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Effect of biofeedback combined with high-quality nursing in treatment of functional constipation 认领
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作者 Xiu Zhao Jin Meng +1 位作者 Jin Dai Zhi-Tao Yin 《世界临床病例杂志》 SCIE 2021年第4期784-791,共8页
BACKGROUND Functional constipation(FC)is a common functional gastrointestinal disease with various clinical manifestations.It is a physical and mental disease,which seriously affects patient physical and mental health... BACKGROUND Functional constipation(FC)is a common functional gastrointestinal disease with various clinical manifestations.It is a physical and mental disease,which seriously affects patient physical and mental health and quality of life.Biofeedback therapy is the treatment of choice for FC,especially outlet obstructive constipation caused by pelvic floor dysfunction.High-quality nursing is a new nursing model in modern clinical work and a new concept of modern nursing service.AIM To explore the effect of biofeedback combined with high-quality nursing in the treatment of FC.METHODS A total of 100 patients with FC admitted to our hospital from March 2015 to July 2019 were selected for clinical observation.These patients were randomly divided into two groups of 50:Experimental group(biofeedback combined with highquality nursing treatment group)and control group(biofeedback group).RESULTS The constipation symptom score of the experimental group was significantly lower than that of the control group,and the difference was statistically significant(P<0.05).The anal canal resting pressure and initial defecation threshold of the experimental group were significantly lower than those of the control group,and the maximum squeeze systolic pressure of the anal canal of the experimental group was significantly higher than that of the control group(P<0.05).The Self-Rating Anxiety Scale and Zung’s Self-Rating Depression Scale scores of the two groups were significantly lower than before treatment.The Self-Rating Anxiety Scale and Self-Rating Depression Scale scores of the experimental group were significantly lower than those of the control group(P<0.05).The patient satisfaction score of the experimental group was significantly higher than that of the control group(P<0.05).CONCLUSION The application of biofeedback combined with high-quality nursing in the treatment of FC has significant advantages over pure biofeedback treatment,and it is worthy of promotion in clinical work. 展开更多
关键词 High quality care Functional constipation BIOFEEDBACK Pelvic floor dysfunction Self-rating anxiety scale Self-rating depression scale
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文章速递Management and Prognostic Factors of Penetrating Craniocerebral Wounds at One Teaching Hospital in Benin 认领
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作者 Olatoundji Holden Fatigba Hamidath Bio Sika Yarou +4 位作者 Kisito Quenum Armel Hadonou Luphin Hodé Christian Padonou Alexandre Salako Allodé 《现代神经外科学进展(英文)》 2021年第1期34-48,共15页
<strong>Introduction.</strong> Penetrating craniocerebral wounds (PCCWs) are a particular lesion in the category of traumatic brain injury (TBI). The objective of this study was to describe the management ... <strong>Introduction.</strong> Penetrating craniocerebral wounds (PCCWs) are a particular lesion in the category of traumatic brain injury (TBI). The objective of this study was to describe the management of these lesions, and to identify signifiant risk factors associated with mortality in patients with a PCCW. <strong>Methods.</strong> It was a transversal, descriptive and analytical study performed in Departmental Teaching Hospital of Borgou and Alibori in Benin. From January 1, 2015 to June 30, 2020, patients with a PCCW were retained. Risk factors of mortality and morbidity associated to etiological, clinical and surgical parameters were assessed using the chi-square test. p value < 0.05 was considered to be statistically significant. <strong>Results.</strong> During the study period, 1267 cases of traumatic brain injuries (TBI) were admitted. Of these patients, 77 (6.1%) cases of PCCW were retained. These patients were divided into 66 (85.7%) male and 11 (14.3%) female. The mean age of the patients was 22.6 ± 14.8 years (range from 2 years to 70 years). The circumstances of occurrence were a traffic accident in 42 (54.5%) cases, an assault in 33 cases (42.9%) and a fall 2 (2.6%). The PCCW was unilateral in 71 cases (92.2%). A brain CT-scan was performed in 60 (77.9%) patients. Surgery was performed in 69 (89.6%) patients. Post-operative outcomes were simple in 59 (85.5%) cases. GCS, pupillary abnormalities, motor deficit were a statistically significant risk factor associated with death or sequels (p < 0.0001).<strong> Conclusion.</strong> The identification of risk factors of mortality or sequels is a major step for an efficient management of PCCWs and a reduction of morbidity and mortality. Whatever strategies are adopted, prevention must remain a priority. 展开更多
关键词 Traumatic Brain Injuries Craniocerebral Wounds Glasgow Coma Scale Risk Factors Mortality
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文章速递Does the Penrose Suggestion as to Black Holes from a Prior Universe Showing Up in Today’s Universe Have Credibility? Examined from a Singular, and Nonsingular Beginning of Cosmological Expansion 认领
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作者 Andrew Walcott Beckwith 《高能物理(英文)》 2021年第1期149-171,共23页
We examine if there are grounds to entertain the Penrose suggestion as to black holes from a prior cycle of creation appearing in the present cosmos. There are two cases to consider. One a singular start to the Univer... We examine if there are grounds to entertain the Penrose suggestion as to black holes from a prior cycle of creation appearing in the present cosmos. There are two cases to consider. One a singular start to the Universe or as Karen Freeze and others have modeled a non-singular start. The two cases are different and touch upon the limits of validity of the Penrose singularity theorem. We will first of all state the two cases, singular and nonsingular, and then afterwards, briefly allude to the Penrose singularity theorem. The plausibility of the singular cosmological expansion start point w case analysis of Black holes from a prior universe will be discussed first Afterwards, a synopsis of the Penrose singularity theorem. After that, the Nonsingular case of a starting point of the expansion of the Universe will be entertained and described. Since the nonsingular start to the expansion of the Universe is not so well known, a considerable amount of space will be spent upon what I view as mathematical constructions allowing for its analysis. About the only way to ascertain these cases will be by GW astronomy, hence the details of GW production from the early Universe will be covered in excruciating detail. The methodology for that section is simple. Use a construction for a minimal time-step, then from there get emergent space-time conditions for a bridge from a nonsingular start to the universe, to potential Quantum gravity conditions. Our Methodology is to construct using a “trivial” solution to massive gravitons, and a nonsingular start for expansion of the universe. Our methodology has many unintended consequences, not the least is a relationship between a small timestep, which is called <i>t</i>, and then the minimum scale factor and even the tension or property values of the initial space-time wall, all of which are a consequence of a “trivial” solution taking into account “massive” gravitons. From there we next will in future articles postulate conditions for experimental detectors for subsequent data sets to obtain falsifiable data sets. Finally upon doing this, the outlines of the way to ascertain data sets as to either falsify or confirm the Penrose suggestion will be the final concluding part of the manuscript. 展开更多
关键词 Minimum Scale Factor Cosmological Constant Space-Time Bubble Penrose Singularity Prior Universe Black Holes
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黑龙江省消化系统癌症高危人群预防主动行为测评量表常模的构建 认领
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作者 信博 赵秋利 +3 位作者 王楠楠 于洋 马得欣 张宇坤 《中国全科医学》 CAS 北大核心 2021年第4期453-459,共7页
背景消化系统癌症的防控形势严峻,但其高危人群的预防意识、预防行为水平等参差不齐。医护人员对消化系统癌症高危人群预防能力的评估缺乏参考标准,构建消化系统癌症高危人群预防主动行为量表(DSC-PPBS)地区常模尤为重要。目的建立黑龙... 背景消化系统癌症的防控形势严峻,但其高危人群的预防意识、预防行为水平等参差不齐。医护人员对消化系统癌症高危人群预防能力的评估缺乏参考标准,构建消化系统癌症高危人群预防主动行为量表(DSC-PPBS)地区常模尤为重要。目的建立黑龙江省DSC-PPBS常模,为评估消化系统癌症高危人群预防行为水平提供参考。方法于2019年5月-2020年1月,选取黑龙江省6家三级甲等医院、3家二级甲等医院、3家社区卫生服务中心的消化系统癌症高危人群为研究对象,以DSC-PPBS为调查工具,在分析消化系统癌症高危人群DSC-PPBS评分特点的基础上建立均数常模、百分位常模和划界常模。结果共发放调查问卷1400份,回收有效问卷1236份,问卷有效回收率为88.29%。按性别和年龄组(40~45、46~65、≥66岁)建立消化系统癌症高危人群DSC-PPBS的均数常模。百分位常模以5%为间隔,建立5分位至95分位消化系统癌症高危人群DSC-PPBS的百分位常模。划界常模以4个界点(x-s、x-0.5s、x+0.5s、x+s)将消化系统癌症高危人群的预防行为划分为5类:预防行为差、预防行为较差、预防行为一般、预防行为良好、预防行为优秀,划界值接近百分位常模的第15、30、70、85百分位。结论本课题组近期构建的黑龙江省消化系统癌症高危人群DSC-PPBS常模具有良好的代表性,为该量表进一步推广奠定了基础,可作为临床及社区医护人员对消化系统癌症高危人群预防行为的干预提供效果评价的参考依据。 展开更多
关键词 消化系统癌症 高危人群 癌症预防 主动行为 量表 常模
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Size dependent free vibration analysis of functionally graded piezoelectric micro/nano shell based on modified couple stress theory with considering thickness stretching effect 认领
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作者 Maryam Lori Dehsaraji Mohammad Arefi Abbas Loghman 《Defence Technology(防务技术)》 SCIE EI CAS 2021年第1期119-134,共16页
Higher-order shear and normal deformation theory is used in this paper to account thickness stretching effect for free vibration analysis of the cylindrical micro/nano shell subjected to an applied voltage and uniform... Higher-order shear and normal deformation theory is used in this paper to account thickness stretching effect for free vibration analysis of the cylindrical micro/nano shell subjected to an applied voltage and uniform temperature rising.Size dependency is included in governing equations based on the modified couple stress theory.Hamilton’s principle is used to derive governing equations of the cylindrical micro/nano shell.Solution procedure is developed using Navier technique for simply-supported boundary conditions.The numerical results are presented to investigate the effect of significant parameters such as some dimensionless geometric parameters,material properties,applied voltages and temperature rising on the free vibration responses. 展开更多
关键词 Thickness stretching effect Shear and normal deformation theory Vibration analysis Length scale parameter Modified couple stress theory
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小学生数学元认知水平调查问卷的设计与编制 认领
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作者 王光明 邱冬 李健 《考试研究》 2021年第1期70-78,共9页
为定量测评小学生的数学元认知水平,以小学5-6年级学生为调查对象,在查阅相关文献与征询专家意见的基础上,利用项目分析、探索性因素分析、验证性因素分析等方法,进行自编问卷的修订与完善。正式问卷包含数学元认知知识、体验、监控3个... 为定量测评小学生的数学元认知水平,以小学5-6年级学生为调查对象,在查阅相关文献与征询专家意见的基础上,利用项目分析、探索性因素分析、验证性因素分析等方法,进行自编问卷的修订与完善。正式问卷包含数学元认知知识、体验、监控3个一级维度,共33道题目(含测谎题)。问卷信度、效度指标良好,可作为小学5-6年级学生数学元认知水平的测评工具。 展开更多
关键词 小学生 数学 元认知 问卷 量表
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小学生数学学习非智力因素调查问卷的设计与编制 认领
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作者 冯玉琴 王光明 李健 《考试研究》 2021年第1期79-87,共9页
为定量测评小学生的非智力因素水平,以小学5-6年级学生为研究对象,在查阅相关文献与征询专家意见的基础上,通过项目分析、探索性因素分析、验证性因素分析等方法,研制出《小学生数学学习非智力因素调查问卷》。正式问卷包括动机、态度... 为定量测评小学生的非智力因素水平,以小学5-6年级学生为研究对象,在查阅相关文献与征询专家意见的基础上,通过项目分析、探索性因素分析、验证性因素分析等方法,研制出《小学生数学学习非智力因素调查问卷》。正式问卷包括动机、态度、情绪情感、意志、性格5个主维度及对应的11个子维度。问卷具有较好的信度与效度,可作为测量5-6年级小学生数学学习非智力因素的有效工具。 展开更多
关键词 小学生 数学 非智力因素 问卷 量表
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基于教学胜任力的师范生计算思维评价量表开发--以斯滕伯格成功智力理论与思维教学理论为支点的探索 认领
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作者 房敏 孙颖 +3 位作者 吕慎敏 曾鹏轩 刘倩 傅晨 《电化教育研究》 北大核心 2021年第2期112-120,共9页
计算思维现已成为数字化生存的核心能力之一,针对当前师范生计算思维测评工具匮乏等问题,研究以斯滕伯格成功智力理论、思维教学理论和国际上已开展的若干计算思维教学能力培训项目的经验为依据建构评价模型,以3所免费师范生培养院校的1... 计算思维现已成为数字化生存的核心能力之一,针对当前师范生计算思维测评工具匮乏等问题,研究以斯滕伯格成功智力理论、思维教学理论和国际上已开展的若干计算思维教学能力培训项目的经验为依据建构评价模型,以3所免费师范生培养院校的12个师范专业的1223名师范生为样本,借鉴心理学量表编制方法开发了基于教学胜任力的师范生计算思维评价量表。量表包含32个测量题目,涵盖问题界定与分析、问题认知与解决、教学策略与实施、教学兴趣与设计、创造力等5个维度。经复测验证,量表克隆巴赫系数为0.955,各拟合指标理想,表明量表具有良好的适用性和推广性,可作为我国师范生计算思维自我评价工具使用。 展开更多
关键词 师范生 计算思维 量表 教学胜任力 问题解决
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Statistical properties of kinetic-scale magnetic holes in terrestrial space 认领
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作者 ShuTao Yao ZongShun Yue +15 位作者 QuanQi Shi Alexander William Degeling HuiShan Fu AnMin Tian Hui Zhang Andrew Vu RuiLong Guo ZhongHua Yao Ji Liu Qiu-Gang Zong XuZhi Zhou JingHuan Li WenYa Li HongQiao Hu YangYang Liu WeiJie Sun 《地球与行星物理:英文版》 2021年第1期63-72,共10页
Kinetic-scale magnetic holes(KSMHs)are structures characterized by a significant magnetic depression with a length scale on the order of the proton gyroradius.These structures have been investigated in recent studies ... Kinetic-scale magnetic holes(KSMHs)are structures characterized by a significant magnetic depression with a length scale on the order of the proton gyroradius.These structures have been investigated in recent studies in near-Earth space,and found to be closely related to energy conversion and particle acceleration,wave-particle interactions,magnetic reconnection,and turbulence at the kineticscale.However,there are still several major issues of the KSMHs that need further study—including(a)the source of these structures(locally generated in near-Earth space,or carried by the solar wind),(b)the environmental conditions leading to their generation,and(c)their spatio-temporal characteristics.In this study,KSMHs in near-Earth space are investigated statistically using data from the Magnetospheric Multiscale mission.Approximately 200,000 events were observed from September 2015 to March 2020.Occurrence rates of such structures in the solar wind,magnetosheath,and magnetotail were obtained.We find that KSMHs occur in the magnetosheath at rates far above their occurrence in the solar wind.This indicates that most of the structures are generated locally in the magnetosheath,rather than advected with the solar wind.Moreover,KSMHs occur in the downstream region of the quasi-parallel shock at rates significantly higher than in the downstream region of the quasi-perpendicular shock,indicating a relationship with the turbulent plasma environment.Close to the magnetopause,we find that the depths of KSMHs decrease as their temporal-scale increases.We also find that the spatial-scales of the KSMHs near the subsolar magnetosheath are smaller than those in the flanks.Furthermore,their global distribution shows a significant dawn-dusk asymmetry(duskside dominating)in the magnetotail. 展开更多
关键词 kinetic scale magnetic hole magnetic dip electron vortex TURBULENCE
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妇科患者手术期静脉血栓风险评估量表的构建 认领
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作者 吴荷玉 褚婕 崔露萍 《护理学杂志》 北大核心 2021年第1期47-49,共3页
目的构建妇科患者手术期静脉血栓风险评估量表,为临床提供有效评估工具。方法以Virchow血栓形成三要素为理论基础,广泛查阅文献,参考相关指南及临床常用量表形成初始量表条目池,运用Delphi法对15名专家进行2轮咨询。结果2轮专家咨询问... 目的构建妇科患者手术期静脉血栓风险评估量表,为临床提供有效评估工具。方法以Virchow血栓形成三要素为理论基础,广泛查阅文献,参考相关指南及临床常用量表形成初始量表条目池,运用Delphi法对15名专家进行2轮咨询。结果2轮专家咨询问卷有效回收率均为100%,专家权威系数为0.81,专家意见的协调系数分别为0.55和0.58;最终形成的评估量表包含4个一级指标、16个二级指标、38个三级指标。结论构建的妇科患者手术期静脉血栓风险评估量表内容全面、科学,可进一步验证其临床预测效能,为妇科患者手术期静脉血栓风险评估提供工具。 展开更多
关键词 妇科 手术期 静脉血栓栓塞症 德尔菲法 风险评估 量表
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Reliability and validity of the Tibetan medicine constitution scale: a cross-sectional study of the general population in Beijing, China 认领
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作者 Hui Luo Ling-Ru Li 《TMR传统医学研究》 2021年第2期86-97,共12页
Background:The constitutional theory is an important aspect of Tibetan medicine,however a quantitative measurement tool for constitution identification still does not exist.The objective of this study is to evaluate t... Background:The constitutional theory is an important aspect of Tibetan medicine,however a quantitative measurement tool for constitution identification still does not exist.The objective of this study is to evaluate the reliability and validity of a Tibetan medicine constitution scale(TMCS)that consists of three sub-scales and 31 items.Methods:From June to July 2019,622 people from the general population in Beijing,China,aged 18 to 60 were investigated.We employed Cronbach’s alpha(α),split-half reliability,and test-retest reliability to determine the reliability of the scale.The content validity and contract validity of the TMCS were evaluated using factor analysis and correlation analysis based on Tibetan medicine theory.The items were screened according to the reliability test results.Results:After the items were screened,22 items remained in the scale.The Cronbach’s alpha value for the internal consistency reliability of the TMCS was 0.754(95%confidence interval(CI):0.700–0.761).The correlation coefficient for the two-week test-retest of the total score was 0.726(95%CI:0.571–0.834).The split-half coefficient was 0.689(95%CI:0.640–0.734).The scale can be explained by eight potential factors,including morphological structure,physiological function,personality,adaptability,etc.The body mass index was negatively correlated with the score of the sub-rlung scale(r=−0.376),slightly positively correlated with the sub-mkhris pa scale(r=0.099),and positively correlated with the sub-bad kan scale(r=0.362).Conclusion:The TMCS is a reliable and valid instrument that can be used to assess the body constitution of the general population in Beijing,China.Future studies are needed to explore the differences in biological characteristics among the constitutional types and the association between constitution and disease. 展开更多
关键词 Tibetan medicine Body constitution Scale evaluation RELIABILITY Validity Cross-sectional study
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医患信任测评的研究进展、问题及本土化治理路径思考 认领
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作者 陈洁 王小合 +4 位作者 钱宇 徐林珍 陈伟红 程港镁 潘文文 《中国医院管理》 北大核心 2021年第1期27-31,共5页
医患信任是医患和谐的"黏合剂",探究医患信任的内涵特征与作用机制对于重塑医患和谐与修复医患关系的裂痕具有重要的理论及实际意义。通过对国内外医患信任的概念内涵、测评工具、影响因素的文献回顾和述评,发现已有医患信任... 医患信任是医患和谐的"黏合剂",探究医患信任的内涵特征与作用机制对于重塑医患和谐与修复医患关系的裂痕具有重要的理论及实际意义。通过对国内外医患信任的概念内涵、测评工具、影响因素的文献回顾和述评,发现已有医患信任测评研究,缺乏结合具有中国特色的社会文化情境来构建医患信任,有待进一步探索医患制度信任、群际信任的形成机制与信任修复策略,从多元协同治理的视角提出新时代建设良性医患信任的本土化治理路径与策略。 展开更多
关键词 医患信任 测评 本土化治理路径
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上海市黄浦区成人基本医疗健康素养监测问卷编制及信效度分析 认领
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作者 朱燕红 谭晖 赵加奎 《实用预防医学》 CAS 2021年第1期57-62,共6页
目的通过自编问卷检验问卷测量性能,为了解黄浦区居民基本医疗健康素养水平提供测量工具。方法根据构建的黄浦区基本医疗健康素养评估指标体系设计初始评估问卷(57题),采用方便抽样方法抽取社区居民200人开展预测试;通过项目分析筛除冗... 目的通过自编问卷检验问卷测量性能,为了解黄浦区居民基本医疗健康素养水平提供测量工具。方法根据构建的黄浦区基本医疗健康素养评估指标体系设计初始评估问卷(57题),采用方便抽样方法抽取社区居民200人开展预测试;通过项目分析筛除冗余题项,形成基本医疗素养评估问卷(38题)。应用问卷对上述200位社区居民施测,并抽取50名两周后复测,分析问卷的信效度;方便抽取黄浦区某二级医院医护人员100人、社区慢性病患者50人施测,分析区分效度。应用SPSS 17.0进行项目难度、区分度分析及信效度分析。Cronbach’s α系数、Guttman分半系数和组内相关系数ICC值用以测量信度;利用内容效度、结构效度和区分效度分析检验效度。结果通过项目分析,共剔除22个条目,结合专家意见和专业知识,增加3条,最终38个条目进入指标体系终稿,形成"黄浦区成人基本医疗健康素养监测项目评估问卷"。全问卷的Cronbach’s α系数为0.709,重测信度为0.994;一级指标得分与总分的相关系数为0.728和0.643,2个一级指标间得分相关系数为0.213。结论本研究问卷针对城市居民基本医疗素养的测量而设计,是评估居民基本医疗素养的有效工具,丰富了国内基本医疗素养调查的内容,具有较好的信度、效度,对开展居民基本医疗素养的评估及干预措施有理论和实践上的指导意义。 展开更多
关键词 信度 效度 指标体系 量表 基本医疗素养
文章速递临床助产教师核心能力测评量表的研制及信效度检验 认领
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作者 任春裕 柳韦华 《护理研究》 北大核心 2021年第3期427-431,共5页
目的:研制适合我国的临床助产教师核心能力测评量表,并检验其信效度。方法:以能力素质模型为主要指导理论,通过文献回顾、理论研究、质性访谈、专家咨询、预调查形成临床助产教师核心能力测评量表,选取全国范围内的临床助产教师226人进... 目的:研制适合我国的临床助产教师核心能力测评量表,并检验其信效度。方法:以能力素质模型为主要指导理论,通过文献回顾、理论研究、质性访谈、专家咨询、预调查形成临床助产教师核心能力测评量表,选取全国范围内的临床助产教师226人进行调查。结果:最终形成的助产本科生临床带教老师核心能力测评量表包括职业素养、专业能力、教学能力、自我及专业成长能力、个人品质5个维度,共40个条目。各条目的区分度良好,探索性因子分析最终提取5个公因子,累积方差贡献率为69.035%。量表Cronbach′sα系数为0.976,各维度的Cronbach′sα系数为0.865~0.959,重测信度为0.931。条目水平的内容效度指数(I-CVI)为0.86~1.00,量表水平的内容效度指数(S-CVI)为0.97。结论:临床助产教师核心能力测评量表具有良好的信效度,可用于测评临床助产教师的核心能力。 展开更多
关键词 助产 核心能力 临床教学 量表 信度 效度
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文章速递护理教育欺凌行为量表的汉化及信效度检验 认领
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作者 王方园 王萌 +4 位作者 刘彬 陈超然 王强 李瑞玲 石贞玉 《护理学杂志》 CSCD 北大核心 2021年第2期58-61,共4页
目的汉化护理教育欺凌行为量表并评价其在中国护生中的信效度。方法经Brislin模式翻译和文化调适形成中文版,对552名护生进行调查检验量表的信效度。结果中文版共18个条目,探索性因子分析提取4个公因子,累积方差贡献率为73.244%;验证性... 目的汉化护理教育欺凌行为量表并评价其在中国护生中的信效度。方法经Brislin模式翻译和文化调适形成中文版,对552名护生进行调查检验量表的信效度。结果中文版共18个条目,探索性因子分析提取4个公因子,累积方差贡献率为73.244%;验证性因子分析拟合较好(CFI=0.916,IFI=0.918,RMSEA=0.071);量表内容效度为0.972,各条目内容效度为0.833~1.000;总量表Cronbach′sα系数0.921,折半信度0.956,重测信度0.955。结论中文版护理教育欺凌行为量表具有良好的信效度,适用于测量护生在护理教育中遭受的欺凌行为。 展开更多
关键词 护生 欺凌 护理教育 量表 信度 效度
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文章速递无烟气烟草制品和烟碱口香糖烟碱依赖量表研究进展 认领
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作者 丁政 李翔宇 +1 位作者 陈欢 胡清源 《烟草科技》 EI CAS CSCD 北大核心 2021年第1期95-103,共9页
为了解与无烟气烟草制品和烟碱口香糖烟碱依赖相关的量表,通过对两种烟草制品量表编制方法和特性的总结,综述了各量表的编制方法和心理测量特性。经过相关文献的调研,目前已有10种无烟气烟草制品量表,5种烟碱口香糖量表。编制方法上,多... 为了解与无烟气烟草制品和烟碱口香糖烟碱依赖相关的量表,通过对两种烟草制品量表编制方法和特性的总结,综述了各量表的编制方法和心理测量特性。经过相关文献的调研,目前已有10种无烟气烟草制品量表,5种烟碱口香糖量表。编制方法上,多数量表基于原有卷烟量表进行产品替换和项目增删得到。测量特性上,量表信度呈现逐渐增加的趋势,基于高信度卷烟量表改编和新开发的量表信度较高;效度方面,基于FTQ和FTND改编的量表显示与生化指标相关,而新建立的量表多数呈现与心理和使用指标相关。未来量表的开发可参考通用型、高信度量表的构建方法,并补充与多种效度指标和产品使用特点相关的项目,以提高心理测量特性。 展开更多
关键词 无烟气烟草制品 烟碱口香糖 烟碱依赖 量表
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Profitability Analysis of Small Scale Irrigation Technology Adoption to Farmers in Nasho Sector, Rwanda 认领
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作者 Eliezel Habineza Jean Nepomuscene Nsengiyumva +1 位作者 Eric Ruzigamanzi Martin Vincent Nsanzumukiza 《农业化学和环境(英文)》 2020年第2期73-84,共12页
The study aims to assess the effect of small scale irrigation adoption to farmers in Nasho sector, Kirehe District in Rwanda. The average yield was 12,309.73 Kg/2.62 ha or 4698.73 Kg/ha for adopters with the mean diff... The study aims to assess the effect of small scale irrigation adoption to farmers in Nasho sector, Kirehe District in Rwanda. The average yield was 12,309.73 Kg/2.62 ha or 4698.73 Kg/ha for adopters with the mean difference between adopters and non adopters ranged from 2819.63 Kg to 4766.59 Kg per unit area of production. For food security status, the average mean quantity of maize consumed at home level was 615.54 Kg with the mean difference ranged from 377.29 Kg to 474.68 Kg. For market participation, the average treatment effect of the treated (ATT) of quantity of maize sold was 11,694.24 Kg while the mean difference ranged from 7165.98 Kg to 9015.60 Kg. The Average Treatment Effect of the Treated market price was 213 Frws/Kg while the mean difference ranged from 44.51 Frws/Kg to 48.3053 Frws/Kg. The Average Treatment Effect of the Treated of farmer’s revenues for the users was 938,772 Frws/ha, however, the mean difference between adopters and non adopters ranged from 1,732,942 Frws to 2,007,039 Frws. The Average Treatment Effect of the Treated of farmer’s net farm income was 1,066,393 Frws while mean difference between users and non users ranged from 803,967 Frws to 854,141 Frws. For profitability analysis, the cost benefit ratio (CBR) was taken into account. The total benefit per unit area was 2,434,509 Frws and total average mean cost of 1,382,313 Frws and CBR = 1.761 > 1. The findings of this study will help the policy makers for deeper sector planning and also, it will facilitate other stakeholders to invest in irrigation technology to improve the livelihoods of Rwandan farmers and other surroundings. 展开更多
关键词 PROFITABILITY Small Scale ïrrigation PROPENSITY SCORE Matching FARMERS Treatment Effect
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Stratigraphic Data and Groundwater Resources in the Coastal Sedimentary Basin of the Pointe-Noire Region (Republic of Congo) 认领
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作者 Guy Dieudonne Moukandi N’Kaya Louis Okotaka Ebale +3 位作者 Christian Tathy Jean De Dieu Nzila Jean Luc Mouthou Bernard Mabiala 《水资源与保护(英文)》 2020年第12期1019-1033,共15页
The synthesis of geological and petroleum research undertaken in the coastal Sedimentary Basin of the Pointe-Noire region enabled the establishment of a lithostratigraphic scale. It has been observed that the order in... The synthesis of geological and petroleum research undertaken in the coastal Sedimentary Basin of the Pointe-Noire region enabled the establishment of a lithostratigraphic scale. It has been observed that the order in which the series observed in outcrop and those encountered by deep wells succeed each other has allowed a value to be given to this relative scale. The study area corresponds to a longitudinal tectonic accident, fault or flexure. It belongs to the Cretaceous and Tertiary coastal sedimentary basin covered by the Plio-Pleistocene age formations (series of circuses), formed of highly permeable sands comprising multiple resistant horizons that store large bodies of water whose reserves are considered very important. Hydrographic network is composed of four main basins with a mediocre size. The quality of this groundwater is considered to be satisfactory for household consumption, but the sustainable management of these reserves requires constant checks on their quality as well as on the level of the reserves. All these resources put the agglomeration of Pointe-Noire close to large exploitable water reserves that meet the need for drinking water, even if, on the whole, the agglomeration is still experiencing many difficulties in terms of its drinking water supply. 展开更多
关键词 GEOLOGICAL Stratigraphic Scale Groundwater Resources Coastal Aquifers Sedimentary Basin Pointe-Noire
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Circular Scale of Time and Its Use in Calculating the Schrödinger Perturbation Energy of a Non-Degenerate Quantum State 认领
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作者 Stanisław Olszewski 《现代物理(英文)》 2020年第10期1536-1558,共23页
The paper presents a circular scale of time—and its diagrams—which can be successfully applied in calculating the Schr<span style="white-space:nowrap;">&ouml;</span>dinger perturbation ener... The paper presents a circular scale of time—and its diagrams—which can be successfully applied in calculating the Schr<span style="white-space:nowrap;">&ouml;</span>dinger perturbation energy of a non-degenerate quantum state. This seems to be done in a more simple way than with the aid of any other of the perturbation approaches of a similar kind. As an example of the theory suitable to comparison is considered the Feynman diagrammatic method based on a straight-linear scale of time which represents a much more complicated formalism than the present one. All diagrams of the approach outlined in the paper can obtain as their counterparts the algebraic formulae which can be easily extended to an arbitrary Schr<span style="white-space:nowrap;">&ouml;</span>dinger perturbation order. The calculations and results descending from the perturbation orders <em>N</em> between <em>N</em> = 1 and <em>N </em>= 7 are reported in detail. 展开更多
关键词 Circular Scale of Time Schrödinger Perturbation Energy in Non-Relativistic Quantum Mechanics Non-Degenerate Quantum States
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基于不同尺度的中国优质医疗资源区域差异研究 认领 被引量:1
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作者 赵雪雁 王晓琪 +2 位作者 刘江华 王蓉 薛冰 《经济地理》 CSSCI CSCD 北大核心 2020年第7期22-31,共10页
优质医疗资源分布不均已成为影响人民健康水平的重要民生问题,探明优质医疗资源的区域差异及影响因素,对制定合理的医疗卫生政策、推进健康中国战略至关重要。文章从省级、城市群和地级市尺度出发,采用GDI、ESDA等方法分析了2006—2017... 优质医疗资源分布不均已成为影响人民健康水平的重要民生问题,探明优质医疗资源的区域差异及影响因素,对制定合理的医疗卫生政策、推进健康中国战略至关重要。文章从省级、城市群和地级市尺度出发,采用GDI、ESDA等方法分析了2006—2017年中国优质医疗资源的时空差异,并利用地理探测器方法识别了影响不同尺度优质医疗资源分布的关键因素。结果表明:①2006—2017年中国优质医疗资源水平趋于提升、区域差异缩小,且尺度越小,优质医疗资源的差异越大。其中,差异程度随城市群等级的降低而增大,但随城市规模的缩小而减小。②不同尺度上优质医疗资源的空间集聚程度不同,且尺度越大,集聚程度越高。其中,省级、地级市尺度优质医疗资源较高水平区多集中在胡焕庸线以东地区,城市群尺度主要集中在国家级城市群及哈长、中原等区域性城市群。③不同尺度上影响优质医疗资源分布的关键因子及各因子间的交互作用存在差异,且尺度越小,影响优质医疗资源分布的因子越复杂。 展开更多
关键词 优质医疗资源 尺度 区域差异 城市群 人口规模 经济发展水平
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