jian Yao 《环境科学学报:英文版》 SCIE EI CAS CSCD 2019年第8期155-168,共14页
To understand the physical and chemical characteristics, particle size distribution and sources of size-separated aerosols in Lhasa, which is located on the Tibetan Plateau(TP), six sizes of aerosol samples were colle... To understand the physical and chemical characteristics, particle size distribution and sources of size-separated aerosols in Lhasa, which is located on the Tibetan Plateau(TP), six sizes of aerosol samples were collected in Lhasa in 2014. Ca^2+, NH4^+, NO3^-,SO4^2-and Cl^-were the dominant ions. The ratio of cation equivalents(CE) to anion equivalents(AE) for each particle size segment indicated that the atmospheric aerosols in Lhasa were alkaline. SO4^2-and NO3-could be neutralized by Ca^2+, but could not be neutralized by NH4^+, according to the [NH4^+]/[NO3^-+ SO4^2-] and [Ca^2+]/[NO3^-+ SO4^2-] ratios. Mobile sources were dominant in PM0.95-1.5,PM1.5-3 and PM3-7.2, while stationary sources were dominant in the other three size fractions according to the [NO3^-]/[SO4^2-] ratios. The particle size distribution of all watersoluble ions during monsoon and non-monsoon periods was characterized by a bimodal distribution due to the different sources and formation mechanisms, and it was revealed that different ions had different sources in different seasons and different particle size segments by combining particle size distribution with correlation analysis. Source analysis of aerosols in Lhasa was performed using the Principal component analysis(PCA) for the first time, which revealed that combustion sources, motor vehicle exhaust, photochemical reaction sources and various types of dust were the main sources of Lhasa aerosols.Furthermore, Lhasa’s air quality was also affected by long-distance transmission, expressed as pollutants from South Asia and West Asia, which were transmitted to Lhasa according to backward trajectory analysis. 展开更多
关键词 Atmospheric AEROSOLS WATER-SOLUBLE ions(WSIs) Size distribution Principal component analysis(PCA) BACKWARD trajectory
Electrical features of radio-frequency atmospheric pressure helium discharge with and without dielectric electrodes
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作者 H ASHRAF S Z A SHAH +5 位作者 H I A QAZI M A KHAN S HUSSAIN M A BADAR S NIAZ M SHAFIQ 《等离子体科学与技术:英文版》 SCIE EI CAS CSCD 2019年第2期60-67,共8页
A comparative study of radio-frequency atmospheric pressure glow discharge(rf APGD)generated in helium with and without dielectric electrodes to investigate the effect of electrodes insulation on electrical features o... A comparative study of radio-frequency atmospheric pressure glow discharge(rf APGD)generated in helium with and without dielectric electrodes to investigate the effect of electrodes insulation on electrical features of APGD is presented. In the α mode, both the rf APGDs remain volumetric, stable and uniform. In the γ mode, the APGD without dielectric electrodes shrinks into a constricted plasma column whereas APGD with dielectric electrodes remains stable and retains the same volume without plasma constriction even at higher densities of discharge current. A comparison of electrical features of both rf APGDs in normal and abnormal glow discharge regimes is presented. In both APGDs with and without dielectric electrodes,impedance measurements have been performed and compared with equivalent circuit models.The measured impedance data is found to be in good agreement with simulated data. 展开更多
关键词 RADIOFREQUENCY atmospheric pressure GLOW DISCHARGE DIELECTRIC ELECTRODES plasma stability control
Coastal sea level variability in the Bohai Bay: influence of atmospheric forcing and prediction 预览
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作者 Lü Xianqing WANG Daosheng +1 位作者 YAN Bing YANG Hua 《海洋湖沼学报(英文)》 SCIE CAS CSCD 2019年第2期486-497,共12页
The sea level variabilities, especially the atmosphere-driven sea level variabilities, which are diff erent in studies on diverse areas and timescales, need to be further documented in the Bohai Bay. Coastal sea level... The sea level variabilities, especially the atmosphere-driven sea level variabilities, which are diff erent in studies on diverse areas and timescales, need to be further documented in the Bohai Bay. Coastal sea level data and coincident meteorological data collected hourly at two observation stations (E1 and E2) in the Bohai Bay, which is a typical semi-enclosed coastal sea in China, are analyzed for the period from 19 August 2014 to 18 November 2014. The sub-sampled low-pass (<0.8 cpd) sea levels (SLSLs) at E1 and E2 are almost the same as each other, while the winds are not. On the whole, SLSLs at E1 and E2 are dominantly influenced by the across-shore wind;in detail, the dominant wind orientation at E1 is 65° measured clockwise from north, and SLSL at E2 is significantly influenced by the sub-sampled wind (SW) at 55°. Regression of SLSL onto the corresponding SW in dominant orientation and the atmospheric pressure is used to predict SLSL, which make the frequency of occurrences when the predicted total sea level is within 0.15 m from the observed values increase to 66.03% and 58.08% at E1 and E2 from original 36.71% and 34.80% without using it, respectively. The results indicate that for the prediction of the total sea level variability in the coastal shallow waters, the SLSL influenced by the atmospheric forcing, including local wind and atmospheric pressure, can be predicted using the multivariable linear regression model. 展开更多
关键词 COASTAL sea level ATMOSPHERIC FORCING Bohai BAY PREDICTION
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Perturbations in Earth’s Atmosphere over An Indian Region during the Total Solar Eclipse on 22 July 2009
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作者 S.B.Surendra PRASAD Vinay KUMAR +4 位作者 K.Krishna REDDY S.K.DHAKA Shristy MALIK M.Venkatarami REDDY U.Murali KRISHNA 《气象学报:英文版》 SCIE CSCD 2019年第4期784-796,共13页
During a total solar eclipse(TSE)on 22 July 2009,atmospheric perturbations were monitored from the surface to thermosphere to understand TSE’s impact on the meteorological(temperature,relative humidity,wind speed,and... During a total solar eclipse(TSE)on 22 July 2009,atmospheric perturbations were monitored from the surface to thermosphere to understand TSE’s impact on the meteorological(temperature,relative humidity,wind speed,and wind direction)and chemical(O3 and NOx)parameters around Kadapa(14.28°N,78.42°E),a tropical semi-arid region of India.For this purpose,an experiment was conducted at Yogi Vemana University Campus,Kadapa,India,to measure the temperature,wind speed,wind direction,and concentrations of ozone(O3),NO,NO2,and NOx by using the automatic weather station(AWS)and O3 analyzer.On the eclipse day(22 July 2009),the surface observations at Kadapa showed a reduction in temperature(about 1.1℃)because of the solar insulation.Comparison of the thermal,dynamical(wind),and chemical parameters on the TSE day with control days[preceding(21 July 2009)and succeeding(23 July 2009)the TSE]illustrated the influence of solar eclipse.During the eclipse period,the O3 mixing ratio decreased,while NO2 and NOx increased;however,NO remained unchanged.In addition,radio occultation(RO)temperature profiles from Constellation Observing System for Meteorology,Ionosphere,and Climate(COSMIC)/Formosat Satellite Mission(FORMOSAT-3)and Thermosphere,Ionosphere,and Mesosphere Energetics and Dynamics(TIMED)satellites were utilized to understand the impact of TSE on dynamics of the middle and upper atmosphere from tropopause to the thermosphere.High vertical resolution COSMIC observations revealed that during the solar eclipse,tropopause was cooler with twin peaks(double tropopause).The lower thermosphere between 110 and 130 km became warmer during the TSE,which might be caused by the dynamical response of the atmosphere in this region to the solar eclipse.The experimental data have provided very fine-scale variations of the atmospheric parameters both in time and height and also constituted a new set of results on TSE for further research. 展开更多
关键词 total solar eclipse (TSE) atmospheric perturbations tropopause dynamics COSMIC/FORMOSAT-3satellite radio occultation (RO) observations
Earth rotation deceleration/acceleration due to semidiurnal oceanic/atmospheric tides:Revisited with new calculation
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作者 Sung-Ho Na Wenbin Shen +5 位作者 Jungho Cho Kiweon Seo Young-Hong Shin Kwan-Dong Park Kookyoun Youm Sung-Moon Yoo 《大地测量与地球动力学:英文版》 2019年第1期37-41,共5页
The global oceanic/atmospheric tides exert decelerating/accelerating secular torques on the Earth rotation. We developed new formulations to accurately calculate amounts of two kinds of secular tidal torques. After Me... The global oceanic/atmospheric tides exert decelerating/accelerating secular torques on the Earth rotation. We developed new formulations to accurately calculate amounts of two kinds of secular tidal torques. After Melchior, we found that an additional factor 1+k-l = 1.216, which has been formerly neglected, must be multiplied unto the tidal torque integral. By using our refined formulations and the recent oceanic/atmospheric global tide models, we found that:(i) semidiurnal oceanic lunar/solar tides exert decelerating torques of about-4.462 × 1016/-0.676 × 1016 Nm respectively and(ii) atmospheric S2 tide exerts accelerating torque of 1.55 × 1015 Nm. Former estimates of the atmospheric S2 tidal torque were twice as large as our estimate due to improper consideration of loading effect. We took the load Love number for atmospheric loading effect from Guo et al.(2004). For atmospheric loading of spherical harmonic degree two, the value of k′=-0.6031 is different from that for ocean loading as k′ =-0.3052,while the latter is currently used for both cases-ocean/atmospheric loading-without distinction. We discuss(i) the amount of solid Earth tidal dissipation(which has been left most uncertain) and(ii) secular changes of the dynamical state of the Earth-Moon-Sun system. Our estimate of the solid Earth tidal torque is-4.94×1015 Nm. 展开更多
关键词 Earth rotation OCEANIC and atmospheric TIDES TIDAL torque SECULAR DECELERATION and ACCELERATION
Climate change induced eutrophication of cold-water lake in an ecologically fragile nature reserve
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作者 Xiaotian Lu Yonglong Lu +7 位作者 DeliangChen Chao Su Shuai Song Tieyu Wang Hanqin Tian Ruoyu Liang Meng Zhang Kifayatullah Khan 《环境科学学报:英文版》 SCIE EI CAS CSCD 2019年第1期359-369,共11页
Aquatic ecosystem sustainability around the globe is facing crucial challenges because of increasing anthropogenic and natural disturbances.In this study,the Tianchi Lake,a typical cold-water lake and a UNESCO/MAB (Ma... Aquatic ecosystem sustainability around the globe is facing crucial challenges because of increasing anthropogenic and natural disturbances.In this study,the Tianchi Lake,a typical cold-water lake and a UNESCO/MAB (Man and Biosphere)nature reserve located in high latitude and elevation with the relatively low intensity of human activity was chosen as a system to examine the linkages between climate change and eutrophication.As a part of the UNESCO Bogda Man and Biosphere Reserve,Tianchi Lake has been well preserved for prevention from human intervention,but why has it been infected with eutrophication recent years? Our results show that climate change played a significant role in the eutrophication in the Tianchi Lake.Increased temperature,changed precipitation pattern and wind-induced hydrodynamic fluctuations in the summer season were suggested to make a major contribution to the accelerated eutrophication.The results also showed that the local temperature and precipitation changes were closely linked to the large-scale atmospheric circulation,which opens the door for the method to be applied in other regions without local climatic information.This study suggests that there is an urgent need to take into consideration of climate change adaptation into the conservation and management of cold-water lakes globally. 展开更多
关键词 EUTROPHICATION Climate change Atmospheric CIRCULATION ALPINE LAKES
Co-variation of the surface wind speed and the sea surface temperature over mesoscale eddies in the Gulf Stream region: momentum vertical mixing aspect 预览
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作者 HE Jingjing LIN Xiaopei 《海洋湖沼学报(英文)》 SCIE CAS CSCD 2019年第4期1154-1164,共11页
The co-variation of surface wind speed and sea surface temperature (SST) over the Gulf Stream frontal region is investigated using high-resolution satellite measurements and atmospheric reanalysis data. Results show t... The co-variation of surface wind speed and sea surface temperature (SST) over the Gulf Stream frontal region is investigated using high-resolution satellite measurements and atmospheric reanalysis data. Results show that the pattern of positive SST-surface wind speed correlations is anchored by strong SST gradient and marine atmospheric boundary layer (MABL) height front, with active warm and cold-ocean eddies around. The MABL has an obvious transitional structure along the strong SST front, with greater (lesser) heights over the north (south) side. The significant positive SST-surface wind-speed perturbation correlations are mostly found over both strong warm and cold eddies. The surface wind speed increases (decreases) about 0.32 (0.41) m/s and the MABL elevates (drops) approximate 55 (54) m per 1℃ of SST perturbation induced by warm (cold) eddies. The response of the surface wind speed to SST perturbations over the mesoscale eddies is mainly attributed to the momentum vertical mixing in the MABL, which is confirmed by the linear relationships between the downwind (crosswind) SST gradient and wind divergence (curl). 展开更多
关键词 GULF Stream positive sea SURFACE temperature (SST)-surface wind speed correlation marine atmospheric boundary layer (MABL) height MESOSCALE EDDY MOMENTUM vertical mixing
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Seasonal response of surface wind to SST perturbation in the Northern Hemisphere 预览
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作者 HE Jingjing HAN Xueshuang LIN Xiaopei 《海洋湖沼学报(英文)》 SCIE CAS CSCD 2019年第4期1165-1175,共11页
The seasonal response of surface wind speed to sea surface temperature (SST) change in the Northern Hemisphere was investigated using 10 years (2002-2011) high-resolution satellite observations and reanalysis data. Th... The seasonal response of surface wind speed to sea surface temperature (SST) change in the Northern Hemisphere was investigated using 10 years (2002-2011) high-resolution satellite observations and reanalysis data. The results showed that correlation between surface wind speed perturbations and SST perturbations exhibits remarkable seasonal variation, with more positive correlation is stronger in the cold seasons than in the warm seasons. This seasonality in a positive correlation between SST and surface wind speed is attributable primarily to seasonal changes of oceanic and atmospheric background conditions in frontal regions. The mean SST gradient and the prevailing surface winds are strong in winter and weak in summer. Additionally, the eddy-induced response of surface wind speed is stronger in winter than in summer, although the locations and numbers of mesoscale eddies do not show obvious seasonal features. The response of surface wind speed is apparently due to stability and mixing within the marine atmospheric boundary layer (MABL), modulated by SST perturbations. In the cold seasons, the stronger positive (negative) SST perturbations are easier to increase (decrease) the MABL height and trigger (suppress) momentum vertical mixing, contributing to the positive correlation between SST and surface wind speed. In comparison, SST perturbations are relatively weak in the warm seasons, resulting in a weak response of surface wind speed to SST changes. This result holds for each individual region with energetic eddy activity in the Northern Hemisphere. 展开更多
关键词 SEASONALITY positive correlation sea surface temperature (SST) gradient marine atmospheric boundary layer (MABL) height MESOSCALE EDDY
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Extinction coefficients of surface atmospheric aerosol above LHAASO
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作者 皮文萱 黄敏 +5 位作者 祝凤荣 何钰 谢宁 张勇 陈起辉 贾焕玉 《中国物理C:英文版》 SCIE CAS CSCD 2019年第8期117-123,共7页
We investigate the extinction coefficients of the surface atmospheric aerosol over the Large High Altitude Air Shower Observatory (LHAASO), located at the Haizi Mountain, Daocheng County, China. To this end, we utiliz... We investigate the extinction coefficients of the surface atmospheric aerosol over the Large High Altitude Air Shower Observatory (LHAASO), located at the Haizi Mountain, Daocheng County, China. To this end, we utilize the Longtin model, Mie scattering theory, and experimental data obtained by the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observation (CALIPSO). Our theoretical calculations show that the total extinction coefficients of the atmospheric aerosol at the wavelength of 200–500 nm are inversely proportional to the laser wavelength, and influenced by the wind speed. From July 2015 to October 2016, the extinction coefficient of the surface atmospheric aerosols at 532 nm wavelength reached 0.04 km^-1 with no wind, while it increased to 0.1 km^-1 with gusts. In this period, the extinction coefficients of the surface atmospheric aerosol at 532 nm wavelength, obtained by the CALIPSO, change from 0.01 to 0.07 km^-1, which is less than the values obtained the theoretical calculation and larger than the average of Tibetan Plateau in 2006-2016. These calculations and experimental evidence provide important arguments to the model of atmospheric aerosol to be applied in the calibration of LHAASO. Our results suggest that the extinction coefficients over LHAASO require further study, including research on the size distribution, shape, concentration of aerosols particles, wind dependence, relative humidity dependence, etc. 展开更多
关键词 LHAASO EXTINCTION COEFFICIENT ATMOSPHERIC AEROSOL
Regularity of Global Attractor for Atmospheric Circulation Equations with Humidity Effect
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作者 Jiao-jiao PAN Qian JIANG +1 位作者 Ting-wei RUAN Hong LUO 《应用数学学报:英文版》 SCIE CSCD 2019年第4期820-829,共10页
In this article, regularity of the global attractor for atmospheric circulation equations with humidity effect is considered. It is proved that atmospheric circulation equations with humidity effect possess a global a... In this article, regularity of the global attractor for atmospheric circulation equations with humidity effect is considered. It is proved that atmospheric circulation equations with humidity effect possess a global attractor in H~k(?, R~4) for any k≥0, which attracts any bounded set of H~k(?, R~4) in the H~k-norm. The result is established by means of an iteration technique and regularity estimates for the linear semigroup of operator, together with a classical existence theorem of global attractor. 展开更多
关键词 global ATTRACTOR REGULARITY atmospheric CIRCULATION EQUATIONS humidity effect
Response of Platanus orientalis leaves to urban pollution by heavy metals 预览
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作者 Esmaiel Khosropour Pedram Attarod +4 位作者 Anoushirvan Shirvany Thomas Grant Pypker Vilma Bayramzadeh Leila Hakimi Mazaher Moeinaddini 《林业研究:英文版》 CAS CSCD 2019年第4期1437-1445,共9页
Atmospheric pollution is an important concern in urban environments.The impact of urban pollution on the physiological,biochemical and anatomical properties of leaves of oriental plane(Platanus orientalis L.)was studi... Atmospheric pollution is an important concern in urban environments.The impact of urban pollution on the physiological,biochemical and anatomical properties of leaves of oriental plane(Platanus orientalis L.)was studied.The leaves were collected from an urban site(Tehran,Iran)and a non-urban forest park(Chitgar Forest Park).Anatomical(stomata,parenchyma,and cuticle)and physiological(chlorophyll content,enzyme activities)properties were analyzed.The concentrations of Cd(cadmium),Pb(lead),Ni(nickel),and Cr(chromium)in leaves were significantly higher and Zn(zinc)lower at the urban site relative to the forest park.Chlorophyll a,total chlorophyll,and carotenoid content in leaves of the urban site were significantly less than those of the forest park,but there was no significant difference in chlorophyll b.In addition,the activities of superoxide dismutase,catalase,ascorbate peroxidase,and guaiacol peroxidase in urban leaves were significantly higher than in the leaves of the forest park.In the urban area,leaves experienced a significant decrease in leaf surface area,stomata density,stomata pore area,epidermis,and spongy mesophyll thickness,but a significant increase in cuticle and palisade thicknesses relative to forest park leaves.The increase in enzyme activities may indicate that the trees are attempting to cope with increased reactive oxygen species(ROS)because of pollution-induced stress.Our study suggests that oriental plane trees alter their physiological and anatomical properties when living in a polluted urban environment. 展开更多
关键词 HEAVY metals LEAF ANATOMY LEAF PHYSIOLOGY Atmospheric pollution
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Physicochemical analysis of individual atmospheric fine particles based on effective surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy
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作者 Zhenli Sun Fengkui Duan +5 位作者 Kebin He Jingjing Du Liu Yang Hui Li Tao Mai Shuo Yang 《环境科学学报:英文版》 SCIE EI CAS CSCD 2019年第1期388-395,共8页
Fine particles associated with haze pollution threaten the health of more than 400 million people in China. It is therefore of great importance to thoroughly investigate and understand their composition. To determine ... Fine particles associated with haze pollution threaten the health of more than 400 million people in China. It is therefore of great importance to thoroughly investigate and understand their composition. To determine the physicochemical properties in atmospheric fine particles at the micrometer level, we described a sensitive and feasible surface-enhanced Raman scattering(SERS) method using Ag foil as a substrate. This novel method enhanced the Raman signal intensities up to 10,000 a.u. for ν(NO3-) in fine particles.The SERS effect of Ag foil was further studied experimentally and theoretically and found to have an enhancement factor of the order of ~104. Size-fractionated real particle samples with aerodynamic diameters of 0.4–2.5 μm were successfully collected on a heavy haze day,allowing ready observation of morphology and identification of chemical components, such as soot, nitrates, and sulfates. These results suggest that the Ag-foil-based SERS technique can be effectively used to determine the microscopic characteristics of individual fine particles, which will help to understand haze formation mechanisms and formulate governance policies. 展开更多
关键词 SERS PM2.5 INDIVIDUAL PARTICLE ATMOSPHERIC
Polarization imaging in atmospheric environment based on polarized reflectance retrieval
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作者 赵慧洁 邢健 +1 位作者 顾行发 贾国瑞 《中国光学快报:英文版》 SCIE EI CAS CSCD 2019年第1期115-120,共6页
A method for calculating the atmospheric parameters measurement accuracy requirement based on polarized reflectance retrieval is proposed. The at-sensor polarization states with different atmospheric parameters conten... A method for calculating the atmospheric parameters measurement accuracy requirement based on polarized reflectance retrieval is proposed. The at-sensor polarization states with different atmospheric parameters content are simulated based on the atmospheric radiative transfer model in order to select the key parameter affecting the polarization observation. The accuracy requirement of atmospheric parameters is derived through the polarized reflectance retrieval method. Experiment results show that retrieval accuracy of polarized reflectance of typical ground objects can be up to 90%. The atmospheric parameters measurement accuracy requirement when the retrieval accuracy is more than 75% is derived. 展开更多
关键词 ATMOSPHERIC ENVIRONMENT POLARIZED reflectance RETRIEVAL
Exploring atmospheric free-radical chemistry in China:the self-cleansing capacity and the formation of secondary air pollution
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作者 Keding Lu Song Guo +7 位作者 Zhaofeng Tan Haichao Wang Dongjie Shang Yuhan Liu Xin Li Zhijun Wu Min Hu Yuanhang Zhang 《国家科学评论:英文版》 CSCD 2019年第3期579-594,共16页
Since 1971,it has been known that the atmospheric free radicals play a pivotal role in maintaining the oxidizing power of the troposphere.The existence of the oxidizing power is an important feature of the troposphere... Since 1971,it has been known that the atmospheric free radicals play a pivotal role in maintaining the oxidizing power of the troposphere.The existence of the oxidizing power is an important feature of the troposphere to remove primary air pollutants emitted from human beings as well as those from the biosphere.Nevertheless,serious secondary air-pollution incidents can take place due to fast oxidation of the primary pollutants.Elucidating the atmospheric free-radical chemistry is a demanding task in the field of atmospheric chemistry worldwide,which includes two kinds of work:first,the setup of reliable radical detection systems;second,integrated field studies that enable closure studies on the sources and sinks of targeted radicals such as OH and NO3.In this review,we try to review the Chinese efforts to explore the atmospheric free-radical chemistry in such chemical complex environments and the possible link of this fast gas-phase oxidation with the fast formation of secondary air pollution in the city-cluster areas in China. 展开更多
关键词 ATMOSPHERIC CHEMISTRY free RADICALS new particle formations OH NO3
Important parameters in plasma jets for the production of RONS in liquids for plasma medicine: A brief review
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作者 Anna Khlyustova Cédric Labay +2 位作者 Zdenko Machala Maria-Pau Ginebra Cristina Canal 《化学科学与工程前沿:英文版》 EI CAS CSCD 2019年第2期238-252,共15页
Reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (RONS) are among the key factors in plasma medicine. They are generated by atmospheric plasmas in biological fluids, living tissues and in a variety of liquids. This ability of pla... Reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (RONS) are among the key factors in plasma medicine. They are generated by atmospheric plasmas in biological fluids, living tissues and in a variety of liquids. This ability of plasmas to create a delicate mix of RONS in liquids has been used to design remote or indirect treatments for oncological therapy by treating biological fluids by plasmas and putting them in contact with the tumour;Documented effects include selective cancer cell toxicity, even though the exact mechanisms involved are still under investigation. However, the "right" dose for suitable therapeutical activity is crucial and still under debate. The wide variety of plasma sources hampers comparisons. This review focuses on atmospheric pressure plasma jets as the most studied plasma devices in plasma medicine and compiles the conditions employed to generate RONS in relevant liquids and the concentration ranges obtained. The concentrations of H2O2, NO2^-, NO3^- and short-lived oxygen species are compared critically to provide a useful overview for the reader. 展开更多
关键词 ATMOSPHERIC plasma jets liquids ROS RNS plasma-dose
Effect of Acidified Aerosols on Initial Corrosion Behavior of Q235 Carbon Steel
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作者 Miao-Ran Liu Xiao Lu +3 位作者 Qi Yin Chen Pan Chuan Wang Zhen-Yao Wang 《金属学报:英文版》 SCIE EI CAS CSCD 2019年第8期995-1006,共12页
The effect of simulated acidified marine aerosols on the corrosion morphology of carbon steel was studied using an in situ optical stereomicroscope and scanning electron microscope equipped with an energy-dispersive s... The effect of simulated acidified marine aerosols on the corrosion morphology of carbon steel was studied using an in situ optical stereomicroscope and scanning electron microscope equipped with an energy-dispersive spectrometer and a whitelight interferometer.The morphologies of the carbon steel were identified under marine aerosols with diiferent droplet diameters,pH,and acidifications.The results showed that corrosion was initiated in tens of seconds under aerosol droplets acidified by HCl or H2SO4.Despite the differences in the acidifier and diameter,corrosion for acidified droplets with pH>2 was general corrosion.For acidified droplets with pH<1,the corrosion morphology depended on the acidifier species,the ring-like morphology for HCl and ridge-like morphology for H2SO4.The segregation of Cl^-was believed to be the main factor for the formation of the corrosion morphology under acidified droplets with pH<1.Also,the concentration of SO4^2-in the droplets had some effect on the segregation of Cl-ions when pH<1. 展开更多
关键词 Atmospheric CORROSION Aerosol ACIDIFICATION Carbon steel-pH CORROSION morphology
Synergistic Effect of NaCl and SO2 on the Initial Atmospheric Corrosion of Zinc Under Wet–Dry Cyclic Conditions
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作者 Qi Yin Zhen-Yao Wang +1 位作者 Miao-Ran Liu Chen Pan 《金属学报:英文版》 SCIE EI CAS CSCD 2019年第6期780-796,共17页
The synergistic eff ect of NaCl and SO2 on the atmospheric corrosion of zinc has been studied at equivalent total but different ratios of molar deposition rate under wet–dry cyclic conditions.The results show that th... The synergistic eff ect of NaCl and SO2 on the atmospheric corrosion of zinc has been studied at equivalent total but different ratios of molar deposition rate under wet–dry cyclic conditions.The results show that the corrosion rates,corrosion morphologies and the composition of the corrosion products are strongly infl uenced by the molar deposition rate ratio of NaCl and SO2(NaCl/SO2).The corrosivity of NaCl and SO2 toward zinc increases in order of SO2<1:3<3:1<NaCl<1:1.The corrosion morphology is patchy corrosion for Group 1:1,while it is pocking corrosion for the other four experimental groups.The corrosion product containing sulfur and chlorine detected on zinc is Gordaite(NaZn4SO4(OH)6Cl·6H2O),which has quite porous structure and was supposed to cause the patchy corrosion tendency of zinc in Group 1:1.In addition,soluble zinc corrosion products,which can inhibit the atmospheric corrosion process of zinc,were found on zinc samples in Groups 1:3 and SO2 and connected to the lower corrosion rates of zinc in these two groups. 展开更多
关键词 Atmospheric CORROSION ZINC SYNERGISTIC effect CORROSIVITY CORROSION morphology Gordaite
Response of the Dominant Modes of Atmospheric Circulation in the Northern Hemisphere to a Projected Arctic Sea Ice Loss in 2007 预览
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作者 FAN Tingting HUANG Fei ZHOU Xiao 《中国海洋大学学报:英文版》 SCIE CAS CSCD 2019年第3期589-595,共7页
This study revisits the Arctic sea ice extent(SIE) for the extended period of 1979-2015 based on satellite measurements and finds that the Arctic SIE experienced three different periods: a moderate sea ice decline per... This study revisits the Arctic sea ice extent(SIE) for the extended period of 1979-2015 based on satellite measurements and finds that the Arctic SIE experienced three different periods: a moderate sea ice decline period for 1979-1996, an accelerated sea ice decline period from 1997 to 2006, and large interannual variation period after 2007, when Arctic sea ice reached its tipping point reported by Livina and Lenton(2013). To address the response of atmospheric circulation to the lowest sea ice conditions with a large interannual variation, we investigated the dominant modes for large atmospheric circulation responses to the projected 2007 Arctic sea ice loss using an atmospheric general circulation model(ECHAM5). The response was obtained from two 50-yr simulations: one with a repeating seasonal cycle of specified sea ice concentration for the period of 1979-1996 and one with that of sea ice conditions in 2007. The results suggest more occurrences of a negative Arctic Oscillation(AO) response to the 2007 Arctic sea ice conditions, accompanied by an North Atlantic Oscillation(NAO)-type atmospheric circulation response under the largest sea ice loss, and more occurrences of the positive Arctic Dipole(AD) mode under the 2007 sea ice conditions, with an across-Arctic wave train pattern response to the largest sea ice loss in the Arctic. This study offers a new perspective for addressing the response of atmospheric circulation to sea ice changes after the Arctic reached the tipping point in 2007. 展开更多
关键词 ARCTIC sea ice LOSS ARCTIC OSCILLATION ARCTIC DIPOLE atmospheric RESPONSE
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Recent Progress in Numerical Atmospheric Modeling in China 预览
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作者 Rucong YU Yi ZHANG +4 位作者 Jianjie WANG Jian LI Haoming CHEN Jiandong GONG Jing CHEN 《大气科学进展:英文版》 SCIE CAS CSCD 2019年第9期938-960,共23页
This review summarizes the scientific and technical progress in atmospheric modeling in China since 2011,including the dynamical core,model physics,data assimilation,ensemble forecasting,and model evaluation strategie... This review summarizes the scientific and technical progress in atmospheric modeling in China since 2011,including the dynamical core,model physics,data assimilation,ensemble forecasting,and model evaluation strategies.In terms of the dynamical core,important efforts have been made in the improvement of the existing model formulations and in exploring new modeling approaches that can better adapt to massively parallel computers and global multiscale modeling.With regard to model physics,various achievements in physical representations have been made,especially a trend toward scale-aware parameterization for accommodating the increase of model resolution.In the field of data assimilation,a 4D-Var system has been developed and is operationally used by the National Meteorological Center of China,and its performance is promising.Furthermore,ensemble forecasting has played a more important role in operational forecast systems and progressed in many fundamental techniques.Model evaluation strategies,including key performance metrics and standardized experimental protocols,have been proposed and widely applied to better understand the strengths and weaknesses of the systems,offering key routes for model improvement.The paper concludes with a concise summary of the status quo and a brief outlook in terms of future development. 展开更多
关键词 NUMERICAL MODELING ATMOSPHERIC MODELING WEATHER and CLIMATE MODELING
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