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基于玉米种植的生长育肥猪粪污农田承载力 认领
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作者 杜坤 焦洪超 +2 位作者 王晓鹃 赵景鹏 林海 《畜牧兽医学报》 CAS CSCD 北大核心 2020年第5期1049-1059,共11页
本研究旨在以生长育肥猪和玉米种植农田为模型,准确评定生长育肥猪粪肥养分的产生量和不同施肥量下玉米的生物产量及养分需求量,以此为基础建立基于粪肥还田利用的玉米种植农田粪肥承载系数。试验选取8头13周龄胎次和体重((33.2±3.... 本研究旨在以生长育肥猪和玉米种植农田为模型,准确评定生长育肥猪粪肥养分的产生量和不同施肥量下玉米的生物产量及养分需求量,以此为基础建立基于粪肥还田利用的玉米种植农田粪肥承载系数。试验选取8头13周龄胎次和体重((33.2±3.5) kg)相近的"杜×长×大"生长育肥猪进行饲养试验,分别于16和25周龄各进行一次消化试验,测定其粪、尿产量及粪肥氮、磷产生量。玉米种植试验设6个处理组,对照组施用化肥,负对照组不施肥,4个试验组分别按玉米种植全期氮标准需要量的100%、130%、160%和磷标准需要量的100%施用猪粪有机肥,分别在乳熟后期和完熟期测定玉米种植的氮、磷需求量,与猪粪肥氮、磷产生量拟合,测算粪肥农田承载系数。结果表明,按130%氮需求量施用猪粪有机肥,一季玉米种植乳熟后期和完熟期收获,对氮、磷的需求量分别为122.1、53.0 kg·hm^-2和190.2、62.8 kg·hm^-2,按130%氮施肥量下乳熟后期和完熟期收获的玉米农田承载系数,以N为基础为61.1头·hm^-2和95.2头·hm^-2,以P为基础为90.5头·hm^-2和107.3头·hm^-2,而且施用猪粪有机肥还可增加玉米生物产量,一定程度上增加玉米中氮、磷含量。因此,分别基于玉米对氮和磷的需求,单季玉米种植每公顷土地生长育肥猪的承载参数分别为95.2头和107.3头。 展开更多
关键词 生长育肥猪 粪污 还田 玉米种植 承载参数
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雨养烟叶种植田无机氮淋溶特征 认领
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作者 刘青丽 邹焱 +5 位作者 李志宏 蒋雨洲 朱经伟 石俊雄 陈曦 张云贵 《农业工程学报》 EI CAS CSCD 北大核心 2020年第7期141-148,共8页
为了解烤烟种植下土壤氮淋溶与大田作物差异,评价烟田常规养分管理,探寻烟田无机氮淋溶的阻控策略。以贵州龙岗长期定位试验为平台,于2015—2017年开展常规管理下烟田氮素淋失及其影响因素研究。试验设5个处理:不施肥(CK)、化肥(NPK)、... 为了解烤烟种植下土壤氮淋溶与大田作物差异,评价烟田常规养分管理,探寻烟田无机氮淋溶的阻控策略。以贵州龙岗长期定位试验为平台,于2015—2017年开展常规管理下烟田氮素淋失及其影响因素研究。试验设5个处理:不施肥(CK)、化肥(NPK)、化肥+厩肥(NPK+M)、化肥+连作(NPK+L)、化肥+生物有机肥(NPK+BM)。结果表明,烟田全年无机氮淋溶量为3.62~6.08 kg/hm^2,氮肥净淋溶率为0.09%~3.29%。无机氮的淋溶损失主要发生在烤烟生长季,尤其是5—6月,其占总淋溶量的40.33%~65.86%。烟田淋溶液中氮素形态主要是有机态,无机氮的比例平均仅为29.83%,缓苗期和旺长期(5—6月)淋溶液中无机氮比例高于烤烟成熟期(7—8月),前者无机氮比例平均33.00%,后者其平均为26.67%。降雨是影响烟田淋溶损失的主要因素,无机氮淋溶量与月降雨量呈非线性相关。施用化肥导致无机氮淋溶显著升高,有机肥配施化肥降低了土壤溶液淋溶,降低了氮肥淋溶损失。与烤烟玉米轮作处理相比,烤烟连作处理显著降低了土壤水淋溶,使氮肥净淋溶率降低59.57%。综上,目前烤烟常规管理下,雨养农业区烟田无机氮淋溶强度不高,受降雨影响大,应注重有机无机配施降低无机氮淋溶,在养分管理中考虑如何降低有机氮淋溶,以提高氮素养分供应量。 展开更多
关键词 氮素 淋溶 化肥 有机肥 轮作 雨养区 氮形态
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Research Progress on Application of Rape as Green Manure 认领
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作者 Jiaxi YIN Caihui WEI +2 位作者 Hongqin TANG Wenbin Dong Zhongyi LI 《农业生物技术:英文版》 CAS 2020年第2期64-68,72共6页
Rape is a crop that can be widely used as a green manure.After returning to the field,it has the ability to fertilize and improve the quality of agricultural products.This paper summarized the application model of rap... Rape is a crop that can be widely used as a green manure.After returning to the field,it has the ability to fertilize and improve the quality of agricultural products.This paper summarized the application model of rape as a green manure and the decomposing characteristics of rape after being returned to the field,and clarified the ecological effects of returning rape to the field,with an attempt to provide scientific basis for the reasonable use of rape and nutrient management in farmland. 展开更多
关键词 Green MANURE RAPE APPLICATION MODE Decomposing CHARACTERISTIC Field RETURNING effect
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规模化养猪场粪污全量收集及贮存工艺设计 认领
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作者 徐鹏翔 沈玉君 +3 位作者 丁京涛 孟海波 张朋月 薛楠 《农业工程学报》 EI CAS CSCD 北大核心 2020年第9期255-262,共8页
基于全量收集的粪污贮存技术具有粪尿收集方便、运行成本低廉和养分利用率高等特点,在欧美等发达国家得到了普遍应用,是一种适合在中国华北、西北等地区和土地匹配较充足的区域进行推广的粪污处理与还田利用技术。文章以规模化养猪场尿... 基于全量收集的粪污贮存技术具有粪尿收集方便、运行成本低廉和养分利用率高等特点,在欧美等发达国家得到了普遍应用,是一种适合在中国华北、西北等地区和土地匹配较充足的区域进行推广的粪污处理与还田利用技术。文章以规模化养猪场尿泡粪全量贮存技术为研究对象,分析了尿泡粪收集量、贮存工艺控制参数、贮存设施设计和投资运行成本等内容,旨在为该技术的推广应用提供参考。结果表明:每头生猪整个饲养周期内尿泡粪收集量为0.70 m~3;粪污贮存设施分为舍内贮存池和舍外贮存罐2种,粪污贮存方法可采取舍内贮存、舍外贮存和舍内结合舍外贮存3种。粪污pH值酸化至5.5~6.5,氨排放量最高可减少80%;粪肥还田前一般要求存储时间为6个月。以存栏5000头规模养猪场为例,舍内贮存池所需容积为6 600 m~3,投资660万元;舍外贮存罐所需容积为4 118 m~3,投资206万元;舍内结合舍外贮存设施所需容积为8 214 m~3,投资651万元;粪污处理成本为3.83万元/a,施肥成本为10.8万元/a;全部粪肥还田可满足133 hm~2农田用肥,节省化肥6.0万元/a,该研究可为粪污贮存及利用提供参考。 展开更多
关键词 贮存 全量收集 工艺设计
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民主改革以来宁蒗彝族肥料使用变迁研究--以宁蒗彝族自治县大二地彝族村为例 认领
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作者 王勇 和雪康 邸文漪 《红河学院学报》 2020年第1期50-52,共3页
肥料作为自然的产物,源于自然而用于自然,是人与自然联系的纽带。看似肥料的历史表明的是人与自然的历史,但其实肥料中蕴含着国家的隐喻。自民主改革以来,云南小凉山地区的肥料使用产生了巨大历史变迁,其阶段性的改变正好映衬着国家对... 肥料作为自然的产物,源于自然而用于自然,是人与自然联系的纽带。看似肥料的历史表明的是人与自然的历史,但其实肥料中蕴含着国家的隐喻。自民主改革以来,云南小凉山地区的肥料使用产生了巨大历史变迁,其阶段性的改变正好映衬着国家对于彝族及农业等一些列的政策权益的改变。生活中看似普普通通的肥料,却暗含着人与自然,人与社会,人与国家等多层面交流的历史,这也使得肥料具有了历史承载体的意义。 展开更多
关键词 大二地彝族村 肥料 民主改革 变迁
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肉鸭粪便排放特征的季节性变化 认领
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作者 晏婷 朱志平 +4 位作者 高理福 卢连水 孙海层 余鑫 骆乾亮 《中国生态农业学报(中英文)》 CAS CSCD 北大核心 2020年第1期115-123,共9页
本研究旨在探讨肉鸭粪便的特性,并对其不同季节的污染物排放特征进行评价,为肉鸭养殖场废弃物处理和资源化利用提供依据。分4个季节进行了北京Z型肉鸭饲养试验(饲养期37d),记录采食量、产粪量,并定期测定饲料和粪便中水分和有机质含量... 本研究旨在探讨肉鸭粪便的特性,并对其不同季节的污染物排放特征进行评价,为肉鸭养殖场废弃物处理和资源化利用提供依据。分4个季节进行了北京Z型肉鸭饲养试验(饲养期37d),记录采食量、产粪量,并定期测定饲料和粪便中水分和有机质含量及总氮(TN)、P、Cu、Zn含量。结果表明:肉鸭粪便中Zn含量秋季最高,TN、P、Cu含量均为冬季最高;冬季粪便中TN含量极显著高于夏、秋两季(P<0.01);P、Cu含量在冬季均极显著高于其余季节(P<0.01);粪便中Cu、Zn含量均为春季最低。肉鸭粪便平均含水率为84.61%,夏季最高,春季最低;平均有机质含量为83.38%,表现为冬>春>秋>夏。春夏秋冬四季的粪便产生量分别为338.3g·d-1·只-1、275.9 g·d-1·只-1、317.6 g·d-1·只-1和327.0 g·d-1·只-1,夏季最低。TN、P、Cu、Zn的排泄系数分别为2.13 g·d-1·只-1、2.48g·d-1·只-1、2.56 mg·d-1·只-1、21.10 mg·d-1·只-1;春冬两季的TN日排泄量显著高于夏秋两季;P的日排泄量表现为冬季极显著高于其余3个季节;夏季Cu的日排泄量与春季差异不显著,极显著低于秋、冬两季(P<0.01)。TN在秋季排泄占比最低,春季最高;而P排泄占比为秋季最高,春季最低。肉鸭在饲养期TN、P、Cu、Zn的排泄量与对应元素的摄入量具有极显著的正相关关系(P<0.01)。研究表明:季节因素能对肉鸭粪便中含水率、有机质、TN、P、Cu和Zn含量产生显著影响,同时各季节各元素的排泄量与相应元素的摄入量显著相关。 展开更多
关键词 肉鸭 粪便 排放特征 季节性变化
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Change of soil productivity in three different soils after long-term field fertilization treatments 认领
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作者 LIU Kai-lou HAN Tian-fu +10 位作者 HUANG Jing ZHANG Shui-qing GAO Hong-jun ZHANG Lu Asad Shah HUANG Shao-min ZHU Ping GAO Su-duan MA Chang-bao XUE Yan-dong ZHANG Huimin 《农业科学学报:英文版》 SCIE CAS CSCD 2020年第3期848-858,共11页
Soil productivity(SP) without external fertilization influence is an important indicator for the capacity of a soil to support crop yield.However,there have been difficulties in estimating values of SPs for soils afte... Soil productivity(SP) without external fertilization influence is an important indicator for the capacity of a soil to support crop yield.However,there have been difficulties in estimating values of SPs for soils after various long-term field treatments because the treatment without external fertilization is used but is depleted in soil nutrients,leading to erroneous estimation.The objectives of this study were to estimate the change of SP across different cropping seasons using pot experiments,and to evaluate the steady SP value(which is defined by the basal contribution of soil itself to crop yield) after various longterm fertilization treatments in soils at different geographical locations.The pot experiments were conducted in Jinxian of Jiangxi Province with paddy soil,Zhengzhou of Henan Province with fluvo-aquic soil,and Gongzhuling of Jilin Province with black soils,China.Soils were collected after long-term field fertilization treatments of no fertilizer(control;CK-F),chemical fertilizer(NPK-F),and combined chemical fertilizer with manure(NPKM-F).The soils received either no fertilizer(F0) or chemical fertilizer(F1) for 3-6 cropping seasons in pots,which include CK-P(control;no fertilizer from long-term field experiments for pot experiments),NPK-P(chemical fertilizer from long-term field experiments for pot experiments),and NPKM-P(combined chemical and organic fertilizers from long-term field experiments for pot experiments).The yield data were used to calculate SP values.The initial SP values were high,but decreased rapidly until a relatively steady SP was achieved at or after about three cropping seasons for paddy and fluvo-aquic soils.The steady SP values in the third cropping season from CK-P,NPK-P,and NPKM-P treatments were 37.7,44.1,and 50.0% in the paddy soil,34.2,38.1,and 50.0% in the fluvo-aquic soil,with the highest value observed in the NPKM-P treatment for all soils.However,further research is required in the black soils to incorporate more than three cropping seasons.The partial least squares 展开更多
关键词 MANURE incorporation C/N ratio soil types GRAIN yield
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表面风速和模拟降水对奶牛粪便堆放过程中N2O排放的影响 认领
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作者 胡彬 王业健 +2 位作者 赵浩翔 王朝元 施正香 《农业工程学报》 EI CAS CSCD 北大核心 2020年第7期232-238,共7页
奶牛场粪便的自然堆放过程中会造成大量的温室气体排放,排放过程和排放量受表面风速和自然降水等环境因素的影响显著。该文针对中国常用的奶牛粪便管理方式,采用动态箱法研究了不同表面风速(0.5、0.8、1.2、1.6 m/s)和模拟降水(降水量9.... 奶牛场粪便的自然堆放过程中会造成大量的温室气体排放,排放过程和排放量受表面风速和自然降水等环境因素的影响显著。该文针对中国常用的奶牛粪便管理方式,采用动态箱法研究了不同表面风速(0.5、0.8、1.2、1.6 m/s)和模拟降水(降水量9.9 mm)对奶牛粪便自然堆放过程中典型的温室气体氧化亚氮(N2O)排放的影响。结果表明,在0.5~1.2 m/s风速范围内,奶牛粪便自然堆放过程中的N2O排放量随风速升高逐渐增加,1.2 m/s达到最大值,且不同风速下N2O的排放量存在显著差异。模拟降水后N2O排放量在短时间内急剧升高,之后迅速下降至降水前的排放水平,整个过程持续约10 h。由于降低了二氧化碳(CO2)和甲烷(CH4)的排放,与降水前一天相比2次降水分别降低了12.9%和10.9%的温室气体排放量。 展开更多
关键词 粪便 降水 氧化亚氮
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保护性措施对中低肥力黑土区有机质变化的影响 认领
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作者 李贝 丁广歌 +4 位作者 赵鹏飞 周丹 赵闯 米国华 张卫峰 《农业环境科学学报》 CAS CSCD 北大核心 2020年第4期891-900,共10页
为探索农户采用保护性措施对东北黑土区土壤有机质(SOM)变化的影响,通过跟踪2008年至2015年间梨树县19个乡镇341块农田SOM的变化,分析了免耕、秸秆还田和有机肥施用三项保护性措施采用情况对SOM变化的影响。2015年梨树县SOM平均为18.8 g... 为探索农户采用保护性措施对东北黑土区土壤有机质(SOM)变化的影响,通过跟踪2008年至2015年间梨树县19个乡镇341块农田SOM的变化,分析了免耕、秸秆还田和有机肥施用三项保护性措施采用情况对SOM变化的影响。2015年梨树县SOM平均为18.8 g·kg^-1,较8年前下降了10.5%(P<0.05)。土壤初始SOM含量越高,其SOM下降越明显。在初始SOM>20 g·kg^-1的区域,SOM显著降低,但在初始SOM≤20 g·kg^-1的区域,SOM含量较2008年提升了4.5%(15.3 g·kg^-1)。主要是因为SOM≤20 g·kg^-1区域采用过保护性措施的农户比例高达63.2%,而SOM>20 g·kg^-1区域农户采用比例为49.3%。同时发现在初始SOM较低的土壤,采用单项保护性措施可以维持甚至提高SOM,同时采用三项措施显著提升了SOM。但在初始SOM较高的土壤,两项措施结合才可维持SOM不下降。目前梨树黑土区保护性措施的采用可以维持甚至提高SOM,但在应用时需要加强应用时间的连续和技术间的集成。 展开更多
关键词 免耕 秸秆还田 有机肥 META-ANALYSIS
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生物炭与有机肥配施对菜地温室气体强度的影响 认领
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作者 贾俊香 熊正琴 +3 位作者 马智勇 许剑敏 王玲 张菁 《应用与环境生物学报》 CAS CSCD 北大核心 2020年第1期74-80,共7页
采用盆栽模拟研究方法,设置对照(CK)、只施氮肥(U)、氮肥与有机肥配施(UM)、氮肥与生物炭配施(UB)以及氮肥、有机肥与生物炭配施(UMB)共5个处理,探究生物炭与有机肥施用对菜地N2O、CH4与CO2排放以及全球增温潜势(GWP)、温室气体强度(GH... 采用盆栽模拟研究方法,设置对照(CK)、只施氮肥(U)、氮肥与有机肥配施(UM)、氮肥与生物炭配施(UB)以及氮肥、有机肥与生物炭配施(UMB)共5个处理,探究生物炭与有机肥施用对菜地N2O、CH4与CO2排放以及全球增温潜势(GWP)、温室气体强度(GHGI)、N2O-N排放系数的影响.结果表明,整个观测期间,N2O排放变幅较大,达0.02-1559.77μg m^-2 h^-1,CH4排放变幅较小,为-0.09-0.25 mg m^-2 h^-1.与N2O、CH4相比,处理间CO2排放通量具有更为相近的波动规律.UB与UMB能显著降低N2O排放,其中UMB抑制效果最佳,仅为U处理的14.1%.5个处理间CH4累积排放量无显著差异,表明氮肥、有机肥与生物炭均非影响CH4排放的主要原因.UB与UMB间累积CO2排放量无差异,但二者均显著高于U与UM处理,证明生物炭施用促进了CO2释放.菜心与苋菜产量均以UMB最高,两种蔬菜产量分别比U处理高25.6%与29.5%.GWP与GHGI均以UMB最低(除对照外),分别为919±266 kg/hm2与0.04±0.01 kg/kg.UMB的N2O-N排放系数最低(0.37%),仅为U处理的11.5%.综上所述,生物炭与有机肥配施处理在不降低蔬菜产量的基础上,既能抑制N2O排放,降低GWP、GHGI与N2O-N排放系数,又能降低化学氮肥投入量,是值得推荐的施肥措施.考虑到生物炭施用显著促进CO2排放,需要进一步探究生物炭与有机肥配施的综合净温室效应. 展开更多
关键词 生物炭 有机肥 菜地土壤 全球增温潜势 温室气体强度 N2O排放系数
异位发酵床垫料利用期限及微生物组成差异分析 认领
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作者 潘孝青 邵乐 +7 位作者 李波 于传军 顾洪如 秦枫 杨杰 张霞 李健 严康 《家畜生态学报》 北大核心 2020年第2期49-54,共6页
异位发酵床处理猪粪污时的床体利用期限是影响其大面积推广使用的限制性因素,该研究旨在通过连续测定床体温度,科学判定垫料利用期限,同时分析垫料熟化时的床体微生物组成差异,为生产中高效管理异位发酵床垫料提供科学依据。结果显示:... 异位发酵床处理猪粪污时的床体利用期限是影响其大面积推广使用的限制性因素,该研究旨在通过连续测定床体温度,科学判定垫料利用期限,同时分析垫料熟化时的床体微生物组成差异,为生产中高效管理异位发酵床垫料提供科学依据。结果显示:采用木屑15%、稻壳15%和菌糠70%混合组成垫料高度为1 m的异位发酵床处理猪粪污、不额外添加垫料情况下,床体垫料熟化时间约为90 d;不同高度下异位发酵床熟化垫料中细菌与真菌微生物OTU数量测定结果为:离床体底部50 cm、30 cm、10 cm处细菌OTU数量与真菌相比,分别增加135.75%,180.96%和112.26%;离床体底部50 cm处与离床体底部30 cm及10 cm处细菌OTU数量相比,分别增加34.13%和110.64%;离床体底部50 cm处与离床体底部30 cm及10 cm处真菌OTU数量相比,分别增加59.67%和89.66%。异位发酵床“死床”时,上层熟化垫料中细菌以瘤胃菌科的产己酸菌属为主,属于厌氧菌,放线菌属更多聚集于床体中下层部位。这一结果提示在使用异位发酵床处理猪粪污过程中,应注意提高翻抛效率,增加床体内部氧含量,从而增加微生物种类,提高微生物丰富度,加速粪污降解速率,减少因床体内氧气含量不足而造成的死床现象发生。 展开更多
关键词 异位发酵床 利用期限 粪污 微生物组成
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Strategies to reduce nutrient pollution from manure management in China 认领
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作者 David R.CHADWICK John R.WILLIAMS +5 位作者 Yuelai LU Lin MA Zhaohai BAI Yong HOU Xinping CHEN Thomas H.MISSELBROOK 《农业科学与工程前沿:英文版》 2020年第1期45-55,共11页
As the demand for livestock products continues to increase in China,so too does the challenge of managing increasing quantities of manure.Urgent action is needed to control point source(housing,storage and processing)... As the demand for livestock products continues to increase in China,so too does the challenge of managing increasing quantities of manure.Urgent action is needed to control point source(housing,storage and processing)and diffuse(field application)pollution and improve the utilization of manure nutrients and organic matter.Here,we review strategies to improve management at each stage of the manure management chain and at different scales.Many strategies require infrastructure investment,e.g.,for containment of all manure fractions.Engineering solutions are needed to develop advanced composting systems with lower environmental footprints and design more efficient nutrient stripping technologies.At the field-scale,there is an urgent need to develop a manure nutrient recommendation system that accounts for the range of manure types,cropping systems,soils and climates throughout China.At the regional scale,coordinated planning is necessary to promote recoupling of livestock and cropping systems,and reduce nutrient accumulation in regions with little available landbank,while minimizing the risk of pollution swapping from one region to another.A range of stakeholders are needed to support the step change and innovation required to improve manure management,reduce reliance on inorganic fertilizers,and generate new business opportunities. 展开更多
关键词 cropping farms livestock production manure management chain recoupling nutrient loss
Increasing prevalence of antibiotic resistance genes in manured agricultural soils in northern China 认领
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作者 Nan Wu Weiyu Zhang +5 位作者 Shiyu Xie Ming Zeng Haixue Liu Jinghui Yang Xinyuan Liu Fan Yang 《环境科学与工程前沿(英文)》 SCIE EI CAS CSCD 2020年第1期43-54,共12页
Land application of manure tends to result in the dissemination of antibiotic resistance in the environment.In this study,the influence of long-term manure application on the enrichment of antibiotic resistance genes(... Land application of manure tends to result in the dissemination of antibiotic resistance in the environment.In this study,the influence of long-term manure application on the enrichment of antibiotic resistance genes(ARGs)and mobile genetic elements(MGEs)in agricultural soils was investigated.All the analyzed eight ARGs(tetA,tetW,tetX,sull,sulll,ermF,aac(6')-Ib-cr and blaTEM)and two MGEs(intJJ and Tn916/1545)were detected in both the manured and control soils,with relative abundances ranging from 10^-6 to 10^-2 Compared with the control soil,the relative abundances of ARGs and MGEs in manured soils were enriched 1.0-18.1 fold and 0.6-69.1 fold,respectively.High-throughput sequencing analysis suggested that at the phylum level,the bacteria carrying intll and ermF might be mainly affiliated with Proteobacteria and Bacteroides,respectively.The dominant genera carrying intll and ermF cow\d be Pseudomonas and Bacteroides,independent of manure application.Correlation analysis revealed that ARGs had strong links with soil physicochemical properties(TC,TN,and OM),heavy metals(Cu,Zn and Pb)and MGEs,indicating that the profile and spread of ARGs might be driven by the combined impacts of multiple factors.In contrast,soil pH and C/N exhibited no significant relationships with ARGs.Our findings provide evidence that long-term manure application could enhance the prevalence and stimulate the propagation of antibiotic resistance in agricultural soils. 展开更多
关键词 Antibiotic resistance Mobile genetic elements Soil MANURE HEAVY metals
Chronic effects of different fertilization regimes on nirS-type denitrifier communities across the black soil region of Northeast China 认领
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作者 Xiaojing HU Junjie LIU +7 位作者 Dan WEI Ping ZHU Xi'an CUI Baoku ZHOU Xueli CHEN Jian JIN Xiaobing LIU Guanghua WANG 《土壤圈:英文版》 SCIE CAS CSCD 2020年第1期73-86,共14页
Denitrification is one of the major processes causing nitrogen loss from arable soils.This study aimed to investigate the responses of nir S-type denitrifier communities to different chronic fertilization regimes acro... Denitrification is one of the major processes causing nitrogen loss from arable soils.This study aimed to investigate the responses of nir S-type denitrifier communities to different chronic fertilization regimes across the black soil region of Northeast China.Soil samples were collected from sites located in the north(NB),middle(MB),and south(SB)of the black soil region of Northeast China,each with four chronic fertilization regimes:no fertilizer(No F),chemical fertilizer(CF),manure(M),and chemical fertilizer plus manure(CFM).Methods of quantitative polymerase chain reaction(q PCR)and Illumina Mi Seq sequencing were applied to assess the abundance and composition of denitrifier communities by targeting the nir S gene.The results showed that the M and CFM regimes significantly increased the abundances of nir S-type denitrifiers compared with No F at the three locations.The majority of nir S sequences were grouped as unclassified denitrifiers,and the different fertilizers induced little variation in the relative abundance of known nir S-type denitrifier taxa.Over 90%of the sequences were shared among the four fertilization regimes at each location,but none of the abundant operational taxonomic units(OTUs)were shared among the three locations.Principal coordinate analysis(PCo A)revealed that the communities of nir S-type denitrifier were separated into three groups that corresponded with their locations.Although similar fertilization regimes did not induce consistent changes in the nir S-type denitrifier communities,soil p H and NO-3-N content simultaneously and significantly influenced the structure of nir S-type denitrifier communities at the three locations.Our results highlight that geographical separation rather than chronic fertilization was the dominant factor determining the nir S-type denitrifier community structures,and similar chronic fertilization regimes did not induce consistent shifts of nir S-type denitrifier communities in the black soils. 展开更多
关键词 DENITRIFICATION denitrifier diversity denitrifying GENE geographical separation ILLUMINA MiSeq sequencing MANURE MOLLISOLS nirS GENE quantitative polymerase chain reaction
有机肥撒施技术及装备研究 认领
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作者 马标 付菁菁 +3 位作者 许斌星 吴爱兵 谢虎 陈永生 《中国农机化学报》 北大核心 2019年第8期1-6,共6页
农业废弃物的随意排放、化学肥料的过量施用给环境带来严重破坏。在大力提倡有机肥代替化肥的政策背景和实际需求下,成熟实用的有机肥撒施装备亟待研究和开发。为提高有机肥施用设备的作业质量和工作效率,开发三套有机肥施用装备,可针... 农业废弃物的随意排放、化学肥料的过量施用给环境带来严重破坏。在大力提倡有机肥代替化肥的政策背景和实际需求下,成熟实用的有机肥撒施装备亟待研究和开发。为提高有机肥施用设备的作业质量和工作效率,开发三套有机肥施用装备,可针对不同作业条件实现肥料的定量均匀撒施。针对研发的三套装备结构、工作原理及关键工作部件进行详细介绍,并进行田间试验,检验输肥机构、撒施机构、传动机构、行走机构的工作性能,测定撒肥均匀度、工作幅宽、作业效率等工作参数。结果表明:大田多功能撒肥机圆盘撒肥和拨料辊抛肥机构的横向和纵向均匀度变系数分别为20.6%、15.5%和27.4%、10.7%;履带自走式撒肥机的横向和纵向均匀度变异系数分别为19.5%和10.1%;轮式自走式撒肥机的横向和纵向均匀度变异系数分别为22.7%和11.4%;三台撒肥机的最大工作幅宽分别为7.2 m(圆盘撒肥功能为7.2 m,拨料辊抛肥功能为4.3 m)、5.8 m和5.2 m,三台撒肥机的工作效率分别为1.3 hm~2/h(圆盘撒肥功能为1.3 hm~2/h,拨料辊抛肥功能为0.9 hm~2/h)、0.5 hm~2/h和0.8 hm~2/h。该系列化撒肥机的成功研制为我国农业废弃物肥料化利用提供装备和技术支撑。 展开更多
关键词 有机肥 撒肥机 撒肥幅宽 撒肥均匀性
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Production and Water Quality Responses in Tilapia Aquaculture Tanks Receiving Organic Fertilizers and Algae 认领
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作者 Shunlong MENG Dandan LI +7 位作者 Liping QIU Gengdong HU Limin FAN Chao SONG Yao ZHENG Wei WU Jiazhang CHEN Xuwen BING 《农业生物技术:英文版》 CAS 2019年第4期156-162,共7页
A two-month trial was carried out to evaluate the possibility of using algae and animal manure in tilapia culture.And the effect of algae,chicken manure and algae mixture together,cattle manure and algae mixture toget... A two-month trial was carried out to evaluate the possibility of using algae and animal manure in tilapia culture.And the effect of algae,chicken manure and algae mixture together,cattle manure and algae mixture together,chicken-cattle manure and algae mixture together on the water quality and tilapia production was researched.The results showed that the yield of tilapia were 3.46,4.33,3.81,2.92 and 3.76 kg in Control,Algae,Chicken-A,Cattle-A and C-C-A,respectively,following the order of Algae>Chicken-A>C-C-A>Control>Cattle-A,and tilapia yield in Algae and chicken manure treatment groups increased by 25.0%and 10.1%respectively compared with the control.Algae and chicken manure could increase the tilapia production,but cattle manure has no the effect.And the effect of algae and animal manure on water quality showed that adding chicken manure into tilapia pond could make water quality decreased at the beginning 20 d,but could increase water quality after 20 d and it can stabilize the phytoplankton structure in aquaculture water.Adding Chlorella vulgaris and Scenedesmus quadricauda into tilapia pond could make water quality in a good state during the aquaculture process and it can stabilize the phytoplankton structure in aquaculture water. 展开更多
关键词 ALGAE Chicken MANURE CATTLE MANURE TILAPIA PRODUCTION Water quality
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Effect of Organic Fertilizer on Aquaculture Water Quality and Tilapia Production 认领
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作者 Shunlong MENG Xi Chen +8 位作者 Dandan LI Liping QIU Gengdong HU Limin FAN Chao SONG Yao ZHENG Wei WU Jiazhang CHEN Xuwen BING 《农业生物技术:英文版》 CAS 2019年第5期92-98,共7页
A two-month trial was carried out in China to evaluate the possibility of recycling animal manure through pond tilapia production.And the effects of chicken manure,cattle manure and chicken-cattle mixture together on ... A two-month trial was carried out in China to evaluate the possibility of recycling animal manure through pond tilapia production.And the effects of chicken manure,cattle manure and chicken-cattle mixture together on the water quality and tilapia production were investigated.The results showed that the yield of tilapia was 3.46,3.89,2.49 and 3.20 kg in the control,chicken M,cattle M,and chicken-cattle M,respectively,and the tilapia yields following the order of chicken M>control>chicken-cattle M>cattle M.The tilapia yield in chicken M group increased by 12.43% compared with the control.Chicken manure could increase the tilapia production,but cattle manure has no the effect.And the effect of animal manure on water quality showed that adding chicken manure into tilapia pond could make water quality decreased at the beginning 20 d,but could increase water quality after 20 d and stabilize the phytoplankton structure. 展开更多
关键词 Chicken MANURE CATTLE MANURE TILAPIA PRODUCTION Water quality AQUACULTURE
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Soil Arthropod Abundance and Diversity Following Land Application of Swine Slurry 认领
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作者 Nicole R. Schuster Julie A. Peterson +2 位作者 John E. Gilley Linda R. Schott Amy M. Schmidt 《农业科学(英文)》 2019年第2期150-163,共14页
Soil arthropods play an important role in nutrient cycling and maintenance of soil structure, and their abundance and diversity provide an indication of the biological quality of soil. Land application of livestock ma... Soil arthropods play an important role in nutrient cycling and maintenance of soil structure, and their abundance and diversity provide an indication of the biological quality of soil. Land application of livestock manure provides crop nutrients and may also impact the soil arthropod community. This study was conducted to quantify soil arthropod abundance and diversity for a period of one year following swine manure application via broadcast or injection. Arthropods were extracted from plot soil samples using Berlese funnels, identified and counted, and the QBS index (Qualità Biologica del Suolo) was calculated for each soil sample. Collembola (Hypogastruridae and Isotomidae) populations were greater (p p in the injection treatment compared to the broadcast and control treatments. Acari populations and the QBS index were not significantly impacted by manure application. 展开更多
关键词 SOIL ARTHROPOD MANURE Nutrients SWINE SLURRY SOIL Health SOIL Properties
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粪便生物炭与土壤重金属污染修复的关系 认领
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作者 陈金敏 胡正峰 +1 位作者 邓盾 朱明乔 《黑龙江畜牧兽医》 CAS 北大核心 2019年第1期39-45,共7页
生物炭在土壤重金属污染领域得到了较好的应用,但是不同材质的生物炭处理效果有所差异。近年来,许多学者研究粪便生物炭处理土壤重金属污染的修复效果,取得了一些突破,但也存在机制不清晰、处理效果差异大等问题。为进一步提升粪便生物... 生物炭在土壤重金属污染领域得到了较好的应用,但是不同材质的生物炭处理效果有所差异。近年来,许多学者研究粪便生物炭处理土壤重金属污染的修复效果,取得了一些突破,但也存在机制不清晰、处理效果差异大等问题。为进一步提升粪便生物炭在土壤修复中的作用,文章就生物炭固定土壤重金属机制、粪便生物炭对重金属污染土壤的修复、生物炭修复重金属污染土壤的影响因素的研究现状进行了总结,以期为将来的应用提供参考。 展开更多
关键词 生物炭 重金属 作用机理 土壤 粪便 污染修复
庆阳市采用塑料大棚发酵畜禽粪污模式初探 认领
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作者 李世恩 张金霞 +6 位作者 徐振飞 刘雨田 施海娜 朱正正 梁万鹏 高钰 张郁萍 《中国牛业科学》 2019年第5期24-27,30共5页
为了提高粪污发酵速度、缩短发酵时间,减少环境对粪污的承载和消纳能力,笔者通过采用塑料大棚模式发酵粪污,以提高粪污内部温度,添加一定的微生物菌剂,采用高温好氧堆积发酵,在西北气候条件下,使小型养殖场(合作社)粪污发酵比常温堆积... 为了提高粪污发酵速度、缩短发酵时间,减少环境对粪污的承载和消纳能力,笔者通过采用塑料大棚模式发酵粪污,以提高粪污内部温度,添加一定的微生物菌剂,采用高温好氧堆积发酵,在西北气候条件下,使小型养殖场(合作社)粪污发酵比常温堆积发酵时间缩短了40~100 d,使粪污尽快得到还田利用,减少了环境对粪污的承载力。 展开更多
关键词 塑料大棚 发酵 粪污 模式
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