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The role of muscle LIM protein in the nervous system 预览
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作者 Daniel Terheyden-Keighley Dietmar Fischer 《中国神经再生研究:英文版》 SCIE CAS CSCD 2019年第11期1907-1908,共2页
Unlike the peripheral nervous system (PNS), the central nervous system (CNS) has a low intrinsic regenerative capacity and has mechanisms that actively suppress axon regrowth, for example, glial scarring and myelin in... Unlike the peripheral nervous system (PNS), the central nervous system (CNS) has a low intrinsic regenerative capacity and has mechanisms that actively suppress axon regrowth, for example, glial scarring and myelin inhibition (Fischer, 2012). Even in the PNS, which has the principle ability to regenerate injured axons, functional recovery remains limited, particularly in cases where the nerve target has become unreceptive to re-innervation over time due to an insufficient axonal growth rate (Diekmann and Fischer, 2015). Progress towards robust neuroregenerative therapies depends upon an understanding of the relevant signaling and cytoskeletal proteins that drive and control axon extension. Muscle LIM protein (MLP), also known as cysteine and glycine-rich protein 3, was recently discovered to be one such protein that is expressed in regenerating rat neurons and whose overexpression can promote the axon regeneration of adult central, and peripheral neurons of different species (Levin et al., 2019). 展开更多
关键词 LIM nervous SYSTEM PERIPHERAL nervous system(PNS) CENTRAL nervous system(CNS)
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Investigating neurogenic bowel in experimental spinal cord injury: where to begin? 预览
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作者 Amanda R. White Gregory M. Holmes 《中国神经再生研究:英文版》 SCIE CAS CSCD 2019年第2期222-226,共5页
The devastating losses following traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI) encompass the motor, sensory and autonomic nervous systems. Neurogenic bowel is a slow transit colonic dysfunction marked by constipation, rectal eva... The devastating losses following traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI) encompass the motor, sensory and autonomic nervous systems. Neurogenic bowel is a slow transit colonic dysfunction marked by constipation, rectal evacuation difficulties, decreased anorectal sensation, fecal incontinence or some combination thereof. Furthermore, neurogenic bowel is one of the most prevalent comorbidities of SCI and is recognized by afflicted individuals and caregivers as a lifelong physical and psychological challenge that profoundly affects quality of life. The restoration of post-injury control of movement has received considerable scientific scrutiny yet the daily necessity of voiding the bowel and bladder remains critically under-investigated. Subsequently, physicians and caregivers are rarely presented with consistent, evidence-based strategies to successfully address the consequences of dysregulated voiding reflexes. Neurogenic bowel is commonly believed to result from the interruption of the supraspinal control of the spinal autonomic circuits regulating the colon. In this mini-review, we discuss the clinical challenges presented by neurogenic bowel and emerging pre-clinical evidence that is revealing that SCI also initiates functional remodeling of the colonic wall concurrent with a decrease in local enteric neurons. Since the enteric input to the colonic smooth muscle is the final common pathway for functional contractions of the colon, changes to the neuromuscular interface must first be understood in order to maximize the efficacy of therapeutic interventions targeting colonic dysfunction following SCI. 展开更多
关键词 colon ENTERIC nervous SYSTEM PARASYMPATHETIC sympathetic autonomic nervous SYSTEM defecationreflexes gastrointestinal inflammation CONSTIPATION INCONTINENCE
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A novel mouse model of adult T-cell leukemia cell invasion into the spinal cord 预览
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作者 Takeo Ohsugi Shuhei Tanaka +5 位作者 Keigo Iwasaki Yusuke Nagano Tomohiro Kozako Kazuya Matsuda Takuya Hirose Kazushige Takehana 《动物模型与实验医学(英文)》 CSCD 2019年第1期64-67,共4页
Adult T-cell leukemia(ATL)is a mature T-cell malignancy caused by human T-cell leukemia virus type I infection,and 10%-25%of patients show central nervous system(CNS)involvement.CNS involvement significantly reduces s... Adult T-cell leukemia(ATL)is a mature T-cell malignancy caused by human T-cell leukemia virus type I infection,and 10%-25%of patients show central nervous system(CNS)involvement.CNS involvement significantly reduces survival and there are no effective treatments for CNS involvement.Therefore,an appropriate animal model is required to evaluate the inhibitory effects of novel drugs on the progression of ATL with CNS involvement.Here,we established a mouse model of ATL with CNS involvement using NOD.Cg-Prkdc scid Il2rg tm1Wjl/SzJ mice inoculated with ATL cells intramuscularly in the postauricular region,and these mice showed paraparesis.Of the 10 mice inoculated with ATL cells intramuscularly(I.M.)at 5 weeks of age,8(80%)showed paraparesis,whereas none of the 10 mice inoculated with ATL cells subcutaneously(S.C.)showed paraparesis.In the I.M.group,PCR detected HTLV-1-specific genes in the thoracic and lumbar vertebrae;however,in the S.C.group,the vertebrae were negative for HTLV-1 genes.Histological analysis revealed a particularly high incidence of tumors,characterized by accumulation of the injected cells,in the thoracic vertebrae of mice in the I.M.group.Tumor cell infiltration was relatively high in the bone marrow.Spinal cord compression caused by invasion of the tumor mass outside the pia mater was observed in the thoracic vertebrae of the spinal cord.In conclusion,we have reported a mouse model of tumor growth with paraparesis that may be used to assess novel therapeutic agents for ATL with CNS involvement. 展开更多
关键词 adult T-CELL leukemia(ATL) central nervous system(CNS) human T-CELL LEUKEMIA virus type I(HTLV-1) MICE NOD.Cg-Prkdc SCID Il2rg tm1Wjl/SzJ MICE
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Effects of Ginkgo biloba extract EGb761 on neural differentiation of stem cells offer new hope for neurological disease treatment 预览
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作者 Chao Ren Yong-Qiang Ji +5 位作者 Hong Liu Zhe Wang Jia-Hui Wang Cai-Yi Zhang Li-Na Guan Pei-Yuan Yin 《中国神经再生研究:英文版》 SCIE CAS CSCD 2019年第7期1152-1157,共6页
Stem cell transplantation has brought new hope for the treatment of neurological diseases.The key to stem cell therapy lies in inducing the specific differentiation of stem cells into nerve cells.Because the different... Stem cell transplantation has brought new hope for the treatment of neurological diseases.The key to stem cell therapy lies in inducing the specific differentiation of stem cells into nerve cells.Because the differentiation of stem cells in vitro and in vivo is affected by multiple factors,the final differentiation outcome is strongly associated with the microenvironment in which the stem cells are located.Accordingly,the optimal microenvironment for inducing stem cell differentiation is a hot topic.EGb761 is extracted from the leaves of the Ginkgo biloba tree.It is used worldwide and is becoming one of the focuses of stem cell research.Studies have shown that EGb761 can antagonize oxygen free radicals,stabilize cell membranes,promote neurogenesis and synaptogenesis,increase the level of brain-derived neurotrophic factors,and replicate the environment required during the differentiation of stem cells into nerve cells.This offers the possibility of using EGb761 to induce the differentiation of stem cells,facilitating stem cell transplantation.To provide a comprehensive reference for the future application of EGb761 in stem cell therapy,we reviewed studies investigating the influence of EGb761 on stem cells.These started with the composition and neuropharmacology of EGb761,and eventually led to the finding that EGb761 and some of its important components play important roles in the differentiation of stem cells and the protection of a beneficial microenvironment for stem cell transplantation. 展开更多
关键词 nerve REGENERATION GINKGO biloba extract GINKGOLIDE B traditional Chinese medicine STEM cells induction of differentiation STEM cell transplantation synaptic plasticity pharmacological effect NEUROLOGICAL diseases nervous systems neural REGENERATION
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Tips on remote interviews 预览
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作者 闫跃 《新世纪智能》 2019年第10期33-34,共2页
If an interview makes you horribly nervous, the thought of doing it remotely might be a relief, but you should still take it 1 . Your interviewer may have a harder time seeing you sweat, 2 they’ll still ask questions... If an interview makes you horribly nervous, the thought of doing it remotely might be a relief, but you should still take it 1 . Your interviewer may have a harder time seeing you sweat, 2 they’ll still ask questions. Think of a phone or video interview as an extra 3 to impress. If you create a 4 with someone without being in the same place as them, there is a good chance that they’ll 5 your ability to do a good job. Here are three tips to make the whole process go much more 6 . 展开更多
关键词 INTERVIEW MAKES horribly nervous SOMEONE WITHOUT
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Effects of miR-219/miR-338 on microglia and astrocyte behaviors and astrocyte-oligodendrocyte precursor cell interactions 预览
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作者 Lan Huong Nguyen William Ong +3 位作者 Kai Wang Mingfeng Wang Dean Nizetic Sing Yian Chew 《中国神经再生研究:英文版》 SCIE CAS CSCD 2020年第4期739-747,共9页
MiR-219 and miR-338(miR-219/miR-338)are oligodendrocyte-specific microRNAs.The overexpression of these miRs in oligodendrocyte precursor cells promotes their differentiation and maturation into oligodendrocytes,which ... MiR-219 and miR-338(miR-219/miR-338)are oligodendrocyte-specific microRNAs.The overexpression of these miRs in oligodendrocyte precursor cells promotes their differentiation and maturation into oligodendrocytes,which may enhance axonal remyelination after nerve injuries in the central nervous system(CNS).As such,the delivery of miR-219/miR-338 to the CNS to promote oligodendrocyte precursor cell differentiation,maturation and myelination could be a promising approach for nerve repair.However,nerve injuries in the CNS also involve other cell types,such as microglia and astrocytes.Herein,we investigated the effects of miR-219/miR-338 treatment on microglia and astrocytes in vitro and in vivo.We found that miR-219/miR-338 diminished microglial expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and suppressed astrocyte activation.In addition,we showed that miR-219/miR-338 enhanced oligodendrocyte precursor cell differentiation and maturation in a scratch assay paradigm that re-created a nerve injury condition in vitro.Collectively,our results suggest miR-219/miR-338 as a promising treatment for axonal remyelination in the CNS following nerve injuries.All experimental procedures were approved by the Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee(IACUC),Nanyang Technological University(approval No.A0309 and A0333)on April 27,2016 and October 8,2016. 展开更多
关键词 central nervous system electrospinning gene silencing GLIA hydrogel MYELINATION nanofibers oligodendroglial POLYCAPROLACTONE spinal cord injury
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Characteristics and advantages of adenoassociated virus vector-mediated gene therapy for neurodegenerative diseases 预览
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作者 Yuan Qu Yi Liu +2 位作者 Ahmed Fayyaz Noor Johnathan Tran Rui Li 《中国神经再生研究:英文版》 SCIE CAS CSCD 2019年第6期931-938,共8页
Common neurodegenerative diseases of the central nervous system are characterized by progressive damage to the function of neurons,even leading to the permanent loss of function.Gene therapy via gene replacement or ge... Common neurodegenerative diseases of the central nervous system are characterized by progressive damage to the function of neurons,even leading to the permanent loss of function.Gene therapy via gene replacement or gene correction provides the potential for transformative therapies to delay or possibly stop further progression of the neurodegenerative disease in affected patients.Adeno-associated virus has been the vector of choice in recent clinical trials of therapies for neurodegenerative diseases due to its safety and efficiency in mediating gene transfer to the central nervous system.This review aims to discuss and summarize the progress and clinical applications of adeno-associated virus in neurodegenerative disease in central nervous system.Results from some clinical trials and successful cases of central neurodegenerative diseases deserve further study and exploration. 展开更多
关键词 nerve REGENERATION central nervous system gene therapy NEURODEGENERATIVE DISEASE viral vector ADENO-ASSOCIATED virus Alzheimer’s DISEASE Parkinson’s DISEASE Huntington’s DISEASE amyotrophic lateral SCLEROSIS spinal muscular atrophy neural REGENERATION
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Acute ethanol-related nervous system injuries
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作者 Gentian Vyshka Tefta Shaqiri +1 位作者 Bujar Cakani Artan Distafa 《急性病杂志(英文版)》 2019年第1期12-15,共4页
Acute ethanol intoxication has a diversity of clinical pictures that extend from mere euphoria to severe neurological impairment culminating in coma. Although the majority of cases have a reversible and benign course,... Acute ethanol intoxication has a diversity of clinical pictures that extend from mere euphoria to severe neurological impairment culminating in coma. Although the majority of cases have a reversible and benign course, the situation needs a careful medical monitoring. Authors describe pharmacological aspects of the acute ethanol intoxication, with organs and systems affected during the consumption of exaggerated quantities. Correlations between blood alcohol concentration and neurological symptomatology are given, and a brief discussion of the criteria for the acute intoxication is made. The fact that this occurrence has been of little attention is due not only to the reversibility of the majority of symptoms, but also because that medical research has been ever since focused more on chronic diseases related to alcohol abuse, withdrawal syndrome and recently with hangover as an independent situation. With no specific antidote actually at hand, treatment is symptom-oriented and the pharmacological armamentarium is richer when it comes to dealing with withdrawal, abstinence and other chronic complications of ethanol abuse. 展开更多
关键词 ETHANOL ALCOHOL INTOXICATION BINGE ALCOHOL HANGOVER Nervous system
The Schlager mouse as a model of altered retinal phenotype 预览
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作者 Lakshini YHerat Aaron LMagno +5 位作者 Márcio GKiuchi Kristy LJackson Revathy Carnagarin Geoffrey AHead Markus PSchlaich Vance BMatthews 《中国神经再生研究:英文版》 SCIE CAS CSCD 2020年第3期512-518,共7页
Hypertension is a risk factor for a large number of vision-threatening eye disorders.In this study,we investigated for the first time the retinal neural structure of the hypertensive BPH/2J mouse(Schlager mouse)and co... Hypertension is a risk factor for a large number of vision-threatening eye disorders.In this study,we investigated for the first time the retinal neural structure of the hypertensive BPH/2J mouse(Schlager mouse)and compared it to its control counterpart,the normotensive BPN/3J strain.The BPH/2J mouse is a selectively inbred mouse strain that develops chronic hypertension due to elevated sympathetic nervous system activity.When compared to the BPN/3J strain,the hypertensive BPH/2J mice showed a complete loss of outer layers of the neural retina at 21 weeks of age,which was indicative of a severe vision-threatening disease potentially caused by hypertension.To elucidate whether the retinal neural phenotype in the BPH/2J strain was attributed to increased BP,we investigated the neural retina of both BPN/3J and BPH/2J mice at 4 weeks of age.Our preliminary results showed for the first time that the BPH/2J strain develops severe retinal neural damage at a young age.Our findings suggest that the retinal phenotype in the BPH/2J mouse is possibly due to elevated blood pressure and may be contributed by an early onset spontaneous mutation which is yet to be identified or a congenital defect occurring in this strain.Further characterization of the BPH/2J mouse strain is likely to i)elucidate gene defects underlying retinal disease;ii)understand mechanisms leading to neural retinal disease and iii)permit testing of molecules for translational research to interfere with the progression of retinal disease.The animal experiments were performed with the approval of the Royal Perth Hospital Animal Ethics Committee(R535/17-18)on June 1,2017. 展开更多
关键词 blood pressure eye hypertension mice neural regeneration RETINA Schlager mouse sympathetic nervous system
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Gap junction gene innexin3 being highly expressed in the nervous system and embryonic stage of the mud crab Scylla paramamosain 预览
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作者 WANG Shuping CHEN Fangyi +2 位作者 ZHANG Yaqun MA Xiaowan QIAO Kun 《海洋湖沼学报(英文)》 SCIE CAS CSCD 2019年第5期1649-1658,共10页
Innexin proteins are a class of transmembrane proteins existing in invertebrates and they have diverse biological functions. The innexin protein Sp-inx2 has been demonstrated to play roles in immune response and promo... Innexin proteins are a class of transmembrane proteins existing in invertebrates and they have diverse biological functions. The innexin protein Sp-inx2 has been demonstrated to play roles in immune response and promotion of cell apoptosis in the mud crab Scylla paramamosain . One novel innexin gene, named as Sp-inx3 was characterized from S. paramamosin in this study, with an open reading frame of 1 101 bp encoding 367 amino acid residues. Multiple sequence alignment revealed that the Sp-inx3 is highly homologous with innexin3 of Cancer boredis and Homorus americanus . Quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) and the western blotting results revealed that Sp-inx3 gene was expressed predominantly in the eyestalk, brain, and thoracic ganglion mass in both female and male crabs. The immunohistochemistry assay (IHC) also showed the widespread and intense immunoreactivity of Sp-inx3 in the brain and thoracic ganglion mass. Sp-inx3 mRNA transcription profi les exhibited signifi cantly higher expression from the embryo1 to embryo4 period and low level of expression at the prehatching period and zoea I larva period of S . paramamosain . These results indicate that the Sp-inx3 may play an important role in the nervous system and early embryonic development of S . paramamosain. 展开更多
关键词 Scylla paramamosain Sp-inx3 GENE expression EMBRYONIC development nervous system
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Fine-tuning the response of growth cones to guidance cues: a perspective on the role of microRNAs 预览
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作者 Sarah E. Walker Gaynor E. Spencer Robert L. Carlone 《中国神经再生研究:英文版》 SCIE CAS CSCD 2019年第10期1719-1720,共2页
In the development and regeneration of the nervous system, neurons face the complex task of establishing and/or repairing neuronal connections and contacts. The formation of these neuronal circuits is largely coordina... In the development and regeneration of the nervous system, neurons face the complex task of establishing and/or repairing neuronal connections and contacts. The formation of these neuronal circuits is largely coordinated by tightly regulated temporal and spatial changes in mRNA translation, which enables incredibly precise control over protein expression and localization (Jung and Holt, 2011). Local mRNA translation in specific cellular compartments appears to play a role in many processes that are important to nervous system development and regeneration, including: cell survival, migration, growth cone guidance, and synaptogenesis (Jung and Holt, 2011). 展开更多
关键词 In the development nervous system SYNAPTOGENESIS
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B-scan ultrasound and cytology of the vitreous in primary central nervous system lymphoma with vitreoretinal involvement
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作者 Jie Lai Kun Chen +6 位作者 Hui-Min Shi Lin Zhuang Xian Zhou Jian-Jiang Xiao Yi Li Bo-Bin Chen Qing-Ping Wang 《国际眼科杂志:英文版》 SCIE CAS 2019年第6期1001-1007,共7页
AIM: To evaluate the diagnostic value of B-scan ultrasound and explore the cytological characteristics of patients with vitreoretinal lymphoma(VRL) and primary central nervous system lymphoma(PCNSL).METHODS: The clini... AIM: To evaluate the diagnostic value of B-scan ultrasound and explore the cytological characteristics of patients with vitreoretinal lymphoma(VRL) and primary central nervous system lymphoma(PCNSL).METHODS: The clinical data and pathologic specimens from patients with VRL diagnosed at the North Huashan Hospital from 2016 to 2017 were retrospectively reviewed. The patients were diagnosed by slit lamp ophthalmoscopy, B-scan ultrasound, cytology of the vitreous, which was obtained by vitrectomy, and cytokine measurements of interleukin(IL)-10 and IL-6.RESULTS: Twenty-six eyes(19.4%) out of 134 eyes of 67 patients(47 men and 20 women) with PCNSL were diagnosed with VRL by B-scan ultrasound, and 14 eyes(10.4%) were diagnosed by slit lamp ophthalmoscopy. Twenty-four eyes(17.9%) of 17 patients were confirmed as having VRL with cytology. No difference in the association between intracranial lesion location and ocular involvement was found. VRL patients had higher levels of vitreous IL-10 and IL-10/IL-6 when compared with macular hole cases, but the difference was not statistically significant.CONCLUSION: A total of 25.4% of the PCNSL patients had VRL, B-scan ultrasound examination had characteristic features and is recommended over slit lamp ophthalmoscopy for the screening diagnosis of PCNSL with intraocular involvement. Moreover, the cytological and immunohistochemical analyses performed after 25-gauge diagnostic vitrectomy were accurate diagnostic techniques. 展开更多
关键词 primary central nervous LYMPHOMA intraocular LYMPHOMA B-scan ULTRASOUND VITRECTOMY INTERLEUKIN-10
Extracellular vesicles in the diagnosis and treatment of central nervous system diseases 预览
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作者 Alisa A.Shaimardanova Valeriya V.Solovyeva +3 位作者 Daria S.Chulpanova Victoria James Kristina V.Kitaeva Albert A.Rizvanov 《中国神经再生研究:英文版》 SCIE CAS CSCD 2020年第4期586-596,共11页
Extracellular vesicles,including exosomes and microvesicles,play a fundamental role in the activity of the nervous system,participating in signal transmission between neurons and providing the interaction of central n... Extracellular vesicles,including exosomes and microvesicles,play a fundamental role in the activity of the nervous system,participating in signal transmission between neurons and providing the interaction of central nervous system with all body systems.In many neurodegenerative diseases,neurons pack toxic substances into vesicles and release them into the extracellular space,which leads to the spread of misfolded neurotoxic proteins.The contents of neuron-derived extracellular vesicles may indicate pathological changes in the central nervous system,and the analysis of extracellular vesicle molecular content contributes to the development of non-invasive methods for the diagnosis of many central nervous system diseases.Extracellular vesicles of neuronal origin can be isolated from various biological fluids due to their ability to cross the blood-brain barrier.Today,the diagnostic potential of almost all toxic proteins involved in nervous system disease pathogenesis,specificallyα-synuclein,tau protein,superoxide dismutase 1,FUS,leucine-rich repeat kinase 2,as well as some synaptic proteins,has been well evidenced.Special attention is paid to extracellular RNAs mostly associated with extracellular vesicles,which are important in the onset and development of many neurodegenerative diseases.Depending on parental cell type,extracellular vesicles may have different therapeutic properties,including neuroprotective,regenerative,and anti-inflammatory.Due to nano size,biosafety,ability to cross the blood-brain barrier,possibility of targeted delivery and the lack of an immune response,extracellular vesicles are a promising vehicle for the delivery of therapeutic substances for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases and drug delivery to the brain.This review describes modern approaches of diagnosis and treatment of central nervous system diseases using extracellular vesicles. 展开更多
关键词 biomarkers cell-mediated therapy central nervous system diseases DIAGNOSIS EXOSOMES extracellular RNAs extracellular vesicles MICRORNAS MICROVESICLES neurodegenerative diseases
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Protein biomarkers of neural system 预览
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作者 Fatemeh Ghanavatinejad Zahra Pourteymour Fard Tabrizi +3 位作者 Shadi Omidghaemi Esmaeel Sharifi Simon Geir Moller Mohammad-Saeid Jami 《中华耳科学杂志:英文版》 CSCD 2019年第3期77-88,共12页
The utilization of biomarkers for in vivo and in vitro research is growing rapidly. This is mainly due to the enormous potential of biomarkers in evaluating molecular and cellular abnormalities in cell models and in t... The utilization of biomarkers for in vivo and in vitro research is growing rapidly. This is mainly due to the enormous potential of biomarkers in evaluating molecular and cellular abnormalities in cell models and in tissue, and evaluating drug responses and the effectiveness of therapeutic intervention strategies. An important way to analyze the development of the human body is to assess molecular markers in embryonic specialized cells, which include the ectoderm, mesoderm, and endoderm. Neuronal development is controlled through the gene networks in the neural crest and neural tube, both components of the ectoderm. The neural crest differentiates into several different tissues including, but not limited to, the peripheral nervous system, enteric nervous system, melanocyte, and the dental pulp. The neural tube eventually converts to the central nervous system. This review provides an overview of the differentiation of the ectoderm to a fully functioning nervous system, focusing on molecular biomarkers that emerge at each stage of the cellular specialization from multipotent stem cells to completely differentiated cells. Particularly, the otic placode is the origin of most of the inner ear cell types such as neurons, sensory hair cells, and supporting cells. During the development, different auditory cell types can be distinguished by the expression of the neurogenin differentiation factor1 (Neuro D1), Brn3a, and transcription factor GATA3. However, the mature auditory neurons express other markers including bIII tubulin, the vesicular glutamate transporter (VGLUT1), the tyrosine receptor kinase B and C (Trk B, C), BDNF, neurotrophin 3 (NT3), Calretinin, etc. 展开更多
关键词 NEURAL SYSTEM BIOMARKER DIFFERENTIATION STEM cell Nervous SYSTEM OTIC placode
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Mitophagy links oxidative stress conditions and neurodegenerative diseases 预览
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作者 Ulfuara Shefa Na Young Jeong +4 位作者 In Ok Song Hyung-Joo Chung Dokyoung Kim Junyang Jung Youngbuhm Huh 《中国神经再生研究:英文版》 SCIE CAS CSCD 2019年第5期749-756,共8页
Mitophagy is activated by a number of stimuli,including hypoxia,energy stress,and increased oxidative phosphorylation activity.Mitophagy is associated with oxidative stress conditions and central neurodegenerative dis... Mitophagy is activated by a number of stimuli,including hypoxia,energy stress,and increased oxidative phosphorylation activity.Mitophagy is associated with oxidative stress conditions and central neurodegenerative diseases.Proper regulation of mitophagy is crucial for maintaining homeostasis;conversely,inadequate removal of mitochondria through mitophagy leads to the generation of oxidative species,including reactive oxygen species and reactive nitrogen species,resulting in various neurodegenerative diseases,such as Alzheimer’s disease,Parkinson’s disease,Huntington’s disease,and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.These diseases are most prevalent in older adults whose bodies fail to maintain proper mitophagic functions to combat oxidative species.As mitophagy is essential for normal body function,by targeting mitophagic pathways we can improve these disease conditions.The search for effective remedies to treat these disease conditions is an ongoing process,which is why more studies are needed.Additionally,more relevant studies could help establish therapeutic conditions,which are currently in high demand.In this review,we discuss how mitophagy plays a significant role in homeostasis and how its dysregulation causes neurodegeneration.We also discuss how combating oxidative species and targeting mitophagy can help treat these neurodegenerative diseases. 展开更多
关键词 nerve regeneration MITOPHAGY central nervous system Alzheimer’s DISEASE Parkinson’s DISEASE Huntington’s DISEASE amyotrophic lateral SCLEROSIS oxidative SPECIES REACTIVE oxygen SPECIES REACTIVE nitrogen SPECIES
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On the road to new treatments for multiple sclerosis: targeting dendritic cell migration into the central nervous system 预览
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作者 Megha Meena Nathalie Cools 《中国神经再生研究:英文版》 SCIE CAS CSCD 2019年第12期2088-2090,共3页
Distinct migratory pathways and trafficking of dendritic cells to the central nervous system (CNS): The immune system is a host defense mechanism protecting against invaders, such as bacteria and viruses, while mainta... Distinct migratory pathways and trafficking of dendritic cells to the central nervous system (CNS): The immune system is a host defense mechanism protecting against invaders, such as bacteria and viruses, while maintaining tolerance to self. Nonetheless, a few sites throughout the body are believed to be immunologically inert, such as the testes, the eye and the brain. Indeed, experiments in the mid-20th century gave rise to the concept of the brain as a site of immune privilege. Originally, the immune privilege of the brain was thought to be absolute, attributed by a physical blood-brain barrier (BBB) protecting the CNS from the entry of pathogens and circulating immune cells. These views have changed and currently, the CNS is seen as an immune-specialized site regulated by immunological components into and within the CNS. 展开更多
关键词 new TREATMENTS multiple SCLEROSIS nervous system
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Rehabilitation following spinal cord injury:how animal models can help our understanding of exercise-induced neuroplasticity 预览
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作者 Kristina Loy Florence M.Bareyre 《中国神经再生研究:英文版》 SCIE CAS CSCD 2019年第3期405-412,共8页
Spinal cord injury is a devastating condition that is followed by long and often unsuccessful recovery after trauma. The state of the art approach to manage paralysis and concomitant impairments is rehabilitation, whi... Spinal cord injury is a devastating condition that is followed by long and often unsuccessful recovery after trauma. The state of the art approach to manage paralysis and concomitant impairments is rehabilitation, which is the only strategy that has proven to be effective and beneficial for the patients over the last decades. How rehabilitation influences the remodeling of spinal axonal connections in patients is important to understand, in order to better target these changes and define the optimal timing and onset of training. While clinically the answers to these questions remain difficult to obtain, rodent models of rehabilitation like bicycling, treadmill training, swimming, enriched environments or wheel running that mimic clinical rehabilitation can be helpful to reveal the axonal changes underlying motor recovery. This review will focus on the different animal models of spinal cord injury rehabilitation and the underlying changes in neuronal networks that are improved by exercise and rehabilitation. 展开更多
关键词 remodeling exercise wheel running TREADMILL DETOUR circuit PROPRIOSPINAL neuron CORTICOSPINAL TRACT raphespinal TRACT reticulospinal TRACT activity recovery central nervous system
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Myotropic activity and immunolocalization of selected neuropeptides of the burying beetle Nicrophorus vespilloides (Coleoptera: Silphidae)
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作者 Arkadiusz Urbanski Jan Lubawy +1 位作者 Pawel Marciniak Grzegorz Rosinski 《昆虫科学:英文版》 SCIE CAS CSCD 2019年第4期656-670,共15页
Burying beetles (Nicrophorus sp.) are necrophagous insects with developed parental care. Genome of Nicrophorus vespilloides has been recently sequenced, which makes them interesting model organism in behavioral ecolog... Burying beetles (Nicrophorus sp.) are necrophagous insects with developed parental care. Genome of Nicrophorus vespilloides has been recently sequenced, which makes them interesting model organism in behavioral ecology. However, we know very little about their physiology, including the functioning of their neuroendocrine system. In this study, one of the physiological activities of proctolin, myosuppressin (Nieve? MS), myoinhibitory peptide (Trica-MIP-5) and the short neuropeptide F (Nicve-sNPF) in N. vespilloides have been investigated. The tested neuropeptides were myoactive on N. vespilloides hindgut. After application of the proctolin increased hindgut contraction frequency was observed (EC50 value was 5.47 x 10-8 mol/L). The other tested neuropeptides led to inhibition of N. vespilloides hindgut contractions (Nicve-MS: IC50 = 5.20 x 10~5 mol/L;Trica-MIP-5: IC50 = 5.95 x 10-6 mol/L;Nicvc-sNPF: IC50 = 4.08 x 10-5 mol/L). Moreover, the tested neuropeptides were immunolocalized in the nervous system of N. vespilloides. Neurons containing sNPF and MIP in brain and ventral nerve cord (VNC) were identified. Proctolin-immunolabeled neurons only in VNC were observed. Moreover, MIP-immunolabeled varicosities and fibers in retrocerebral complex were observed. In addition, our results have been supplemented with alignments of amino acid sequences of these neuropeptides in beetle species. This alignment analysis clearly showed amino acid sequence similarities between neuropeptides. Moreover, this allowed to deduce amino acid sequence of N. vespilloides proctolin (RYLPTa), Nicve-MS (QDVDHVFLRFa) and six isoforms ofNicve-MIP (Nicve-MIP-1一 DWNRNLHSWa;Nicve-MIP-2—AWQNLQGGWa;Nicve-MIP-3—AWQNLQGGWa;Nicve-MlP-4—AWKNLNNAGWa;Nicve-MIP-5—SEWGNFRGSWa;Nicve-MIP-6— DPAWTNLKGIWa;and Nicve-sNPF—SGRSPSLRLRFa). 展开更多
关键词 BURYING BEETLES IMMUNOLOCALIZATION myotropic ACTIVITY NEUROPEPTIDES nervous system
Turning to myelin turnover 预览
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作者 Tobias J. Buscham Maria A. Eichel +1 位作者 Sophie B. Siems Hauke B. Werner 《中国神经再生研究:英文版》 SCIE CAS CSCD 2019年第12期2063-2066,共4页
Neural plasticity in the adult central nervous system involves the adaptation of myelination, including the formation of novel myelin sheaths by adult-born oligodendrocytes. Yet, mature oligodendrocytes slowly but con... Neural plasticity in the adult central nervous system involves the adaptation of myelination, including the formation of novel myelin sheaths by adult-born oligodendrocytes. Yet, mature oligodendrocytes slowly but constantly turn over their pre-existing myelin sheaths, thereby establishing an equilibrium of replenishment and degradation that may also be subject to adaptation with consequences for nerve conduction velocity. In this short review we highlight selected approaches to the normal turnover of adult myelin in vivo, from injecting radioactive precursors of myelin constituents in the 1960s to current strategies involving isotope labeling and tamoxifen-induced gene targeting. 展开更多
关键词 OLIGODENDROCYTE MYELIN PLASTICITY and TURNOVER degradation TAMOXIFEN metabolic LABELING isotope LABELING neural PLASTICITY myelinoid bodies central nervous system
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Taking central nervous system regenerative therapies to the clinic:curing rodents versus nonhuman primates versus humans 预览
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作者 Magdalini Tsintou Kyriakos Dalamagkas Nikos Makris 《中国神经再生研究:英文版》 SCIE CAS CSCD 2020年第3期425-437,共13页
The central nervous system is known to have limited regenerative capacity.Not only does this halt the human body’s reparative processes after central nervous system lesions,but it also impedes the establishment of ef... The central nervous system is known to have limited regenerative capacity.Not only does this halt the human body’s reparative processes after central nervous system lesions,but it also impedes the establishment of effective and safe therapeutic options for such patients.Despite the high prevalence of stroke and spinal cord injury in the general population,these conditions remain incurable and place a heavy burden on patients’families and on society more broadly.Neuroregeneration and neural engineering are diverse biomedical fields that attempt reparative treatments,utilizing stem cells-based strategies,biologically active molecules,nanotechnology,exosomes and highly tunable biodegradable systems(e.g.,certain hydrogels).Although there are studies demonstrating promising preclinical results,safe clinical translation has not yet been accomplished.A key gap in clinical translation is the absence of an ideal animal or ex vivo model that can perfectly simulate the human microenvironment,and also correspond to all the complex pathophysiological and neuroanatomical factors that affect functional outcomes in humans after central nervous system injury.Such an ideal model does not currently exist,but it seems that the nonhuman primate model is uniquely qualified for this role,given its close resemblance to humans.This review considers some regenerative therapies for central nervous system repair that hold promise for future clinical translation.In addition,it attempts to uncover some of the main reasons why clinical translation might fail without the implementation of nonhuman primate models in the research pipeline. 展开更多
关键词 animal models central nervous system regeneration clinical translation exosomes HYDROGELS neural tissue engineering nonhuman primates spinal cord injury stem cells stroke
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