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Control of Common Chickweed in Winter Wheat with Postemergence Herbicides 预览
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作者 Nader Soltani Christy Shropshire Peter H. Sikkema 《美国植物学期刊(英文)》 2019年第11期2012-2019,共8页
A total of six experiments were conducted over a two-year period (2018, 2019) at the University of Guelph Ridgetown Campus to assess the efficacy of various herbicides applied postemergence (POST) for the control of c... A total of six experiments were conducted over a two-year period (2018, 2019) at the University of Guelph Ridgetown Campus to assess the efficacy of various herbicides applied postemergence (POST) for the control of common chickweed in winter wheat. Fluroxypyr/bromoxynil/MCPA, pyrasulfotole/bromoxynil,pyrasulfotole/bromoxynil/fluroxypyr,pyrasulfotole/bromoxynil/thiencarbazone, pyrasulfotole/bromoxynil/thiencarbazone + MCPA ester, tolpyralate and fluroxypyr/halauxifen + MCPA EHE, applied POST, controlled common chickweed only 5% - 42% at 2 weeks after treatment (WAT) and 1% - 23% at 4 WAT and resulted in common chickweed density and biomass that was similar to non-treated weedy control. Fluroxypyr/halauxifen + pyroxsulam + MCPA EHE, applied POST, provided 57% - 82% control of common chickweed and reduced density 93% and biomass 98% compared to the non-treated control. Thifensulfuron/tribenuron, thifensulfuron/tribenuron + MCPA ester, thifensulfuron/tribenuron + fluroxypyr + MCPA ester, tribenuron + thiencarbazone, and tribenuron + thiencarbazone + MCPA ester, applied POST, controlled common chickweed 98% - 100% and reduced common chickweed density 96% - 98% and common chickweed biomass 99%. Based on these results, herbicide treatments which contained tribenuron including thifensulfuron/tribenuron, thifensulfuron/tribenuron + MCPA ester, thifensulfuron/tribenuron + fluroxypyr + MCPA ester, tribenuron + thiencarbazone, and tribenuron + thiencarbazone + MCPA ester were the most efficacious for the control of common chickweed in wheat. In addition, fluroxypyr/halauxifen + pyroxsulam + MCPA EHE, applied POST, can provide adequate control of common chickweed in winter wheat. 展开更多
关键词 WINTER Wheat WEED CONTROL NO-TILLAGE Biomass Density Injury TOLERANCE Yield
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Influence of Rice Residue Management Techniques and Weed Control Treatments on Soil Available Plant Nutrients in Rice-Wheat Cropping System 预览
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作者 Amandeep Singh Brar Parmodh Sharma +1 位作者 Charanjit Singh Kahlon Ujagar Singh Walia 《美国植物学期刊(英文)》 2019年第1期55-64,共10页
Rice-wheat is the predominant cropping system of fertile soils of Indian, Pakistan, Bangladesh and Nepal falling in the alluvial Indo-Gangetic Plains (IGP). Management of rice residues produced after the harvest of ri... Rice-wheat is the predominant cropping system of fertile soils of Indian, Pakistan, Bangladesh and Nepal falling in the alluvial Indo-Gangetic Plains (IGP). Management of rice residues produced after the harvest of rice crop and before sowing of the next wheat crop is a big challenge in that area. Mostly farmers burn rice residues assuming it low profile fodder and of little use. Burning of rice residues deprives the fields from many plant nutrients as they are lost during burning along with environmental pollutions and other issues. A field study was conducted for two consecutive years at the experimental area of the Department of Agronomy, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana (India) to assess the impact of different rice residue management techniques and weed control treatments in wheat on soil available plant nutrients in rice-wheat cropping system. The experiment was laid out in split plot design with three replications. In main plots, five rice residue management treatments viz., no rice residue, rice residue 5 t·ha-1 (surface), rice residue 6 t·ha-1 (surface), rice residue 7 t·ha-1 (surface) and rice residue 5 t·ha-1 (incorporation) were settled and in sub plots, four weed control treatments i.e. clodinafop 60 t·ha-1, sulfosulfuron 25 t·ha-1, mesosulfuron + iodosulfuron 12 t·ha-1 and control (unweeded) were arranged. Results of the study revealed that surface application as well as incorporation of rice residues improved the organic carbon and NPK status than no rice residues. Among the residue management practices, incorporation of rice residues 5 t·ha-1 significantly improved the soil organic carbon, available nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium than no rice residue treatment in the 0 - 15 soil layer during both the years. Same trend was observed for 15 - 30 cm soil layer but differences were less wide than 0 - 15 cm soil layer. Among the weed control treatments, organic carbon was not significantly influenced. Herbicide treated plots registered significantly higher available nitrogen, phospho 展开更多
关键词 RESIDUE Management RICE RESIDUE WEED Control
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Weed Management in White Bean with Variable Doses of S-Metolachlor and Halosulfuron Applied Preemergence 预览
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作者 Nader Soltani Christy Shropshire Peter H. Sikkema 《农业科学(英文)》 2019年第11期1453-1464,共12页
Five experiments were conducted in Ontario, Canada from 2016 to 2018 to determine how doses of S-metolachlor and halosulfuron applied preemergence (PRE) should be adjusted to control specific weed species in white bea... Five experiments were conducted in Ontario, Canada from 2016 to 2018 to determine how doses of S-metolachlor and halosulfuron applied preemergence (PRE) should be adjusted to control specific weed species in white bean. S-metolachlor, halosulfuron, and S-metolachlor + halosulfuron caused minimal (1% to 4%) injury in white bean. Weed interference reduced white bean yield 54%. On average, weed interference with S-metolachlor and halosulfuron decreased yield 34% and 29%, respectively. In contrast, white bean seed yield was similar to the weed-free control with the S-metolachlor + halosulfuron tankmixes. S-metolachlor applied alone controlled A. theophrasti, A. retroflexus, A. artemisiifolia, C. album, E. crus-galli and S. viridis 0% to 3%, 78% to 93%, 0% to 9%, 5% to 15%, 97% to 99% and 96% to 98%, respectively. Halosulfuron applied alone controlled A. theophrasti, A. retroflexus, A. artemisiifolia, C. album, E. crus-galli and S. viridis 39% to 87%, 93% to 99%, 64% to 88%, 34% to 59%, 10% to 30% and 13% to 35%, respectively. S-metolachlor + halosulfuron tankmixes controlled A. theophrasti, A. retroflexus, A. artemisiifolia, C. album, E. crus-galli and S. viridis 47% to 94%, 98% to 100%, 78% to 94%, 37% to 78%, 94% to 98% and 91% to 96%, respectively. Weed density and biomass reductions with the herbicides evaluated followed the same pattern as visible weed control assessments. Results from this study indicate that doses of S-metolachlor and halosulfuron, when applied as a tankmix, should be adjusted based on a weed species composition in each individual white bean field. 展开更多
关键词 Biomass Density Dry BEAN MATURITY Seed Yield Tolerance WEED Control
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Hot Water Treatment Enhances the Bioherbicidal Efficacy of a Fungus 预览
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作者 C. Douglas Boyette Robert E. Hoagland Kenneth C. Stetina 《美国植物学期刊(英文)》 2018年第10期2063-2076,共14页
Hemp sesbania (Sesbania exaltata) plants (>30 cm tall) sprayed with hot water (45&deg;C – 95&deg;C), followed by spray applications of fungal spores of Colletotrichum truncatum (CT) at 1.0 × 107 spore... Hemp sesbania (Sesbania exaltata) plants (>30 cm tall) sprayed with hot water (45&deg;C – 95&deg;C), followed by spray applications of fungal spores of Colletotrichum truncatum (CT) at 1.0 × 107 spores/ml-1 and 22&deg;C – 25&deg;C, suspended either in: 0.2% Silwet L-77 surfactant (SW);unrefined corn oil (CO)/distilled water (1:1, v:v);or 0.2% SW in CO were controlled by 80% - 95%, 12 days after treatment (DAT) under greenhouse conditions. These treatments also reduced dry weight accumulation of this weed. Plants treated with hot water without CT were also injured at temperatures ≥35&deg;C (5% mortality), and 60% mortality at 95&deg;C. Artificial dew treatments (25&deg;C, 12 h), imposed on plants after the treatment protocols above, had little or no effect on weed mortality or dry weight reduction compared to treated plants without dew. Under field conditions, 85% control of hemp sesbania was achieved 12 - 15 DAT when a pre-treatment with hot water (65&deg;C) was followed immediately with a CT application at the spore concentration as described above. Plants in field tests treated with CT without a hot water treatment were visually unaffected, with no mortality or plant biomass reductions recorded 15 DAT. These results suggest that use of hot water may be an important tool for improving the infectivity and bioherbicidal potential of some plant pathogens. 展开更多
关键词 BIOHERBICIDE MYCOHERBICIDE HEMP SESBANIA SESBANIA exaltata COLLETOTRICHUM truncatum Hot Water Pre-Treatment Improved BIOHERBICIDE EFFICACY Weed Control
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30g/l甲基二磺隆可分散油悬浮剂防除春小麦田一年生杂草 预览 被引量:1
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作者 朱海霞 李明珠 魏有海 《青海农林科技》 2018年第3期1-5,42共6页
为验证30g/l甲基二磺隆可分散油悬浮剂防除春小麦田一年生杂草效果,适宜用量和对作物的安全性,采用茎叶喷雾法评价不同计量下30g/l甲基二磺隆可分散油悬浮剂对春小麦田除杂草效果。实验结果表明:春小麦3叶~4叶1心期为适宜施药期,推荐30... 为验证30g/l甲基二磺隆可分散油悬浮剂防除春小麦田一年生杂草效果,适宜用量和对作物的安全性,采用茎叶喷雾法评价不同计量下30g/l甲基二磺隆可分散油悬浮剂对春小麦田除杂草效果。实验结果表明:春小麦3叶~4叶1心期为适宜施药期,推荐30g/l甲基二磺隆可分散油悬浮剂制剂量600ml/hm2(有效量18ai,g/hm2),兑水300l茎叶喷雾处理,对猪殃殃、野芥菜、酸模叶蓼、藜和野燕麦总草防效可达54%以上。 展开更多
关键词 30g/l甲基二磺隆可分散油悬浮剂 防效 春小麦田 一年生杂草
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Evaluation of Preemergence Herbicides for Crop Safety and Weed Control in Safflower 预览
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作者 Prashant Jha Vipan Kumar +1 位作者 Charlemagne A. Lim Ramawatar Yadav 《美国植物学期刊(英文)》 2017年第10期2358-2366,共9页
Weed management in safflower (Carthamus tinctorious L.) is a major challenge for growers due to very limited herbicide options available, particularly for broadleaf weed control. Field experiments were conducted at th... Weed management in safflower (Carthamus tinctorious L.) is a major challenge for growers due to very limited herbicide options available, particularly for broadleaf weed control. Field experiments were conducted at the Montana State University Southern Agricultural Research Center (MSU-SARC) near Huntley, MT in 2015 and 2016 to evaluate preemergence (PRE) soil-residual herbicides for crop safety and season-long broadleaf weed control in safflower. Among all herbicide programs tested, only sulfentrazone (105 g&middot;ai&middot;ha-1) alone or with pendimethalin (1064 g&middot;ai&middot;ha-1) caused 4% to 12% early-season visible injury to safflower, although the injury was not evident beyond 30 DAT. Sulfentrazone alone or with pendimethalin and pyroxasulfone (59 g&middot;ai&middot;ha-1) with pendimethalin had a season-long residual activity on kochia [Kochia scoparia (L.) Schrad] and Russian-thistle (Salsola tragus L), with 89% to 99% control at 60 DAT, and up to 98% reduction in weed density compared with dimethenamid-P (213 g&middot;ai&middot;ha-1) and S-metolachlor (433 g&middot;ai&middot;ha-1) at 65 DAT. Pyroxasulfone (59 or 118 g&middot;ai&middot;ha-1) alone or dimethenamid-P with pendimethalin provided a moderate to good control (65% to 79% at 60 DAT) of kochia and Russian-thistle. However, the end-season control of kochia or Russian-thistle was inadequate ( S-metolachlor alone program. Safflower grain yield with sulfentrazone alone or with pendimethalin, pyroxasulfone alone or with pendimethalin, and dimethenamid-P with pendimethalin averaged 3559 kg&middot;ha-1, which was 195% higher compared with the nontreated check. In conclusion, sulfentrazone and pyroxasulfone or dimethenamid-P in combination with pendimethalin will be effective PRE herbicide programs for kochia and Russian-thistle control in safflower. 展开更多
关键词 SAFFLOWER WEED Control PREEMERGENCE HERBICIDE Kochia Russian-Thistle
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Efficacy of Selected Herbicide Programs in 2,4-D Tolerant Cotton (<i>Gossypium hirsutum</i>L.) 预览
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作者 Colton H. Sanders Dwayne D. Joseph Michael W. Marshall 《农业科学(英文)》 2017年第10期1157-1167,共11页
The use of transgenic crops has grown significantly over the past couple of decades. Many agronomic crops produced today are tolerant to glyphosate. Glyphosate-tolerant crops were commercially introduced in 1996, and,... The use of transgenic crops has grown significantly over the past couple of decades. Many agronomic crops produced today are tolerant to glyphosate. Glyphosate-tolerant crops were commercially introduced in 1996, and, about nine years later, glyphosate-resistant Palmer amaranth was confirmed in Georgia. Glyphosate-resistant weeds arose from reliance on postemergence only glyphosate programs to control weeds in crops. New transgenic traits for glufosinate and 2,4-D choline have been developed, and evaluations of stacked traits and concurrent use of multiple herbicides have provided additional tools in the management of glyphosate-resistant weeds. Field experiments were conducted in 2012 and 2013 at the Edisto Research and Education Center near Blackville, SC, USA to determine the efficacy of 2,4-D-based herbicide programs in transgenic cotton tolerant to 2,4-D choline, glyphosate, and glufosinate. The treatments provided good to excellent Palmer amaranth and pitted morningglory control in 2012 and 2013. Seed cotton yields across treatments ranged from 0 to 2057 kg ha-1. This new trait technology package in cotton permits in-season postemergence use of 2,4-D choline, a herbicide mode of action not previously used postemergence in cotton, which can control resistant weeds, including Palmer amaranth if applied at the proper growth stage. 展开更多
关键词 Glyphosate 2 4-D TOLERANT COTTON Resistant Weeds GLUFOSINATE 4-D CHOLINE Weed Control
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Reduced Rates of Metribuzin and Time of Hilling Controlled Weeds in Potato 预览
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作者 Walaa Siblani Mustapha A. Haidar 《美国植物学期刊(英文)》 2017年第12期3207-3217,共11页
The current emphasis on reducing herbicide applications has led to an increase in alternative weed control measures. Field experiment was conducted in the spring of 2014 to examine the effect of hilling-time and reduc... The current emphasis on reducing herbicide applications has led to an increase in alternative weed control measures. Field experiment was conducted in the spring of 2014 to examine the effect of hilling-time and reduced-rates of metribuzin and their combinations on weed infestation in potato, and to determine their impact on potato yield. Metribuzin at 0.35, 0.56, or 0.75 kg ai/ha with or without hilling 6, 7, and 8 weeks after planting (WAP) were used. Weed count, weed control visual rating, weed dry weight, potato plant height, number of shoots and leaves, root dry weight, and potato yield were collected. Results showed that metribuzin, at all tested rates, with or without hilling significantly reduced weed infestation after 50, 70, and 110 days after planting (DAP) compared to the check. Best results were obtained by a combination of metribuzin at all tested rates with hilling 6, 7, and 8 WAP. The results suggest that long season weed control and high marketable yield could be achieved by metribuzin at 0.35 kg ai/ha (53% reduction in metribuzin) supplemented with hilling (6 WAP). None of the treatments was toxic to potato plants compared to the hand-weeded plots. 展开更多
关键词 POTATO METRIBUZIN Hilling WEED CONTROL
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Weed Control, Environmental Impact, and Net-Profit of Two-Pass Weed Management Strategies in Dicamba-Resistant Soybean (<i>Glycine max</i>) Using Conventional Tillage 预览
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作者 Matthew G. Underwood Nader Soltan +4 位作者 David C. Hooker Darren E. Robinson Joseph P. Vink Clarence J. Swanton Peter H. Sikkema 《美国植物学期刊(英文)》 2017年第13期3414-3428,共15页
Traditional two-pass weed management strategies need to be compared with new strategies in glyphosate/dicamba-resistant soybean. Weed control, soybean yield, partial profitability and environmental impact (EI) were ev... Traditional two-pass weed management strategies need to be compared with new strategies in glyphosate/dicamba-resistant soybean. Weed control, soybean yield, partial profitability and environmental impact (EI) were evaluated in glyphosate/dicamba-resistant soybean using dicamba applied alone or in a tank-mix with dimethenamid-P applied preemergence (PRE). Trials were conducted at three locations during 2014 and 2015. Several PRE herbicides provided excellent control of broadleaf and grass weeds. Dicamba provided > 91% control of broadleaf weeds, and the addition of dimethenamid-P improved grass control. All weed species at the trial locations were controlled > 94% following a postemergence (POST) application of glyphosate. Weed interference reduced soybean seed yield 33% where no herbicide was applied. A single POST application of glyphosate had the lowest EI. Several treatments improved early-season weed control and reduced early-season weed density and biomass compared to glyphosate and had similar EI values. In this study, there was no benefit to yield or partial profit by including a PRE herbicide for weed management;however, the inclusion of multiple modes-of-action in a herbicide program may reduce the selection for herbicide-resistant weeds. 展开更多
关键词 Density Environmental Impact Injury PROFIT Analysis TILLAGE Yield Weed Control
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Pre-emergence herbicides affect seedling emergence of tropical forest tree species 预览
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作者 Diego Cerveira de Souza Vera Lex Engel 《林业研究:英文版》 CAS CSCD 2017年第4期733-739,共7页
Testing techniques to reduce weed infestation is acrucial step indeveloping direct tree seeding systems. The use of pre-emergence herbicides may be an alternative to manual weeding techniques, but so far, information ... Testing techniques to reduce weed infestation is acrucial step indeveloping direct tree seeding systems. The use of pre-emergence herbicides may be an alternative to manual weeding techniques, but so far, information on howthey affectthe seeds of native tree species is scarce. We established a greenhouse experiment to evaluate the effects of four preemergence herbicides (atrazine, diuron, isoxaflutole and oxyfluorfen) on weed suppression and seedling emergence and early growth of seven tropical forest tree species (Annona coriacea Mart., Citharexylum myrianthum Cham., Cordia ecalyculata Vell., Peltophorum dubium (Spreng.) Taub.,Psidium guajava L., Pterogyne nitens Tul. and Schinus terebinthifolia Raddi). The experimental design was a randomized complete block design with five treatments and five replicates. The treatments consisted of a single dose of each pre-emergence herbicide and a control. Throughout the 60 days after sowing we evaluated weed cover and seedling emergence and early growth of tree species. Overall, our results suggest that all tested herbicides reduced weed cover;however, they also negatively affected tree species seedling emergence. Of the four herbicides tested, atrazine and diuron showed the greatest effects on tree seedling emergence,oxyfluorfen was least aggressive towards native species and isoxaflutole was most effective in weed control. Native tree species varied in their responses to herbicides, indicating that future experiments should increase the number of species tested as well as investigate how seed traits can affect the species responses to different herbicides. 展开更多
关键词 Pre-emergence HERBICIDES WEED control Direct SEEDING Seedling EMERGENCE Tropical seasonal forests
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Extending the Shelf-Life of <i>Myrothecium verrucaria</i>, a Bioherbicide 预览
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作者 Robert E. Hoagland C. D. Boyette K. C. Stetina 《美国植物学期刊(英文)》 2017年第12期3272-3484,共213页
The shelf-life of a bioherbicide product is an important factor with regard to its commercial potential. The bioherbicidal efficacy of freshly fermented Myrothecium verrucaria (strain IMI 368023) (MV) mycelia formulat... The shelf-life of a bioherbicide product is an important factor with regard to its commercial potential. The bioherbicidal efficacy of freshly fermented Myrothecium verrucaria (strain IMI 368023) (MV) mycelia formulations and MV mycelia preparations that had been freeze-dried and then stored at -20&deg;C for 8 years was compared. Two concentrations of each formulation (1.0x and 0.5x) were tested, utilizing bioassays on seedlings of the weed, hemp sesbania (Sesbania exaltata) under greenhouse conditions or in darkness utilizing hydroponically grown seedlings. Freeze drying of freshly prepared MV mycelium produced a light, brownish-colored powder. Efficacy tests of this reconstituted 8-year-old dried material showed that some bioherbicidal activity was lost during long-term storage, i.e., ~20% and ~60% seedling dry weight reduction at the 1.0x and 0.5x rate, respectively. Although plant mortality was greater in the fresh mycelial preparations treatments versus the freeze-dried and stored samples at all time points in the time-course, the stored material still caused >80% mortality, 15 days after treatment. Comparative disease progression ratings also showed a similar trend. Overall results show that freeze-drying MV is a useful method to reduce the bulk and cumbersomeness of storing heavy liquid fermentation product, while retaining bioherbicidal activity. These findings increase the utility of this bioherbicide and offer the potential to use the dried material in soil treatments or in a more concentrated form than attainable via the fermented product. 展开更多
关键词 BIOHERBICIDE Plant Pathogen Weed Control LYOPHILIZATION FREEZE-DRYING Mycelium MYCOHERBICIDE Myrothecium verrucaria
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植物替代控制3种入侵杂草技术的研究与应用进展 预览 被引量:6
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作者 高尚宾 张宏斌 +1 位作者 孙玉芳 张国良 《生物安全学报》 2017年第1期18-22,102共6页
植物替代控制是利用一种或多种植物的生长优势控制入侵杂草的方法,它是控制外来杂草危害的有效途径之一;因其既可控制入侵杂草危害又能取得一定的经济效益及生态效益而被人们广泛接受。本文简要介绍了我国3种入侵杂草植物替代控制技术... 植物替代控制是利用一种或多种植物的生长优势控制入侵杂草的方法,它是控制外来杂草危害的有效途径之一;因其既可控制入侵杂草危害又能取得一定的经济效益及生态效益而被人们广泛接受。本文简要介绍了我国3种入侵杂草植物替代控制技术研究与应用现状,系统总结了植物替代控制技术阻截和修复豚草、紫茎泽兰及黄顶菊扩散危害的技术模式和效果,提出了植物替代控制技术未来研究的方向和重点。 展开更多
关键词 替代控制 入侵杂草 筛选评价 豚草 紫茎泽兰 黄顶菊
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产量与经济效益共赢的高效生态农业模式:以弘毅生态农场为例 被引量:6
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作者 蒋高明 郑延海 +46 位作者 吴光磊 刘慧 池云花 冯素飞 李勇 李彩虹 李宗奉 苏本营 董群 乌云塔娜 LUCAS Mario LEFORT Zoe REGOLINI Margot 曾祥伟 贺新华 郭立月 战丽杰 唐海龙 韦继光 周平 曾彦 杨煜 宋守宽 刘秀 甄珍 刘海涛 孟杰 李静 李霄 李占 丁娜 博文静 虞晓凡 程达 梁啸天 李立君 徐磊 谷仙 宋彦洁 MUMINOV A. Mahmud 刘滨扬 赫晓霞 刘美珍 宁堂原 王空军 徐玉新 陈文浩 《科学通报》 EI CAS CSCD 北大核心 2017年第4期289-297,共9页
化学物质的大量投入以及元素不能循环导致农田生态系统退化,耕地质量和产量均呈下降趋势,食物链受到污染.本研究从低产田开始,通过秸秆养牛、腐熟牛粪还田恢复地力;以物理+生物方法控制虫害;以人工+机械管理杂草,停用农药、化肥和除草... 化学物质的大量投入以及元素不能循环导致农田生态系统退化,耕地质量和产量均呈下降趋势,食物链受到污染.本研究从低产田开始,通过秸秆养牛、腐熟牛粪还田恢复地力;以物理+生物方法控制虫害;以人工+机械管理杂草,停用农药、化肥和除草剂,同时不用地膜、人工合成激素、转基因种子生产优质安全食品,并在线上与线下销售.10年的长期实验结果表明,所在村庄农田生态环境改善,减少农药用量58.3%;物理+生物控虫效果明显,每盏灯年捕获量从2009年的33 kg下降到2014年的2.1 kg,下降93.8%;年消耗秸秆1000 t,秸秆利用率从1.1%提高到62.5%.有机肥还田提高了土壤生物多样性,有机果园蚯蚓数量317条m^-2,而普通果园只有16条m^-2;大量有机肥还田(75 t hm^-2),土壤有机质从实验初期的0.7%提高到2.4%.粮食产量从最初的11.43 t hm^-2提高到目前的17.43 t hm^-2,其中冬小麦(Triticum aestivum)、夏玉米(Zea mays)、大豆(Glycine max(Linn.)Merr.)和花生(Arachis hypogaea Linn.)产量分别超出山东省平均水平42.6%,60.9%,32.2%和38.1%.由于质量好,产品已销售往除西藏以外的30个省、市、自治区,经济效益明显,平均每公顷效益是普通农田的3-5倍,带动所在村庄67户农民从事高效生态农业.本研究可为国家制定生态农业发展规划、精准扶贫、农村环境保护等提供科学依据. 展开更多
关键词 高效生态农业 秸秆 害虫控制 杂草管理 产量 经济效益
直播稻田应用‘激健’减量控害除草效果初探 预览 被引量:1
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作者 吴波 孙华明 陈英 《作物研究》 2017年第6期664-667,共4页
为了探讨‘激健’在直播稻田控害除草、农药减量的作用效果,针对常德水稻主产区的主要草害,2016年开展了应用‘激健’减量控害水稻直播稻田除草试验与示范研究。结果表明,应用‘激健’可以显著减少除草剂用量,促进直播稻田水稻产量的提... 为了探讨‘激健’在直播稻田控害除草、农药减量的作用效果,针对常德水稻主产区的主要草害,2016年开展了应用‘激健’减量控害水稻直播稻田除草试验与示范研究。结果表明,应用‘激健’可以显著减少除草剂用量,促进直播稻田水稻产量的提高,其中以添加‘激健’0.225kg/hm~2、除草剂减量20%处理的控草与增产效果最佳,与对照比较,大区试验水稻增产达16.6%,小区试验增产达23.5%。 展开更多
关键词 水稻 直播稻田 除草 激健
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Kudzu Response to Foliar Applied Herbicides 预览
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作者 Mark A. Weaver Robert E. Hoagland C. Douglas Boyette 《美国植物学期刊(英文)》 2015年第7期856-863,共8页
Chemical control is presently the most cost-effective means to control kudzu;however, some of the herbicides labeled for kudzu control have substantial non-target toxicity, poor selectivity, high cost, long soil persi... Chemical control is presently the most cost-effective means to control kudzu;however, some of the herbicides labeled for kudzu control have substantial non-target toxicity, poor selectivity, high cost, long soil persistence, high soil mobility and/or high use rates. The present study evaluated other herbicides for efficacy in suppressing aboveground kudzu biomass in replicated field trials at three sites over two years. A single application of aminopyralid, triclopyr or metsulfuron resulted in at least 90% kudzu suppression in the following season at two locations. After a second year of treatment those herbicides and fluroxypyr produced at least 90% kudzu suppression, and 100% kudzu control was reached on some test plots. Glyphosate, glufosinate and mesotrione were less effective in controlling kudzu. Given the rapid growth potential of kudzu, complete eradication should be pursued. None of the herbicides evaluated in the present study could reliably achieve eradication of mature kudzu with two applications, so additional control efforts would be required. 展开更多
关键词 Herbicidal CONTROL Invasive Species PUERARIA montana var. lobata WEED CONTROL
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Broadleaf Weed Control in Sunflower (<i>Helianthus annuus</i>) with Preemergence-Applied Pyroxasulfone with and without Sulfentrazone 预览
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作者 Seshadri S. Reddy Phillip W. Stahlman Patrick W. Geier 《农业科学(英文)》 2015年第11期1309-1316,共8页
A field study was conducted at two locations in Kansas, USA in 2011 and 2012 to test weed control efficacy and crop response to preemergence-applied pyroxasulfone alone and in combination with sulfentrazone in sunflow... A field study was conducted at two locations in Kansas, USA in 2011 and 2012 to test weed control efficacy and crop response to preemergence-applied pyroxasulfone alone and in combination with sulfentrazone in sunflower. Treatments included three rates of pyroxasulfone (100, 200 and 400 g·ha-1) applied alone and tank-mixed with sulfentrazone at 70, 140 and 280 g·ha-1. Commercial standards sulfentrazone at 140 g·ha-1 + pendimethalin at 1390 g·ha-1 and sulfentrazone at 140 g·ha-1 + S-metolachlor at 1280 g·ha-1 were also included. Pyroxasulfone at 100 g·ha-1 controlled Palmer amaranth 87% at 3 weeks after application (WAA), but control decreased to 76% at 6 WAA. Increasing pyroxasulfone rate to ≥200 g·ha-1 or tank mixing with sulfentazone at 140 g·ha-1 provided ≥90% Palmer amaranth control for at least 6 WAA. Sulfentrazone alone at 70 g·ha-1 controlled Palmer amaranth 77% at 3 WAA, but control dropped to 69% at 6 WAA. Increasing sulfentrazone rate from 70 to 140 or 280 g·ha-1 increased control to >90% at 3 WAA, but did not maintain acceptable control at 6 WAA. Tank mixing sulfentrazone at 140 g·ha-1 with pendimethalin at 1390 g·ha-1 or S-metolachlor at 1280 g·ha-1 controlled Palmer amaranth ≥90 and 84% at 3 WAA and 6 WAA, respectively. The lowest rate of pyroxasulfone (100 g·ha-1) controlled kochia 98% and the control was complete with all other treatments. However, no treatment provided as much as 90% puncturevine control at 3 WAA and the control was commercially unacceptable (<75%) at 6 WAA. No treatment visibly injured sunflower anytime during the season or reduced sunflower plant population. 展开更多
关键词 Pyroxasulfone SULFENTRAZONE SUNFLOWER Weed Control Palmer AMARANTH Kochia
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葛藤定植及替代控制紫茎泽兰的技术研究 预览 被引量:2
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作者 卢向阳 曹坳程 +1 位作者 欧阳灿彬 张锦华 《杂草科学》 2015年第4期18-22,共5页
选用多年生双子叶植物作为替代植物,不仅能够达到持续控制紫茎泽兰的目的,而且可以便利伴生单子叶杂草治理。但替代植物种类的选择及伴生阔叶杂草的治理仍需要加以解决。在贵州对4种替代植物的试验结果表明,葛藤生长迅速,对地表盖度好,... 选用多年生双子叶植物作为替代植物,不仅能够达到持续控制紫茎泽兰的目的,而且可以便利伴生单子叶杂草治理。但替代植物种类的选择及伴生阔叶杂草的治理仍需要加以解决。在贵州对4种替代植物的试验结果表明,葛藤生长迅速,对地表盖度好,替代控制紫茎泽兰效果可达96%以上,而其他替代植物种类的盖度较差。葛藤伴生的阔叶杂草可用除草剂氟磺胺草醚和乙羧氟草醚防除,在推荐剂量下对幼苗期的紫茎泽兰或假臭草的防效可达99%以上,且对葛藤安全;相反,除草剂甲氧咪草烟和异恶草酮效果较差。 展开更多
关键词 紫茎泽兰 替代控制 葛藤 杂草防除
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Weed Control Strips Influences on the Rubber Tree Growth 预览
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作者 Caio Doria Guzzo Leonardo B. de Carvalho +2 位作者 Pedro Luis da C. A. Alves Elaine Cristine Piffer Gon?alves Paulo F. Giancotti 《美国植物学期刊(英文)》 2014年第8期1059-1068,共10页
Hevea brasiliensis (rubber tree) is the most widely cultivated tree species for producing natural rubber latex whose productivity can be reduced by weeds. Field experiment was carried out during two years to evaluate ... Hevea brasiliensis (rubber tree) is the most widely cultivated tree species for producing natural rubber latex whose productivity can be reduced by weeds. Field experiment was carried out during two years to evaluate the growth of rubber tree plants submitted to different weed control strips (0-weed-free, 50, 100, 150, 200, 250, 300, 350, and 400-(weedy cm) and to determine the critical width of weed control strip during the establishment of rubber tree plantation. Weed community was composed mainly by Urochloa decumbens (90%). The width of the weed control strip influenced on the initial plant growth of rubber trees, reducing the plant height, stem diameter, leaf area, and aboveground dry mass accumulation. In consequence, crop plantation was affected by the width of weed control. The critical width of the weed control strip for establishment of a rubber tree plantation was within 100 cm. 展开更多
关键词 HEVEA brasiliensis Urochloa decumbens WEED Control WEED INTERFERENCE
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Weed Management in Kidney Bean with Tank Mixes of S-Metolachlor, Imazethapyr and Linuron 预览
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作者 Nader Soltani Robert E. Nurse Peter H. Sikkema 《农业科学(英文)》 2014年第7期611-617,共7页
Field studies were conducted in various locations in Ontario during 2011 to 2013 to evaluate s-metolachlor, imazethapyr and linuron applied preemergence (PRE) alone and in tankmix combination for the control of troubl... Field studies were conducted in various locations in Ontario during 2011 to 2013 to evaluate s-metolachlor, imazethapyr and linuron applied preemergence (PRE) alone and in tankmix combination for the control of troublesome weeds in kidney bean. S-metolachlor, imazethapyr, linuron, s-metolachlor + imazethapyr, s-metolachlor + linuron and s-metolachlor + imazethapyr + linuron applied PRE at rates evaluated caused 3% or less injury in kidney bean. S-metolachlor provided 87% - 91% control of redroot pigweed, 46% - 55% control of common lambsquarters, and 96% - 97% control of green foxtail. Imazethapyr provided 93% - 96% control of redroot pigweed, 96% - 99% control of lambsquarters and 86% - 93% control of green foxtail. Linuron provided 82% - 98% control of lambsquarters, 82% - 99% control of redroot pigweed and 55% - 85% control of green foxtail. The tank mixes of s-metolachlor plus imazethapyr, s-metolachlor plus linuron, and s-metolachlor plus imazethapyr plus linuron provided 92% - 100% control of lambsquarters, redroot pigweed and green foxtail. Generally, kidney bean yields reflected the level of weed control. Based on these results, tank mixes of s-metolachlor plus imazethapyr, s-metolachlor plus linuron, and s-metolachlor plus imazethapyr plus linuron all provide an adequate margin of crop safety and excellent control of redroot pigweed, common lambsquarters and green foxtail in kidney bean. 展开更多
关键词 Biomass Density HERBICIDE Sensitivity Injury Kidney BEAN Tolerance WEED Control Yield
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Red Rice Control and Soybean Tolerance to <i>S</i>-Metolachlor in Association with Glyphosate 预览
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作者 Carla Rejane Zemolin Luis Antonio de Avila +3 位作者 Dirceu Agostinetto Guilherme Vestena Cassol Marlon Bastiani Rodrigo Pestana 《美国植物学期刊(英文)》 2014年第13期2040-2047,共8页
Red rice is one of the major troublesome and difficult weeds to control in rice production regions. The introduction of the Clearfield&#174 technology allowed producers to control red rice using rice genotypes tol... Red rice is one of the major troublesome and difficult weeds to control in rice production regions. The introduction of the Clearfield&#174 technology allowed producers to control red rice using rice genotypes tolerant to the imidazolinone herbicides. However, because the consecutive use of this technology red rice biotypes have evolved resistance to imidazolinone herbicides, the rice-soybean rotation has been an alternative used by producers to control this weed. This system allows the use of herbicides with different modes of action to control red rice, such as S-metolachlor. Thus, greenhouse and field experiments were carried out during the 2011 to 2012 and 2012 to 2013 growing seasons to evaluate: 1) sensitivity of imidazolinone-resistant red rice to S-metolachlor;2) red rice control and soybean tolerance in response to associations of S-metolachlor and glyphosate. In greenhouse, S-metolachlor effectively controlled both susceptible and imidazolinone-resistant red rice in preemergence. In field, preemergence applications of S-metolachlor provided greater red rice control in comparison to S-metolachlor alone in early postemergence. The association of S-metolachlor with glyphosate did not improve red rice control in preemergence application. However, association of S-metolachlor with glyphosate significantly improved red rice control in early postemergence applications. S-metolachlor injury to soybean increased with early postemergence applications. These results indicate that S-metolachlor effectively control imidazolinone-resistant red rice in rice-soybean rotation. 展开更多
关键词 CROP Rotation Weed CONTROL CROP Injury Application Timing
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