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Spatial Analysis of Heavy Metal Emissions in Residential, Commercial and Industrial Areas Adjacent to a Scrap Metal Shredder in Winnipeg, Canada 认领
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作者 Folarin Solademi Shirley Thompson 《地球科学和环境保护期刊(英文)》 2020年第5期359-386,共28页
A spatial analysis of air pollution in the South St. Boniface (SSB) and Mission Industrial Areas (MIA) of Winnipeg, in Manitoba, Canada, was conducted by mapping the results for 23 composite snow samples. Heavy metals... A spatial analysis of air pollution in the South St. Boniface (SSB) and Mission Industrial Areas (MIA) of Winnipeg, in Manitoba, Canada, was conducted by mapping the results for 23 composite snow samples. Heavy metals were analyzed in the snow samples by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS). Higher concentrations closer to the shredder were significant for every metal, but, not for arsenic, in regression modeling R squared (0.585 for Cd, 0.462 for Pb, 0.423 for Zn, 0.343 for Cr, 0.343 for Ni, 0.244 for Mn, and 0.069 for As). Heavy metal concentrations were significantly higher in the industrial zone, with the next highest being the roadside zone, then the commercial zone and finally the residential/parkland zone, at p-value < 0.01 statistical significance levels according to the non-parametric Kruskal-Wallis H- test. The metals concentrations mapped on Arc-GIS with ArcMap 10.6 using kriging interpolation, display that all toxic metal concentrations, but particularly Pb, Ni, Zn, Cr, and Hg, are highest proximate to the scrap metal shredder. Furthermore, pollution indices, specifically contamination factor (CF), degree of contamination (DOC), and pollution load index (PLI), were undertaken registering high contamination. The CF registered high for lead, zinc, and nickel in all areas compared to the background levels, but the highest levels were nearby to the scrap metal shredder. The DOC values showed that the industrial contamination is nearly five times greater than that for the road or commercial areas and almost 20 times more contaminated compared to the residential/parkland. With PLI levels above 1 considered contaminated, the shredder (4.1), roadside (2.2), and commercial areas (1.9) were polluted. These findings point to the shredder as the cause of present-day contamination for all areas, including residential/parkland, traffic, and commercial areas. High levels of toxic metal air pollution emissions warrant further study of human exposure and health risk posed by multiple sources from the 展开更多
关键词 Air POLLUTION Heavy Metals PARTICULATE Matter POLLUTION Indices MAPS SNOW Spatial Analysis
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Impact of Air Pollution on Community’s Health, Evidence of Industrial Zone in Masoro, Ndera Sector, Rwanda 认领
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作者 Nsengimana Janvier 《地球科学和环境保护期刊(英文)》 2020年第6期47-60,共14页
Air pollution is among the leading global risks for mortality and responsible for increasing risk for chronic diseases. The aim of this study was to explore the impact of industrial zone air pollution on Masoro commun... Air pollution is among the leading global risks for mortality and responsible for increasing risk for chronic diseases. The aim of this study was to explore the impact of industrial zone air pollution on Masoro community and identify some health problems which are experienced in the communities. The key informants were selected using a purposive sampling technique and random sampling based on polluted areas. During this research, Kibagabaga hospital was consulted to identify different illness associated with air pollution in Ndera industrial zone. Respondents illustrated that a great part of emission came from industry, related activities and vehicles. The findings from the hospital illustrated that the respiratory, hypertension and diabetes dominated the illness in community due to air pollution from industrial zone, which was confirmed in this research with reference to the survey results. Air pollution is one of the greatest environmental threats and has been implicated for several adverse cardiovascular effects including arterial hypertension and diabetes. Air contamination provokes oxidative stress, systemic inflammation, and autonomic nervous system imbalance that subsequently induce endothelial dysfunction and vasoconstriction leading to increased blood pressure. The respondents confirmed that the communities are aware of pollution and experienced the consequences of pollution such as cancer and other complicated illness. 展开更多
关键词 Air Pollution Community Heath Effect of Air Pollution Industrial Zone
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Short Term Impact of Air Pollution on Asthma Admission in Ulaanbaatar 认领
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作者 Altangerel Enkhjargal Otgonbyamba Oyun-Erdene +7 位作者 Badrakh Burmaajav Sambuu Tsegmed Batbaatar Suvd Byambagar Norolkhoosuren Dorj Unurbat Jadamba Batbayar Davaakhuu Narantuya Palam Enkhtuya 《职业病与环境医学(英文)》 2020年第2期64-78,共15页
Background: Asthma is a heterogeneous disease, usually characterized by chronic airway inflammation. The air quality is influenced by locations of the air pollution sources, their performance capacity, the technology ... Background: Asthma is a heterogeneous disease, usually characterized by chronic airway inflammation. The air quality is influenced by locations of the air pollution sources, their performance capacity, the technology used, the composition of waste generated and geographical and climate conditions. In this study, a time-series analysis was conducted to estimate the association of short-term exposure to ambient air pollutants and hospitalization due to asthma in Ulaanbaatar. Objectives: We estimate the short-term associations between daily changes in ambient air pollutants and daily asthma in Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia. Methods: This is a time-series cross over study. All asthma hospital admission and air pollution data of 2008-2017 was used for this assessment. Data analyzed by using the program STATA-12. For testing the differences of the results were used appropriate non-parametric tests. Result: The daily mean of sulfur dioxide concentration was 35.22 mg/m3 in the cold season, which was 7.57 times higher than the mean of the hot season. The mean annual PM 10 concentration was 182.73 μg/m3. Most of the cases of asthma were among women, aged between 5 - 64 years old, registered during winter and spring. 3.8 people admitted to the hospital mostly on weekdays. In all Lag of SO2, in Lag of NO2, in all Lag of PM 10, in PM 2.5 and in all Lag except for Lag 2 of CO, Lag 0 - 2 of O3 the incidence is likely to increase by 0.3% - 6.1% per 10 units of pollutants. Conclusion: The air pollution especially PM 10, PM 2.5, and CO are the most harmful air pollutants to asthma in Ulaanbaatar. The correlation mainly between asthma admission cases with meteorological parameters is because of the cold winter condition. 展开更多
关键词 Аir POLLUTION ASTHMA Time-Series CROSS Over LAG Ulaanbaatar Air POLLUTION
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Evaluation of the Level of Mercury Pollution in the Sediments of the Rivers Draining the Gold Panning Sites in the Territory of Fizi, Eastern Democratic Republic of Congo 认领
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作者 Nsambu Mukondwa Pascal Musibono Eyul’Anki Dieudonné Mputu Kanyinda Jean-No?l 《地球科学和环境保护期刊(英文)》 2020年第2期97-111,共15页
The sediments collected respectively from the Etó, Kacumvi, Kimbi, Lubichako, Makungu, Kuwa, Mandje, Misisi and Kimuti Rivers draining the gold panning sites in the Fizi territory were studied during a 16-month c... The sediments collected respectively from the Etó, Kacumvi, Kimbi, Lubichako, Makungu, Kuwa, Mandje, Misisi and Kimuti Rivers draining the gold panning sites in the Fizi territory were studied during a 16-month cycle (August and December 2016 to August and December 2017) in order to assess their degree of mercury pollution in the dry season as well as in the rainy season. The assessment of the degree of pollution of the said sediments focused on six parameters including the total mercury content (THg) and the indices of mercury pollution such as the mercury enrichment factor (EF), the mercury contamination factor (CF), the mercury geoaccumulation index (Igeo), the mercury potential ecological risk factor (PERF) and the mercury ecological risk index (ERI). Total mercury was determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS) while the mercury pollution indices were successively calculated using the appropriate formulas. The results thus obtained revealed that all the sediments of the rivers studied are considerably polluted by mercury according to the values relative to their total mercury content and mercury pollution indices, including the mercury enrichment factor (EF), the mercury contamination factor (CF), the mercury geoaccumulation index (Igeo), the mercury potential ecological risk factor (PERF) and the mercury ecological risk index (ERI), which greatly exceed the standards recommended by the Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment. In particular, the sediments of the Kimbi River are highly polluted by mercury compared to those of other rivers studied. This reported pollution is the result of anthropogenic gold panning activities that generate effluents and elemental mercury that pollute the streams. 展开更多
关键词 Mercurial Pollution TERRITORY of Fizi SEDIMENTS SITES RIVERS GOLD Panning DRC
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Particulate Matter-Based Air Quality Index Estimate for Abuja, Nigeria: Implications for Health 认领
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作者 Rogers Bariture Kanee Adewale Adeyemi +1 位作者 David Onojiede Edokpa Precious Nwobidi Ede 《地球科学和环境保护期刊(英文)》 2020年第5期313-321,共9页
In recent years, urban air quality in developing countries such as Nigeria has continued to degenerate and this has constituted a major environmental risk to human health. It has been shown that an increase in ambient... In recent years, urban air quality in developing countries such as Nigeria has continued to degenerate and this has constituted a major environmental risk to human health. It has been shown that an increase in ambient particulate matter (PM10) load of 10 μg/m3 reduces life expectancy by 0.64 years. Air Quality Index (AQI) as demonstrated in this study shows how relatively clean or polluted the boundary layer environment of any location can be. The study was designed to measure the level of suspended particulate matter (PM2.5 and PM10) for dry and wet seasons, compute the prevalent air quality index of selected locations in Abuja with possible health implications. Suspended particulate matter (PM2.5 and PM10) was assessed using handheld aerosol particulate sampler. The US Oak Ridge National AQI was adopted for the eleven (11) locations sampled and monitored. The study results showed that the air quality of the selected areas in Abuja were generally good and healthy. Dry season, assessments, showed 15 - 95 μg/m3 and 12 - 80 μg/m3 for PM2.5 and PM10, respectively. While in wet season, 09 - 75 μg/m3 and 07 - 65 μg/m3 were recorded for PM2.5 and PM10. However at Jebi Central Motor Park, there was light air contamination with AQI of 42 for dry season and 31 for wet season. Other locations had clean air with AQI ≤ 11. It is revealed that clean air exists generally during the wet season. Comparing study outcome to other cities in Nigeria, residents of Abuja are likely not to be affected with health hazards of particulate matter pollution. Nonetheless, the high range of PM2.5 and PM10 (fine and coarse particles) ratio evaluated i.e., 1.06 - 1.79 was higher than the WHO recommended standard of 0.5 - 0.8. This ratio remains a health concerns for sensitive inhabitants like pregnant women and their foetus as well as infants below age five whose respiratory airways are noted to have high surface areas and absorption capacity for fine particulate matter. Vegetation known to absorb suspended particulate matter should be p 展开更多
关键词 AIR Pollution PARTICULATE Matter AIR Quality Index Abuja HEALTH Effects
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Review on the Effects of Combined Pollution of Lead and Chromium on Soil Microorganisms and Treatment Methods 认领
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作者 Haichao Yang 《地球科学和环境保护期刊(英文)》 2020年第9期140-150,共11页
Heavy metals—Pb and Cr are important causes of environmental pollution, and they often coexist in nature. At present, the effects of Pb and Cr toxicity on soil microorganisms have been less studied, in soil environme... Heavy metals—Pb and Cr are important causes of environmental pollution, and they often coexist in nature. At present, the effects of Pb and Cr toxicity on soil microorganisms have been less studied, in soil environment which is extremely complex. Simulating soil environment and studying microbial reaction under various heavy metal conditions are of great significance for revealing microbial tolerance to heavy metals. In this paper, firstly, the related concepts of soil rechecking pollution are discussed, and the physical and chemical properties and forms of lead and chromium are introduced accordingly. Secondly, the effects of combined pollution of lead and chromium on soil microbial biomass, soil microbial community structure and soil microbial activity were discussed. Finally, the relevant treatment methods of heavy metal contaminated soil were put forward. 展开更多
关键词 Compound Pollution Heavy Metals Soil Microorganisms
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Characterization of Surface Layer Turbulence across a West African Tropical Climate Belt 认领
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作者 Precious N. Ede 《大气和气候科学(英文)》 2020年第3期405-420,共16页
This study surveyed the levels of boundary layer surface turbulence across a West African climate region. Five years (2011-2015) temperature and wind speed data at synoptic hours 0000 Hr, 0600 Hr, 1200 Hr and 1800 Hr ... This study surveyed the levels of boundary layer surface turbulence across a West African climate region. Five years (2011-2015) temperature and wind speed data at synoptic hours 0000 Hr, 0600 Hr, 1200 Hr and 1800 Hr within 0.125<span style="white-space:nowrap;">&deg;</span> grid resolution was sourced from Era-Interim Reanalysis platform at 1000 mbar pressure level. Using the Richardson (Ri) number technique, results showed that mechanical turbulence of Ri range 0.04 - 0.57 dominates across the surface layer for study locations of Port Harcourt, Enugu, Jos, Kano and Maiduguri than thermal turbulence. However, the least turbulent area was the coastal zone of surveyed region. Results also indicated that the vertical height (L) at which thermal turbulence replaces mechanical turbulence across study locations ranged from 20 - 250 m with lowest replacement levels (20 - 50 m) occurring mainly in the coastal area of Port Harcourt during periods of dawn. The most turbulent periods in the southern coastal location of study region were during key rainy periods from June-August while that for the rest far northern inland areas occur during the dry season/early rainy periods i.e. November-May. The implication of the lower surface turbulence/replacement level within coastal domains most especially during periods of dawn is that emission releases near surface layer will be dispersed after initial rise due to buoyancy at horizontal levels thereby increasing ground level pollutants concentration across sensitive receptors that are close to emission source. At heights of thermal turbulence replacement, emission releases will be transported vertically and then dispersed further away from emission sources, thus impacting sensitive receptors at farther distances. This is the atmospheric boundary layer dynamics that makes ground level pollution worse in the coastal city of Port Harcourt in recent times during periods of dawn. Efforts must be made by concerned Stakeholders towards ensuring that emissions are reduced during the period 展开更多
关键词 TURBULENCE Richardson Number West Africa Nigeria Coastal Area Air Pollution
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Trace Metals in Fine and Respirable Ambient Air Particulates on Trinidad’s West Coast 认领
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作者 Samantha Chadee 《地球科学和环境保护期刊(英文)》 2020年第6期61-81,共21页
The paper analyzed the concentrations of trace metals in fine and respirable particulates (fine-PM<sub>1</sub> and PM<sub>2.5</sub>;respirable-PM<sub>10</sub>) to determine baseline... The paper analyzed the concentrations of trace metals in fine and respirable particulates (fine-PM<sub>1</sub> and PM<sub>2.5</sub>;respirable-PM<sub>10</sub>) to determine baseline concentrations in the ambient air and the factors impacting its distribution such as land use and time of year when levels may be concerning to public health. Measurements of particulates along with meteorological parameters were made at four sites over the heavily populated west coast of Trinidad (10<span style="font-size:10.0pt;font-family:;" "=""><span style="color:#4F4F4F;font-family:"font-size:14px;white-space:normal;background-color:#FFFFFF;">&#176</span></span>32'N, 61<span style="font-size:10.0pt;font-family:;" "=""><span style="color:#4F4F4F;font-family:"font-size:14px;white-space:normal;background-color:#FFFFFF;">&#176</span></span>18'W) during March ’15-May ’16, representing rural, urban, mixed background and industrial land uses. The study found mean levels of trace metals to be highest at the industrial and urban stations. Public health exceedances (referenced to the Canadian AAQ public health standards <a href="#ref23">(Ontario-MoE, 2012)</a>) were measured for beryllium, cadmium, chromium, iron, manganese and nickel (in PM<sub>10</sub>). Iron, manganese and nickel, most associated with particulates at the industrial station, were in frequent exceedance. Beryllium—concentrated in coarse PM (PM<sub>2.5-10</sub>) with only a single measured exceedance at the mixed background station likely poses minimal threat to the health of the nearby population. Cadmium—concentrated in fine PM which peaked once only at the rural station was likely due to an irregular event within a narrow timeframe during the time of sampling. Iron and manganese were frequently above the Canadian public health threshold, but predominated in the coarse PM fraction, suggesting localised sources. Nickel, concentrated in the fine PM fraction, was frequently in exceedance particularly at the industrial station. Cadmium and nickel are genotoxic and s 展开更多
关键词 Ambient Air Pollution Fine and Respirable Particulates Trace Metals
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Numerical Modeling of Dust Propagation in the Atmosphere of a City with Complex Terrain. The Case of Background Eastern Light Air 认领
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作者 Aleksandre Surmava Vepkhia Kukhalashvili +2 位作者 Natia Gigauri Liana Intskirveli George Kordzakhia 《应用数学与应用物理(英文)》 2020年第7期1222-1228,共7页
Micro-scale processes of dust distribution in the city of Tbilisi with very complex topography are modeled using a 3D regional model of atmospheric processes and numerical integration of the transport-diffusion equati... Micro-scale processes of dust distribution in the city of Tbilisi with very complex topography are modeled using a 3D regional model of atmospheric processes and numerical integration of the transport-diffusion equation of the impurity. The Terrain-following coordinate system is used to take into account the influence of a very complex relief on the process of atmospheric pollution. Modeling is carried out using horizontal grid steps of 300 m and 400 m along latitude and longitude, respectively. Cases of the stationary background eastern light air are considered. In the model, motor transport is considered as a nonstationary source of pollution from which dust is emitted into the atmosphere. Modeling of dust micro-scale diffusion process showed that the city air pollution depends on the spatial distribution of the main sources of city pollution,<em> i.e.</em> on vehicle traffic intensity, as well as on the spatial distribution of highways, and micro-orography of city and relief of the surrounding territories. It is shown that the dust pollution level in the surface layer of the atmosphere is minimal at 6 a.m. Ground-level concentration rapidly grows with the increase of vehicle traffic intensity and at 12 a.m. reaches maximum allowable concentration (MAC = 0.5 mg/m3) in the vicinity of central city mains. From 12 a.m. to 9 p.m. maximum dust concentration values are within the limits of 0.9 - 1.2 MAC. In the mentioned time interval formation of the high pollution zones, the slow growth of their areas and the value of ground-level concentrations take place. These zones are located in both central and peripheral parts of the city. Their disposition and area sizes depend on the spatial distribution of local wind-generated under the action of complex terrain, as well as on the processes of turbulent and advective dust transfer. From 9 p.m. to 24 p.m. reduction of dust pollution and ground-level concentration takes place. After midnight the city dust pollution process continues quasi-periodically. 展开更多
关键词 Numerical Modeling Pollution Source DIFFUSION Dust Distribution WIND
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Impact of Ambient Air Pollution and Meteorological Factors on Hospital Admission to the Cardiovascular System Disease on Ulaanbaatar City of Mongolia 认领
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作者 Altangerel Enkhjargal Badrakh Burmaajav +4 位作者 Sambuu Tsegmed Batbaatar Suvd Byambagar Norolkhoosuren Dorj Unurbat Jadamba Batbayar 《流行病学期刊(英文)》 2020年第2期100-114,共15页
Background: Mongolia is situated in northern Central Asia. Landlocked between China and Russia, it is a vast expanse of high attitude grassland steppe, desert, and mountain covering an area of 1,565,000 square kilomet... Background: Mongolia is situated in northern Central Asia. Landlocked between China and Russia, it is a vast expanse of high attitude grassland steppe, desert, and mountain covering an area of 1,565,000 square kilometers. Air pollution is an increasingly series problem in Mongolia. Materials and Methods: This is a time-series cross over study. All health and air pollution data of 2008-2017 was used for this survey. Results: The mean level of SO2 during the cold season was 35.22 μg/m3 and during the warm season it was 4.65 μg/m3. 24 hours PM10 concentration, during the cold season daily average concentration was 226.77 μg/m3. The 8 hours average daily carbon monoxide concentration (1352.85 μg/m3 [95% CI: 1313.07 - 1396.15]) was high during the cold season, ozone concentration (39.10 μg/m3 [95% CI: 37.95 - 40.35]) was high during the warm season. Air quality depends on metrological parameters. All correlation was statistically significant during the whole year and cold season. In total, 288,832 people get admitted to the hospital due to cardiovascular system disease in Ulaanbaatar during the year of 2008-2017. In general, hospitalization is increasing year by year. Significant associations were found for SO2 with hypertensive diseases (I10 - I15), ischemic heart diseases (I20 - I25), cerebrovascular diseases (I60 - I69), diseases of pulmonary circulation and other forms of heart (I00 - I09, I26 - I52) in all lags. For NO2 was less associated with Ischemic heart diseases (I20 - I25) and diseases of pulmonary circulation and other forms of heart (I00 - I09, I26 - I52). For both PM10 and PM2.5, every disease had observed significant RR in lag 0 - 3. Significant associations were found for air pollutants such as PM10, PM2.5, CO, SO2, and O3 in all lags had a statistically significant association with cold season’s cardiovascular system disease admission. As expected during the warm season significant association was found only lag 1 with PM2.5 and lags (0, 1) CO and O3. Conclusion: As expected this study demonst 展开更多
关键词 Air POLLUTION CARDIOVASCULAR System DISEASE METEOROLOGICAL FACTORS Ulaanbaatar
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Modeling the Dispersion and Atmospheric Mitigation of Pollutants in the Dibamba-Douala Thermal Power Plant 认领
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作者 Marius Tony Kibong Jean Gaston Tamba Louis Monkam 《地球科学和环境保护期刊(英文)》 2020年第3期102-115,共14页
This work simulates the dispersion and atmospheric attenuation of pollutants from the Dibamba-Douala thermal power plant. The objective of this research is to study the dispersion of air pollutants and mitigate the im... This work simulates the dispersion and atmospheric attenuation of pollutants from the Dibamba-Douala thermal power plant. The objective of this research is to study the dispersion of air pollutants and mitigate the impact of pollutants on the populations living around the power plant. The methodology used is as follows: the Gaussian model is used for the representation of the dispersion in the form of a plume, the finite difference method for digital resolution. Finally, dispersion charts are constructed which allow the heights of the chimneys to be fixed for which the concentrations of pollutants discharged comply with ambient air quality standards. The results obtained using the simulation made in the MATLAB software version 2016 show that, for a wind regime of 1.5 m/s;we have a predicted distance of 150 m at which the concentration is canceled out. Then, for the wind speed of 2 m/s;we had a predicted distance of 125 m and finally for a wind speed of 2.5 m/s;we observed the 120 m distance at which the concentration is canceled. In addition, for the same wind regimes, the attenuation of pollutants at ground level is obtained for a height of 60 m. 展开更多
关键词 MODELING ATMOSPHERIC Pollution Thermal Power Plant GAUSSIAN Model DISPERSION
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长江流域农业生产污染及相应处理建议 认领
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作者 秦成龙 《智能建筑与智慧城市》 2020年第6期102-104,共3页
通过对长江流域农业生产中产生的污染物、污染途径及污染后果,从政府政策角度和当下农业生产中的大环境出发,并结合实际情况,对施肥管理、施药管理、粪便处理、农村生活废弃物处理四个方面分别提出相应的处理建议,为进一步加快长江流域... 通过对长江流域农业生产中产生的污染物、污染途径及污染后果,从政府政策角度和当下农业生产中的大环境出发,并结合实际情况,对施肥管理、施药管理、粪便处理、农村生活废弃物处理四个方面分别提出相应的处理建议,为进一步加快长江流域农业生产合理化、规范化,建立和谐共生的农业生产模式。 展开更多
关键词 长江流域 农业生产 污染 处理建议
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Surface Water Sediments Characterization Using Metallic Trace Elements (MTEs): Case of the Artisanal Gold Mining Sites of Kokumbo (Côte d’Ivoire) 认领
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作者 Kouassi Ernest Ahoussi Armand Patrick Yapo +1 位作者 Amani Michel Kouassi Yao Blaise Koffi 《环境保护(英文)》 2020年第9期649-663,共15页
The main purpose of this study is to characterize the surface sediments of the Kokumbo artisanal gold mining sites in Metallic trace Elements (MTEs). A total of 12 samples of surface water sediments were collected for... The main purpose of this study is to characterize the surface sediments of the Kokumbo artisanal gold mining sites in Metallic trace Elements (MTEs). A total of 12 samples of surface water sediments were collected for this study. The samples were analyzed using the Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS). The mean concentrations of Mn (611.37 mg/kg) and Zn (955.86 mg/kg) in the sediments were very high compared to the standard in unpolluted sediments. The enrichment factor (EF) shows that there is an enrichment of Mn at some sites (EF (Mn) > 2). The presence of As, Mn, and Zn is also highlighted by the geo-accumulation index (I-geo) which shows slight pollution in Mn (0 < I-geo (Mn) < 1) on some sites. Moderate pollution for As (1 < I-geo (As) < 2) was determined at the treatment site and high pollution in Zn at some sites in the area (I-geo (Zn) > 3). This study shows that the presence of Zn in the sediments is linked to artisanal gold mining activities. Indeed, Zn is much used for gold recovery. The statistical analysis (PCA) shows, on the one hand, natural mineralization of the sediments and addition of metals linked to anthropic activities corresponding to the erosion of mining discharges. The surface sediments of the Kokumbo mining sites show pollution in As, Mn, and Zn. 展开更多
关键词 Artisanal Mining Enrichment Factor (EF) MTEs Pollution SEDIMENT
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Concentrations and Allocation of NO<sub>2</sub>Emissions to Different Sources in a Distinctive Italian Region after the COVID-19 Lockdown 认领
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作者 Luigi Romano 《环境保护(英文)》 2020年第9期690-708,共19页
Nitrogen dioxide concentrations, being short-lived pollutants, are good indicators of changes in emission sources and economic slowdowns. This analysis focuses on the Greater Salento region (Italy) and aims to monitor... Nitrogen dioxide concentrations, being short-lived pollutants, are good indicators of changes in emission sources and economic slowdowns. This analysis focuses on the Greater Salento region (Italy) and aims to monitor, by investigating the relative sources, the changes of NO<sub>2</sub> tropospheric concentrations notoriously related to vehicular traffic exhausts and, in general, to fossil fuel combustion processes which are now apparently linked to many COVID-19 patients deaths. The principle objective of this paper is to map the tropospheric NO<sub>2</sub> local distribution and to extrapolate, from the overall data of average daily concentrations of NO<sub>2</sub> as recorded by the ARPA-Puglia ground-based monitoring stations, the single contributions and their mutual relationships of the different diffuse emission sources (motor vehicles and domestic heating systems) by identifying, the environmental background threshold of this pollutant of each geographic area, thanks to the simplified situation determined by the COVID-19 lockdown. The analyzed territory (the so-called “Greater Salento” or Salento Peninsula) is very unusual because there are two provinces with large industrial settlements, Taranto, with the steel area of ex-ILVA, and Brindisi, with petrochemical and thermoelectric power plants, which enclose a territory, the province of Lecce, free of any industrial plants of such sizes and their environmental impacts. From the results of this study, in addition to confirming the obvious and overall decrease of NO<sub>2</sub> concentrations (-23.2% compared to previous year) during the lockdown period, interesting and distinctive local allocations of nitrogen dioxide concentrations to different sources have also emerged: heating household systems, and not road traffic, are the main sources of this dangerous pollutant in this region, with an average quota of 44.3%. The studied regional situation is so significant as to allow broader considerations regarding to other similar international areas. 展开更多
关键词 Ex-ILVA Nitrogen Dioxide Greater Salento Vehicles Heating Systems Background Pollution
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Assessment of Some Heavy Metals in Fresh Fish (Oreochromis aureus): Case of Toho Lake in South Eastern Benin, West Africa 认领
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作者 Nikita Topanou Jean Gouvidé Gbaguidi +3 位作者 Akpo Essegbemon Roger Gérard Josse Daouda Mama Taofiki Aminou 《地球科学和环境保护期刊(英文)》 2020年第3期159-172,共14页
The protection of aquatic ecosystems is of great importance to maintain the biological balance necessary to secure healthy foods therein imbedded. Toho Lake, located to the south east of Benin, is threatened by pollut... The protection of aquatic ecosystems is of great importance to maintain the biological balance necessary to secure healthy foods therein imbedded. Toho Lake, located to the south east of Benin, is threatened by pollution emanating from anthropogenic activities with the use of chemical fertilizers, effluent of domestic waste, particularly human and animal excrement with neighbourhood effluents. This study aimed at assessing some heavy metals in fresh fish (Oreochromis aureus) of Toho Lake in order to secure healthy food for the population and protect the ecosystem. Samples of water and fishes were collected and analyzed by HACH DR 3900 after treatment. Results revealed a mean oxygenation of water (4.95 mgo2/l), Biochemical Oxygen Demand (21.5 mgo2/l), Chemical oxygen Demand (149, 39 mg/l) with the nitrogen in Nitrate (NO3: 0.18 mg/l), ammonium nitrate (N-N: 0.47 mg/l), and phosphorous (2.06 mg/l) to be very high. The highest contents of heavy metals obtained in the fresh fish were cadmium (32.25 mg/kg), copper (115 mg/kg), lead (8.25 mg/kg), and zinc (90.75 mg/kg) and revealed that the fishes of Toho lake were polluted. The finding allowed us to conclude that the pollution of the lake and the fish carnage are due to anthropogenic pollution through chemicals spilling. Some protection methods of the lake and ecosystem are proposed in order to keep the fish safe and protect the well-being of the population. 展开更多
关键词 FRESH Fish Heavy Metals Pollution Toho LAKE SOUTH EASTERN BENIN
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Destructive and Nondestructive Determination of <sup>226</sup>Ra and <sup>228</sup>Ra in Drinking Water by Gamma Spectrometry 认领
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作者 A. J. Khan A. Bari +3 位作者 M. A. Torres D. K. Haines T. J. Hoffman T. M. Semkow 《环境保护(英文)》 2020年第4期257-268,共12页
The Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA) mandates that the drinking water should be monitored for 226Ra and 228Ra isotopes and establishes the Maximum Contaminant Level of 185 mBq/L (5 pCi·L-1) for the sum. In addition... The Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA) mandates that the drinking water should be monitored for 226Ra and 228Ra isotopes and establishes the Maximum Contaminant Level of 185 mBq/L (5 pCi·L-1) for the sum. In addition, SDWA regulates the Detection Limit (DL) of 37.0 mBq/L (1 pCi/L) for each isotope. The purpose of this work is to develop a working method for the determination of radium isotopes in drinking water satisfying the regulatory requirements of U.S. Environmental Protection Agency by utilizing our extensive experience in low-background gamma spectrometry at this laboratory. Two versions of the method were studied: destructive and non-destructive. Destructive method used the BaSO4 coprecipitation as well as 133Ba tracer for chemical recovery. We have used three gamma spectrometers: low-background 102% and 134% efficient with top muon guards, as well as an ultralow-background 140% efficient with full muon guard. We obtained a range of DLs from 5.3 to 22.6 mBq/L for 226Ra and from 7.4 to 30.4 mBq/L for 228Ra using the destructive method. For non-destructive method, the DL range was 26.0 to 26.9 mBq/L for 226Ra and 27.6 to 28.6 mBq/L for 228Ra using the 140% detector. To verify the methods, 7 to 10 laboratory control samples were spiked with both 226Ra and 228Ra at two different activities of 37.0 and 185 mBq/L. The results were evaluated by performing a combined location/variance chi-square test at a right-tail significance of 0.01 (99% Confidence Level), as stipulated by EPA. The verification results passed the chi-square tests at both activity levels. The destructive method can be accomplished using low-background gamma spectrometry, whereas non-destructive method requires ultralow-background gamma spectrometry. 展开更多
关键词 RADIOACTIVE Pollution GERMANIUM Detector Detection Limit CHI-SQUARE Test
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Evaluation of Bottom Sediment Qualities in Ihetutu Minefield, Ishiagu, Nigeria 认领
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作者 R. Sha’Ato A. G. Benibo +1 位作者 A. U. Itodo R. A. Wuana 《地球科学和环境保护期刊(英文)》 2020年第4期125-142,共18页
Bottom sediment qualities in Ihetutu minefield were assessed to ascertain the impact of Pb-Zn mining activities on the sediments from streams, rivers and ponds in the area. Levels of Cu, Zn, Fe, Ni, Mn, Pb, Cd and Cr ... Bottom sediment qualities in Ihetutu minefield were assessed to ascertain the impact of Pb-Zn mining activities on the sediments from streams, rivers and ponds in the area. Levels of Cu, Zn, Fe, Ni, Mn, Pb, Cd and Cr and some physico-chemical parameters were measured in bottom sediments taken from four sampling stations (streams/mine pits) within Ihetutu minefield of Ishiagu which receives discharges from mining and human activities, and a control sampling station in Uturu (about 12 km away from study area). The study was conducted in four seasons (Rainy, Late Rainy, Dry, and Late Dry Seasons). Sample digestion was done with a temperature adjustable block digester. Heavy metal analysis was carried out with Flame atomic absorption spectrophotometer (FAAS) while other physico-chemical parameters were determined with standard field and laboratory procedures. Ranges of mean values of results obtained were;pH = 5.81 - 6.44, EC = 269.00 - 1545.00 μS/cm, Cl&#8722 = 43.30 - 112.33 mg/kg, alkalinity = 0.70 - 1.25 mg/kg, NO3-?= 5.90 - 7.90 mg/kg, TOC = 0.81 - 1.75 mg/kg, TOM = 1.40 - 3.02 mg/kg, Cu = 4.74 - 50.93 mg/kg, Zn = 26.78 - 57.07 mg/kg, Fe = 1066.19 - 1764.05 mg/kg, Mn = 36.66 - 42.96 mg/kg, Ni = 4.02 - 17.19 mg/kg, Pb = 38.01 - 162.23 mg/kg, Cd = 1.01 - 25.90 mg/kg, and Cr = 1.23 - 1.62 mg/kg. Assessment of heavy metals pollution, using pollution indices revealed that Contamination factor ranged from moderate to very high degree of contamination while Pollution load index also showed a deterioration of bottom sediment qualities. Geoaccummulation index indicated moderate to very high pollution, especially with Cu, Zn, Pb, and Cd in the mine pit, while Enrichment factor indicated high enrichments and inputs from anthropogenic sources especially, the Pb-Zn mining activities. Pollution of the area by heavy metals was in the order of Fe > Pb > Zn > Mn > Cu > Ni > Cd > Cr. Highest positive correlation (r = 0.992) was between Pb and Cu while the highest negative correlation (r = &#87220.789) was between Ni and Mn. Anal 展开更多
关键词 ANTHROPOGENIC ENRICHMENT Mining POLLUTION SEDIMENT
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Impact of Agricultural Inputs on Groundwater Pollution in Off-Season Rice Farming in the Pic of Sindou Perimeter in Burkina Faso 认领
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作者 Bama Nati A?ssata Delphine Barké Guida Habiba +2 位作者 Koita Mahamadou Niang Dial Yacouba Hamma 《水资源与保护(英文)》 2020年第5期381-388,共8页
Burkina Faso, an 80% agricultural country, today copes the massive use of agricultural inputs to boost productivity. However, these pesticides are sources of pollution of water resources. This is how, the objective of... Burkina Faso, an 80% agricultural country, today copes the massive use of agricultural inputs to boost productivity. However, these pesticides are sources of pollution of water resources. This is how, the objective of this work was to take stock of the inputs used on the Pic of Sindou rice perimeter and to characterize the vulnerability of the aquifer to these products. The study took place from February to September 2019, where two hundred farmers of the perimeter were investigated on the type and quantity of fertilizers and pesticides used in off-season rice farming activities. The DRASTIC method was used to map the vulnerability of the groundwater resource to these pollutants. Producers use NPK and Urea at 90% and 10% to the organic manure as fertilizers, and herbicides and insecticides with the actives ingredient are Glyphosate, Dimethoate and 2.4 D amine salt. The vulnerability to agricultural pollution of the aquifer remains low, but the risk of contamination from pesticides remains possible. 展开更多
关键词 Groundwater PESTICIDE HERBICIDE Pollution Off Season RICE Growing
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The Effect of Aerosols to Climate Change and Society 认领
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作者 Bowen Zhang 《地球科学和环境保护期刊(英文)》 2020年第8期55-78,共24页
Air pollution and global warming are two of the greatest threats to human and animal health and political stability. The primary global warming pollutants are, in order, carbon dioxide gas, fossil-fuel plus biofuel so... Air pollution and global warming are two of the greatest threats to human and animal health and political stability. The primary global warming pollutants are, in order, carbon dioxide gas, fossil-fuel plus biofuel soot particles, methane gas, 4, 6 - 10 halocarbons, tropospheric ozone, and nitrous oxide gas. About half of actual global warming to date is being masked by cooling aerosol particles. Increased concentrations of ozone and fine particulate matter (PM2.5) since preindustrial times reflect increased emissions, but also contributions of past climate change. Recent analyses have shown that reducing black carbon (BC) emissions, using known control measures, would reduce global warming and delay the time when anthropogenic effects on global temperature would exceed 2<span style="color:#4F4F4F;font-family:"font-size:14px;white-space:normal;background-color:#FFFFFF;">&#176</span>C. Likewise, cost-effective control measures on ammonia, an important agricultural precursor gas for secondary inorganic aerosols (SIA), would reduce regional eutrophication and PM concentrations in large areas of Europe, China, and the USA. Thus, there is much that could be done to reduce the effects of atmospheric PM on the climate and the health of the environment and the human population. 展开更多
关键词 AEROSOLS Air Pollution Climate Change EFFECTS
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书讯 认领
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作者 Li Caige(Edited and Translated) Liu Jinxin(Edited and Translated) +1 位作者 Liu Jiayan(Proofread) Liang Sisi(Proofread) 《城市规划:英文版》 CSCD 2020年第2期86-87,共2页
Urban Spatial Form and Air Pollution Control Author:Yuan Man Year:2019Publisher:China Architecture&Building Press ISBN:9787112234912 (112 pages, in Chinese)In recent years, the frequent hazy weather in many cities... Urban Spatial Form and Air Pollution Control Author:Yuan Man Year:2019Publisher:China Architecture&Building Press ISBN:9787112234912 (112 pages, in Chinese)In recent years, the frequent hazy weather in many cities of China has seriously threatened the health of people, and the air pollutants represented by the PM2.5 index have been on the cusp. Given that automobile exhausts have become the main source of urban air pollution in China, and given that the urban spatial form closely influences the transportation, exhaust emission, and population exposure of the city, it is imminent to figure out what kind of urban spatial form can better alleviate air pollution exposure. 展开更多
关键词 POLLUTION POLLUTION BUILDING
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