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Achievements and Outlook of China's Multidimensional Poverty Reduction 预览
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作者 陈燕凤 夏庆杰 《中国经济学人:英文版》 2019年第2期39-51,共13页
Since the founding of the People’s Republic of China in 1949,the Chinese government has made great achievements in reducing poverty through human capital development(education,healthcare,gender equality,maternal and ... Since the founding of the People’s Republic of China in 1949,the Chinese government has made great achievements in reducing poverty through human capital development(education,healthcare,gender equality,maternal and infant health,and prevention and treatment of iodine deficiency),infrastructure construction(transportation,electric power,ICT application and access to safe drinking water),improvement of living conditions(toilet hygiene,stove renovation and resettlement)and rural social security(“five-guarantees” system,subsistence allowance,rural pension insurance,natural disaster relief and agricultural insurance).Since the 18th CPC National Congress in 2012,the Chinese government has made remarkable progress in eradicating poverty and enhancing village governance.However,serious challenges will still exist after China’s poverty eradication in 2020 and may lead to re-impoverishment. 展开更多
关键词 MULTIDIMENSIONAL POVERTY REDUCTION POVERTY REDUCTION THROUGH human CAPITAL POVERTY REDUCTION THROUGH infrastructure construction POVERTY REDUCTION THROUGH improvement of living conditions POVERTY REDUCTION THROUGH social security
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Two selenium tolerant Lysinibacillus sp. strains are capable of reducing selenite to elemental Se efficiently under aerobic conditions
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作者 Ju Zhang Yue Wang +4 位作者 Zongyuan Shao Jing Li Shuting Zan Shoubiao Zhou Ruyi Yang 《环境科学学报:英文版》 SCIE EI CAS CSCD 2019年第3期238-249,共12页
Microbes play important roles in the transport and transformation of selenium(Se) in the environment, thereby influencing plant resistance to Se and Se accumulation in plant. The objectives are to characterize the bac... Microbes play important roles in the transport and transformation of selenium(Se) in the environment, thereby influencing plant resistance to Se and Se accumulation in plant. The objectives are to characterize the bacteria with high Se tolerance and reduction capacity and explore the significance of microbial origins on their Se tolerance, reduction rate and efficiency. Two bacterial strains were isolated from a naturally occurred Se-rich soil at tea orchard in southern Anhui Province, China. The reduction kinetics of selenite was investigated and the reducing product was characterized using scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy-energy dispersive spectroscopy. The bacteria were identified as Lysinibacillus xylanilyticus and Lysinibacillus macrolides,respectively, using morphological, physiological and molecular methods. The results showed that the minimal inhibitory concentrations(MICs) of selenite for L. xylanilyticus and L. macrolides were 120 and 220 mmol/L, respectively, while MICs of selenate for L.xylanilyticus and L. macrolides were 800 and 700 mmol/L, respectively. Both strains aerobically reduced selenite with an initial concentration of 1.0 mmol/L to elemental Se nanoparticles(SeNPs) completely within 36 hr. Biogenic SeNPs were observed both inside and outside the cells suggesting either an intra-or extracellular reduction process. Our study implied that the microbes from Se-rich environments were more tolerant to Se and generally quicker and more efficient than those from Se-free habitats in the reduction of Se oxyanions. The bacterial strains with high Se reduction capacity and the biological synthesized Se NPs would have potential applications in agriculture, food, environment and medicine. 展开更多
关键词 SELENIUM TOLERANT bacteria SELENITE REDUCTION Nanoparticles REDUCTION rate REDUCTION efficiency Sources
Partition-coordinated control of soil and water loss for chestnut forests in the Yanshan Mountain Region,China 预览
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作者 Xinhui Ding Guangquan Liu +2 位作者 Xiaoying Liu Yongsheng Xie Zhichun Yue 《国际泥沙研究:英文版》 SCIE 2019年第1期58-64,共7页
Soil erosion from chestnut forests is one of the most important factors causing land degradation in the Yanshan Mountain Region.A 2-year field study was done to compare the effects on erosion of a control plot(CP),a r... Soil erosion from chestnut forests is one of the most important factors causing land degradation in the Yanshan Mountain Region.A 2-year field study was done to compare the effects on erosion of a control plot(CP),a repaired and maintained horizontal ditch built with an engineering baffle every 6m(MP 1),and a repaired and maintained horizontal ditch built with an engineering baffle every 8m(MP 2).The results showed that the slope runoff of chestnut forests was influenced by rainfall characteristic factors.No single rainfall characteristic factor showed dominance for hill slope runoff.The runoff reduction effect of the partition-coordinated erosion control measures(MP 1 and MP 2)was substantial for chestnut forests under high rainfall intensity conditions.However,the runoff reduction efficiency was higher under the conditions of heavy rainfall and low average rainfall intensity than for storms with higher intensity and lower total rainfall.The reduction effect of the partition-coordinated erosion control measures on the runoff and sediment yield of chestnut forest slopes was MP 2 4 MP 1 4 CP.The runoff reduction rate and erosion reduction rate of MP 2 reached 61.70%and 97.41%,respectively,and that for MP 1 was 54.15%and 85.31%,respectively.Therefore,after a comprehensive comparison,MP 2 was determined to be more effective for soil erosion control for a sloping chestnut forest. 展开更多
关键词 CHESTNUT forest Soil and water loss EROSION control RUNOFF REDUCTION RATE EROSION REDUCTION RATE
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针对亚洲人群的面部骨塑形联合美容手术的个人经验 预览
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作者 黄进军 文辉才 卢颖洁 《中国整形与重建外科(英文)》 2019年第1期18-23,共6页
Facial skeletal contouring surgery such as reduction malarplasty and reduction angleplasty is popular in Asian countries. With rapid economic development, an increasing number of patients receive facial skeletal conto... Facial skeletal contouring surgery such as reduction malarplasty and reduction angleplasty is popular in Asian countries. With rapid economic development, an increasing number of patients receive facial skeletal contouring surgery combined with other facial aesthetic sur geries. From January 2014 to December 2016, a total of 37 patients underwent Facial skeletal contouring surgery combined with facial esthetic surgeries in our department. The modified L-shape reduction malarplasty and reduction mandibular angleplasty were performed using reciprocating saws. The combined facial esthetic surgeries are 4 cases of double eyelid blepharoplasty, 6 cases of augmentation rhinoplasty, 2 cases of autologous fat transplantation and 1 case of augmentation genioplasty. 36 patients were satisfied with the final facial contour and appearance. No severe complications were seen in our series. Facial skeletal contouring surgeries can drastically and permanently change the patient's facial contour. Plastic surgeons should be acquainted with the metabolic aesthetic trends and be familiar with all the surgical techniques. The selection of an appropriate procedure or combined procedures for individual patients should be made according to the cultural background, patient's chief complain, anatomic variations and possible operative sequ elae. 展开更多
关键词 FACIAL CONTOURING surgery REDUCTION malarplasty REDUCTION angleplasty AESTHETIC s urgery
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A modified domain reduction method for numerical simulation of wave propagation in localized regions 预览
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作者 Luo Chao Lou Menglin +1 位作者 Gui Guoqing Wang Hao 《地震工程与工程振动:英文版》 SCIE EI CSCD 2019年第1期35-52,共18页
A modified domain reduction method(MDRM) that introduces damping terms to the original DRM is presented in this paper. To verify the proposed MDRM and compare the computational accuracy of these two methods, a numeric... A modified domain reduction method(MDRM) that introduces damping terms to the original DRM is presented in this paper. To verify the proposed MDRM and compare the computational accuracy of these two methods, a numerical test is designed. The numerical results of the MDRM and DRM are compared using an extended meshed model. The results show that the MDRM significantly improved the computational accuracy of the DRM. Then, the MDRM is compared with two existing conventional methods, namely Liao’s transmitting boundary and viscous-spring boundary with Liu’s method. The MDRM shows its great advancement in computational accuracy, stability and range of applications. This paper also discusses the influence of boundary location on computational accuracy. It can be concluded that smaller models tend to have larger errors. By introducing two dimensionless parameters, φ1 and φ2, the rational distance between the observation point and the MDRM boundary is suggested. When φ1 >2 or φ2>13, the relative PGA error can be limited to 5%. In practice, the appropriate model size can be chosen based on these two parameters to achieve desired computational accuracy. 展开更多
关键词 MODIFIED DOMAIN REDUCTION METHOD DOMAIN REDUCTION METHOD VISCOUS BOUNDARY VISCOUS spring BOUNDARY transmitting BOUNDARY wave propagation
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Effect of reductant type on the embedding direct reduction of beach titanomagnetite concentrate 预览
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作者 Yong-qiang Zhao Ti-chang Sun +2 位作者 Hong-yu Zhao Chao Chen Xiao-ping Wang 《矿物冶金与材料学报:英文版》 SCIE EI CAS CSCD 2019年第2期152-159,共8页
Iron and titanium were recovered from beach titanomagnetite(TTM)concentrate by embedding direct reduction and magnetic separation.The reduction products and the effects of the reductant type and reduction temperature ... Iron and titanium were recovered from beach titanomagnetite(TTM)concentrate by embedding direct reduction and magnetic separation.The reduction products and the effects of the reductant type and reduction temperature on the reduction behavior were investigated.The results showed that the reduction of TTM concentrate was strongly related to the gasification reactivity of the reductant.Bitumite presented a better product index than wheat-straw biochar and coke,mainly because the gasification reactivity of bitumite was better than that of the other reductants.In addition,high temperatures were not beneficial to embedding direct reduction because of the emergence of a molten phase and iron-joined crystals,which in turn reduced the diffusion rate of the reducing gas and impeded the reduction reaction in the central area of the roasted briquette.The use of bitumite as the reductant at a C/Fe molar ratio of 1.4 and a reduction temperature of 1200°C for 120 min resulted in direct-reduction iron powder assaying 90.28wt%TFe and 0.91wt% TiO2 with an iron recovery of 91.83%and titanium concentrate assaying 46.01wt%TiO2 with a TiO2 recovery of 91.19%.Titanium existed mainly in the form of anosovite and ilmenite in the titanium concentrate. 展开更多
关键词 BEACH TITANOMAGNETITE CONCENTRATE EMBEDDING direct REDUCTION magnetic SEPARATION reductant REDUCTION temperature
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Experimental study of drag reduction characteristics related to the multifactor coupling of a bionic jet surface 预览
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作者 Yun-qing Gu Song-wei Yu +3 位作者 Jie-gang Mou Tian-xing Fan Shui-hua Zheng Gang Zhao 《水动力学研究与进展:英文版》 SCIE EI CSCD 2019年第1期186-194,共9页
To study the drag reduction of a jet surface,an experiment is conducted with a gyrorotor model.The aim of this study is to analyze the influence of the jet aperture,the jet angle and the rotational velocity coupled wi... To study the drag reduction of a jet surface,an experiment is conducted with a gyrorotor model.The aim of this study is to analyze the influence of the jet aperture,the jet angle and the rotational velocity coupled with the jet velocity on the friction torque acting on a jet surface model by using a jet surface drag reduction testing experimental platform.The drag reduction characteristics of the jet surface are also studied.The results show that the maximum drag reduction rate is attained when the jet diameter is 5 mm and the jet velocity is 1.2 m/s.The influence of the jet velocity on the drag reduction rate decreases as the diameter decreases.However,the maximum drag reduction rate can be attained when the angle of the jet is 30° and the velocity of the jet is 1.0 m/s.When the jet diameter is small,the influence of the jet velocity on the drag reduction rate is small,whereas the maximum drag reduction rate is attained when the jet angle is 30° and the jet velocity is 1.0 m/s.When the jet angle is 15°,the drag reduction rate fluctuation is distinct.The maximum drag reduction rate is attained when the rotational velocity is 2 100 r/min and the jet velocity is 1.0 m/s.The results show that the best scheme is A2B2D3 A maximum drag reduction rate of 8.57% can be attained.The effective control of the jet effect on the separation of the boundary layer demonstrates the drag reduction principle of a bionic jet surface. 展开更多
关键词 Drag reduction BIONIC JET SURFACE FRICTION TORQUE COUPLING experiment
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提钒尾渣脱钠技术研究
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作者 曾冠武 郝建璋 《钢铁钒钛》 CAS 北大核心 2019年第1期78-82,104共6页
提钒尾渣含铁、钒等有价元素,但因钠含量高,返高炉炼铁会带来潜在风险。为解决上述问题,分别研究了提钒尾渣湿法脱钠技术,还原焙烧-磁选分离技术及钠化还原-浸出-磁选分离技术。结果表明,采用氧化钙作为脱钠剂加压浸出,提钒尾渣脱钠率... 提钒尾渣含铁、钒等有价元素,但因钠含量高,返高炉炼铁会带来潜在风险。为解决上述问题,分别研究了提钒尾渣湿法脱钠技术,还原焙烧-磁选分离技术及钠化还原-浸出-磁选分离技术。结果表明,采用氧化钙作为脱钠剂加压浸出,提钒尾渣脱钠率可达到80.5%;提钒尾渣800℃还原后,其中铁还原为磁铁矿,但结晶粒度小,磁选分离效果差,提高还原温度至1200℃,铁继续还原为金属铁,并聚集长大,分离效果良好;提钒尾渣同时添加钠盐、煤粉还原可实现钒和铁的同时转化,再通过浸出、磁选可实现三者有效分离,其中钠盐可用钙盐部分替代。 展开更多
关键词 提钒尾渣 脱钠 浸出 还原 磁选
Effects of silicon addition on optical properties of mould flux with iron oxide and estimation of apparent thermal conductivity of flux
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作者 Rie Endo Yo Kan +2 位作者 Takashi Watanabe Miyuki Hayashi Masahiro Susa 《钢铁研究学报:英文版》 SCIE EI CAS CSCD 2019年第4期365-373,共9页
Mould flux with high absorptivity had been obtained in the reduction process of mould flux by silicon.For further utilisation of the mould flux with high absorptivity,the effect of silicon addition on the optical prop... Mould flux with high absorptivity had been obtained in the reduction process of mould flux by silicon.For further utilisation of the mould flux with high absorptivity,the effect of silicon addition on the optical property has been investigated.The synthesised mould flux powder with iron oxide was melted with the addition of silicon powder at 1703 K followed by quenching,thus forming a glassy sample.After 5-30-min reduction,the samples exhibited black opaque colour.Meanwhile,the samples that were reduced for 45-60 min had a bluish grey colour.Many iron-based particles dispersed in the samples were micrometre order in diameter.To determine the effect of iron particles on the optical properties of the sample,extinction,scattering and absorption efficiencies were calculated according to Mie theory.Result showed that both scattering on the iron particle and absorption by iron effectively increase the extinction efficiency in the mould flux.Moreover,the silicon particle in the flux has large scattering efficiency.The black opaque colour is contributed by the existence of silicon and iron particles.The apparent thermal conductivity was calculated for the solid flux.Results also indicated that the entire glassy mould flux would effectively work for mild cooling in a continuous casting process owing to high absorptivity and small thermal conductivity. 展开更多
关键词 MOULD FLUX Reduction Iron oxide Thermal CONDUCTIVITY OPTICAL property
黑水虻虫卵添加量对餐厨垃圾生物转化的影响 预览
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作者 徐春笑 吕永兴 +1 位作者 江亚雄 赵亮 《安徽农业科学》 CAS 2019年第13期85-87,111共4页
研究不同比例的虫卵添加量在黑水虻生物转化技术中对生物转化过程和鲜虫产量的影响,探索黑水虻生物转化技术对餐厨垃圾的减量化水平,以餐厨垃圾和稻壳粉为主料和辅料,每吨养殖料中分别投加80、100、120、150g虫卵。结果表明:当每吨养殖... 研究不同比例的虫卵添加量在黑水虻生物转化技术中对生物转化过程和鲜虫产量的影响,探索黑水虻生物转化技术对餐厨垃圾的减量化水平,以餐厨垃圾和稻壳粉为主料和辅料,每吨养殖料中分别投加80、100、120、150g虫卵。结果表明:当每吨养殖料中投加100g虫卵时,鲜虫产量最大;另外,虫卵添加量越大,黑水虻幼虫对餐厨垃圾的生物转化速率越快。说明每吨养殖料投加100g虫卵时可获得最大的经济效益;加大虫卵投加量可以缩短餐厨垃圾的处理周期,黑水虻生物转化技术对餐厨垃圾的减量化水平最高约为79%。 展开更多
关键词 黑水虻虫卵 餐厨垃圾 添加量 鲜虫产量 减量化
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60tAOD生产0Cr13C钢不加萤石一次还原渣的生产实践 预览
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作者 冯文甫 马富平 +3 位作者 叶凡新 郭键 郭志彬 范建英 《特殊钢》 北大核心 2019年第4期28-30,共3页
AOD生产不锈钢时还原期炉渣二元碱度在2.0以上时具有较高的熔点,加入15kg/t以上的萤石完成化渣。对AOD还原期化渣的机理进行分析,试验在不同碱度下一次还原不加萤石的化渣效果。结果表明,依靠低碱度进行一次还原化渣的工艺可行,但需要... AOD生产不锈钢时还原期炉渣二元碱度在2.0以上时具有较高的熔点,加入15kg/t以上的萤石完成化渣。对AOD还原期化渣的机理进行分析,试验在不同碱度下一次还原不加萤石的化渣效果。结果表明,依靠低碱度进行一次还原化渣的工艺可行,但需要增加二次还原,即:AOD一次还原炉渣碱度控制在1.7,在倒渣完毕补加石灰、萤石进行二次还原、脱硫,来预防钢水过氧化造成钢包侵蚀引发的增碳问题;同时,为消除石灰增碳以及保持较好活性度,二次补加石灰酌减控制在2%~4%。 展开更多
关键词 AOD 还原 萤石
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原肌球蛋白过敏原的研究进展 预览
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作者 许宁宁 赵祥杰 +2 位作者 杨荣玲 毕艳红 赵立 《食品与发酵科技》 CAS 2019年第3期83-85,共3页
原肌球蛋白(Tropomyosin)是一种具有重要调节功能的蛋白质,在很多动物中起着重要作用,但大多数原肌球蛋白都能引发食物过敏反应。本文综述了原肌球蛋白性质功能、原肌球蛋白与疾病和健康的关系以及原肌球蛋白过敏性的消减研究,为进一步... 原肌球蛋白(Tropomyosin)是一种具有重要调节功能的蛋白质,在很多动物中起着重要作用,但大多数原肌球蛋白都能引发食物过敏反应。本文综述了原肌球蛋白性质功能、原肌球蛋白与疾病和健康的关系以及原肌球蛋白过敏性的消减研究,为进一步对原肌球蛋白过敏原的研究提供一定的参考。 展开更多
关键词 原肌球蛋白 过敏原 消减 进展
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微生物还原法合成纳米硒益生菌的筛选及其培养条件优化 预览
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作者 王丽红 杨辉 +3 位作者 毛建丽 耿懿璠 苏文 贺博 《陕西科技大学学报》 CAS 2019年第4期29-34,共6页
微生物合成的纳米硒具有低毒、稳定、高效的生物活性,本研究通过实验室保藏的10种益生菌中,筛选能耐受高浓度亚硒酸钠并还原生成纳米硒的益生菌,最终获得一株嗜酸乳杆菌LA5,采用SEM和XRD对纳米硒进行表征,发现嗜酸乳杆菌转化的红色纳米... 微生物合成的纳米硒具有低毒、稳定、高效的生物活性,本研究通过实验室保藏的10种益生菌中,筛选能耐受高浓度亚硒酸钠并还原生成纳米硒的益生菌,最终获得一株嗜酸乳杆菌LA5,采用SEM和XRD对纳米硒进行表征,发现嗜酸乳杆菌转化的红色纳米硒颗粒呈无定形态,颗粒均匀,粒径80~150nm之间.对嗜酸乳杆菌LA5菌株还原亚硒酸钠的条件进行优化,得到最适条件:亚硒酸钠浓度6g/L、培养时间48h、温度37℃、pH6.5.在此条件下亚硒酸钠还原率达到89.8%. 展开更多
关键词 纳米硒 益生菌 筛选 还原作用
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Electrochemical reduction of CO2 and degradation of KHP on boron-doped diamond electrodes in a simultaneous and enhanced process
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作者 Daibing Luo Shanhu Liu +1 位作者 Kazuya Nakata Akira Fujishima 《中国化学快报:英文版》 SCIE CAS CSCD 2019年第2期509-512,共4页
In this research a novel electrochemical system using dual boron-doped diamond (BDD) electrodes as the anode and cathode, for the first time, has been developed for CO2 conversion and wastewater treatment in a synerge... In this research a novel electrochemical system using dual boron-doped diamond (BDD) electrodes as the anode and cathode, for the first time, has been developed for CO2 conversion and wastewater treatment in a synergetic and simultaneous process. On the BDD cathode CO2 is converted into formaldehyde while in the anodic side organic wastes are decomposed on the BDD anode. Interestingly, when potassium hydrogen phthalate (KHP) was used as the organic model to be degraded in the anodic side, a higher efficiency of formaldehyde generation from CO2 was observed on the BDD cathode. The enhanced effect of formaldehyde formation in the presence of KHP oxidation suggests that this novel electrochemical system can combine conversion of CO2 to the form of high-value chemicals and wastewater purification in a simultaneous and harmonious process. 展开更多
关键词 CO2 Wlectrochemical reduction BORON-DOPED DIAMOND WASTEWATER treatment FORMALDEHYDE
Ruthenium(Ⅱ)-cored supramolecular organic framework-mediated recyclable visible light photoreduction of azides to amines and cascade formation of lactams
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作者 Yi-Peng Wu Meng Yan +5 位作者 Zhong-Zheng Gao Jun-Li Hou Hui Wang Dan-Wei Zhang Junliang Zhang Zhan-Ting Li 《中国化学快报:英文版》 SCIE CAS CSCD 2019年第7期1383-1386,共4页
Ru(bpy)3]2+-cored supramolecular organic framework SMOF-1, assembled from a [Ru(bpy)3]2+-derived hexaarmed molecule and cucurbit[8]uril, has been demonstrated to heterogeneously catalyze visible light-induced reductio... Ru(bpy)3]2+-cored supramolecular organic framework SMOF-1, assembled from a [Ru(bpy)3]2+-derived hexaarmed molecule and cucurbit[8]uril, has been demonstrated to heterogeneously catalyze visible light-induced reduction of phenyl, benzyl, 2-phenylethyl and 3-phenylpropyl azides in acetonitrile to produce the corresponding amines in good to high yields. For the last two kinds of azides that bear a CO2Me group at the para-position of the benzene ring, cascade reactions take place to generate the corresponding lactams in high yields. Compared with homogeneous control [Ru(bpy)3]Cl2, SMOF-1 exhibits remarkably increased photocatalysis activity as a result of synergistic effect of the [Ru(bpy)3]2+ units that form cubic cages to host the azide molecules and related intermediates. Moreover, SMOF-1 displays high recyclability and considerable photocatalysis activity after 3 to 12 runs. 展开更多
关键词 SUPRAMOLECULAR organic framework Visible light photocatalysis RECYCLABILITY Azide reduction Amine LACTAM
Decreasing the error in the measurement of the ecosystem effective leaf area index of a Pinus massoniana forest 预览
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作者 Zhanghao Chen Kunyong Yu +2 位作者 Jian Liu Fan Wang Yi Zhong 《林业研究:英文版》 CAS CSCD 2019年第4期1459-1470,共12页
Decreasing the forest ecosystem leaf-area index error(LAIe)helps accurately estimate the growth and light energy utilization of aboveground foliage.Analyzing light transmission in forest ecosystems can effectively det... Decreasing the forest ecosystem leaf-area index error(LAIe)helps accurately estimate the growth and light energy utilization of aboveground foliage.Analyzing light transmission in forest ecosystems can effectively determine LAIe.The LAI-2200 plant canopy analyzer(PCA)is used extensively for rapid field-effective LAI(LAIe)measurements and primarily to measure forest canopy LAIe values.However,sometimes this parameter must also be measured in forests with small clearings.In this study,we used the LAI-2200 PCA to obtain one A-value and four B-values each for the canopy,herbaceous layer,and forest ecosystem LAIe.Field measurements showed that the three LAIe types were obviously different.In certain quadrats,the average herbaceous layer(Dicranopteris dichotoma Bernh.)LAIe apparently exceeded that of the Pinus massoniana forest ecosystem.The sources of this error were measuring and recording A-value readings for small canopies and underestimating the ecosystem LAIe.We obtained similar coefficients of determination for both the pre-recomputation and post-recomputation of the canopy and forest ecosystem LAIe(R~2C 0.96 and R~2C 0.99,respectively);thus,the error was decreased.Measuring field LAIe with the LAI-2200 PCA and recomputation should compensate for LAIe underestimation in complex forest ecosystems. 展开更多
关键词 LAI-2200 PCA Field LAIe measurement ERROR ERROR reduction PINUS massoniana FOREST
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Janus electrode with simultaneous management on gas and liquid transport for boosting oxygen reduction reaction
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作者 Yingjie Li Haichuan Zhang +5 位作者 Nana Han Yun Kuang Junfeng Liu Wen Liu Haohong Duan Xiaoming Sun 《纳米研究:英文版》 SCIE EI CAS CSCD 2019年第1期177-182,共6页
Oxygen reduction efficiency holds the key for renewable energy technologies including fuel cells and metal-air batteries,which involves coupling diffusion-reaction-conduction processes at the interface of catalyst/ele... Oxygen reduction efficiency holds the key for renewable energy technologies including fuel cells and metal-air batteries,which involves coupling diffusion-reaction-conduction processes at the interface of catalyst/electrolyte,and thus rational electrode design facilitating mass transportation stands as a key issue for fast oxygen reduction reaction(ORR).Herein,we report a Janus electrode with asymmetric wettability prepared by partly modifying aerophobic nitrogen doped carbon nanotube arrays with polytetrafluoroethylene(PTFE)as a high performance catalytic electrode for ORR.The Janus electrode with opposite wettability on adjacent sides maintains stable gas reservoir in the aerophilic side while shortening O2 pathway to catalysts in the aerophobic side,resulting in superior ORR performance(22.5 mA/cm^2@0.5 V)than merely aerophilic or aerophilic electrodes.The Janus electrode endows catalytic performance even comparable to commercial,Pt/C in the alkali ne electrolyte,exploiting a previously unrecognized opport unity that guides electrode design for the gas-consumption electrocatalysis. 展开更多
关键词 JANUS materials ELECTRODE GAS DIFFUSION oxygen reduction reaction fuel cells
Disaster Risk Reduction Including Climate Change Adaptation Over South Asia: Challenges and Ways Forward
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作者 Rajesh K.Mall Ravindra K.Srivastava +3 位作者 Tirthankar Banerjee Om Prakash Mishra Diva Bhatt Geetika Sonkar 《国际灾害风险科学学报:英文版》 CSCD 2019年第1期14-27,共14页
South Asia is vulnerable to a variety of hydrometeorological hazards, which are often crossboundary in nature. Climate change is expected to influence many of these hazards. Thus, climate-related risks over South Asia... South Asia is vulnerable to a variety of hydrometeorological hazards, which are often crossboundary in nature. Climate change is expected to influence many of these hazards. Thus, climate-related risks over South Asia make disaster risk reduction(DRR) and climate change adaptation(CCA) key policy goals.Recently there is an increasing consensus that DRR including CCA should be embedded in development planning. Disaster risk reduction including CCA has progressively gained importance in global governance. Across South Asia, however, such integration is only in a preliminary stage. This review was to assess the existing status and scope of DRR including CCA in development projects across South Asia, so that an effective and achievable deliberation may be made to regional policymakers. A total of 371 projects relevant to CCA and DRR were reviewed.The project inventory was diverse in nature with respect to location, scale, sectoral focus, and strategic importance.Bangladesh, India, and Bhutan were observed to be proactive in implementing DRR-and CCA-related projects.Meta-analysis of the project inventory suggests an urgent need for an individual and collaborative convergence of processes for DRR and CCA through policies,plans, strategies, and programs. 展开更多
关键词 CLIMATE CHANGE CLIMATE CHANGE ADAPTATION DISASTER risk reduction SAARC South Asia
Effect of nitrobenzene on the performance and bacterial community in an expanded granular sludge bed reactor treating high-sulfate organic wastewater
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作者 Jun Li Wentao Li +2 位作者 Gan Luo Yan Li Aimin Li 《中国环境科学与工程前沿:英文版》 SCIE EI CAS CSCD 2019年第1期63-72,共10页
Nitrobenzene (NB) is frequently found in wastewaters containing sulfate and may affect biological sulfate reduction process, but information is limited on the responses of sulfate reduction efficiency and microbial co... Nitrobenzene (NB) is frequently found in wastewaters containing sulfate and may affect biological sulfate reduction process, but information is limited on the responses of sulfate reduction efficiency and microbial community to the increased NB contents. In this study, a laboratory-scale expanded granular sludge bed reactor was operated continuously to treat high-sulfate organic wastewater with increased NB contents. Results successfully demonstrated that the presence of more than 50 mg/L NB depressed sulfate reduction and such inhibition was partly reversible. Bath experiments showed that the maximum specific desulfuration activity (SDA) decreased from 135.80 mg SO4^2-/gVSS/d to 30.78 mg SO4^2-/gVSS/d when the NB contents increased from none to 400 mg/L. High-throughput sequencing showed that NB also greatly affected bacterial community structure. Bcicteroidetes dominated in the bioreactor. The abundance of Proteobacteria increased with NB addition while Firmicutes presented an opposite trend. Proteobacteria gradually replaced Finnicutes for the dominance in response to the increase of influent NB concentrations.The genus Desulfovibrio was the dominant sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) with absence or presence of NB, but was inhibited under high content of NB. The results provided better understanding for the biological sulfate reduction under NB stress. 展开更多
关键词 NITROBENZENE (NB) Sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) BACTERIAL community SULFATE reduction HIGH-THROUGHPUT SEQUENCING
湿法炼锌浸出渣与锌精矿联合浸出工艺研究 预览
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作者 黄孟阳 邓志敢 +1 位作者 朱北平 魏昶 《有色金属:冶炼部分》 CAS 北大核心 2019年第7期1-5,共5页
开展湿法炼锌浸出渣和锌精矿联合酸浸试验,利用硫酸浸出湿法炼锌常规浸出渣中以铁酸锌等方式存在的锌,同时采用高铁锌精矿将浸出液中的三价铁离子还原为二价铁离子,实现锌精矿中锌的同步浸出。探讨锌浸出渣和锌精矿投料比、初始硫酸浓... 开展湿法炼锌浸出渣和锌精矿联合酸浸试验,利用硫酸浸出湿法炼锌常规浸出渣中以铁酸锌等方式存在的锌,同时采用高铁锌精矿将浸出液中的三价铁离子还原为二价铁离子,实现锌精矿中锌的同步浸出。探讨锌浸出渣和锌精矿投料比、初始硫酸浓度、反应时间、液固体积质量比和浸出温度对锌及伴生金属铜、铟和杂质金属铁浸出率的影响。结果表明,在浸出终点浸出液中硫酸浓度20~40g/L、锌浸出渣与锌精矿质量比1∶0.25、原料粒度-0.074mm、液固体积质量比6mL/g、反应温度90℃、反应时间3h的条件下,锌、铟、铜的浸出率都在96%以上,浸出液中95%以上的铁被还原为二价铁离子,满足后续工艺的要求。 展开更多
关键词 高铁闪锌矿 锌中浸渣 还原 联合浸出
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