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Current status and future prospects of stem cell therapy in Alzheimer’s disease 预览
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作者 Fu-Qiang Zhang Jin-Lan Jiang +3 位作者 Jing-Tian Zhang Han Niu Xue-Qi Fu Lin-Lin Zeng 《中国神经再生研究:英文版》 SCIE CAS CSCD 2020年第2期242-250,共9页
Alzheimer’s disease is a common progressive neurodegenerative disorder, pathologically characterized by the presence of β-amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles. Current treatment approaches using drugs only al... Alzheimer’s disease is a common progressive neurodegenerative disorder, pathologically characterized by the presence of β-amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles. Current treatment approaches using drugs only alleviate the symptoms without curing the disease, which is a serious issue and influences the quality of life of the patients and their caregivers. In recent years, stem cell technology has provided new insights into the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Currently, the main sources of stem cells include neural stem cells, embryonic stem cells, mesenchymal stem cells, and induced pluripotent stem cells. In this review, we discuss the pathophysiology and general treatment of Alzheimer’s disease, and the current state of stem cell transplantation in the treatment of Alzheimer’s disease. We also assess future challenges in the clinical application and drug development of stem cell transplantation as a treatment for Alzheimer’s disease. 展开更多
关键词 Alzheimer's disease β-amyloid drug development embryonic STEM CELLS induced PLURIPOTENT STEM CELLS mesenchymal STEM CELLS nerve REGENERATION NEURAL REGENERATION NEURAL STEM CELLS NEURODEGENERATIVE disorders STEM cell therapy
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Stem radial CO2 conductance affects stem respiratory CO2 fluxes in ash and birch trees 预览
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作者 Xiuwei Wang Zijun Mao +1 位作者 M.A.McGuire R.O.Teskey 《林业研究:英文版》 CAS CSCD 2019年第1期21-29,共9页
The CO2 released from respiring cells in woody tissues of trees can contribute to one of three fluxes:efflux to the atmosphere(EA),internal xylem sap transport flux(FT),and storage flux(△S).Adding those fluxes togeth... The CO2 released from respiring cells in woody tissues of trees can contribute to one of three fluxes:efflux to the atmosphere(EA),internal xylem sap transport flux(FT),and storage flux(△S).Adding those fluxes together provides an estimate of actual stem respiration(RS).We know that the relative proportion of CO2 in those fluxes varies greatly among tree species,but we do not yet have a clear understanding of the causes for this variation.One possible explanation is that species differ in stem radial CO2 conductance(gc).A high gc would favor the EA pathway and a low gc would favor the FT pathway.However,gc has only been measured once in situ and only in a single tree species.We measured gc using two methods in stems of Fraxinus mandshurica Rupr.(ash)and Betula platyphylla Suk.(birch)trees in situ,along with RS,EA,FT and △S.Stem radial CO2 conductance was substantially greater in ash trees than in birch trees.Corresponding to that finding,in ash trees over 24 h,EA constituted the entire flux of respired CO2,and FT was negative,indicating that additional CO2,probably transported from the root system via the xylem,was also diffusing into the atmosphere.In ash trees,FT was negative over the entire 24 h,and this study represents the first time that has been reported.The addition of xylem-transported CO2 to EA caused EA to be 9%higher than the actual RS over the diel measurement period.Birch trees,which had lower gc,also had a more commonly seen pattern,with EA accounting for about 80%of the CO2 released from local cell respiration and FT accounting for the remainder.The inorganic carbon concentration in xylem sap was also lower in ash trees than in birch trees:2.7 versus 5.3 mmol L^-1,respectively.Our results indicate that stem CO2 conductance could be a very useful measurement to help explain differences among species in the proportion of respired CO2that remains in the xylem or diffuses into the atmosphere. 展开更多
关键词 STEM CO2 CONDUCTANCE STEM respiration STEM CO2 efflux Transport FLUX STEM temperature SAP flow SAP FLUX density
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美国印第安纳州STEM教育实施标准的制定及启示
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作者 杜文彬 王涛 《外国教育研究》 CSSCI 北大核心 2019年第7期3-14,共12页
美国印第安纳州从基础设施建设、教学实施、课程规划以及校外拓展活动设计四个维度共22条细则制定了学校STEM教育的实施标准,并对"起步"、"发展"、"成熟"和"完善"各个发展阶段学校在每条细则... 美国印第安纳州从基础设施建设、教学实施、课程规划以及校外拓展活动设计四个维度共22条细则制定了学校STEM教育的实施标准,并对"起步"、"发展"、"成熟"和"完善"各个发展阶段学校在每条细则上的具体表现都进行了明确规定。印第安纳州通过清晰明了的行为性实施标准建设及多元主体的过程性评估手段实现了STEM教育实施标准建设的发展性目的。印第安纳州STEM教育实施标准对我国STEM教育实施标准的内容研制、实施标准执行,以及评价主体的组织皆具有一定启示。 展开更多
关键词 STEM STEM学校 标准 评估机制 美国
嬗变之路:美国STEM教育政策的历史演进与变迁逻辑——基于支持联盟框架的研究视角 预览
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作者 周榕 李世瑾 《远程教育杂志》 CSSCI 北大核心 2019年第4期85-95,共11页
支持联盟框架是透视政策行为过程的代表性工具。借助于支持联盟框架,可以对美国STEM教育的体制内联盟、体制外联盟和受众体联盟及其信仰系统进行解析,进而解读美国STEM教育政策的历史演进过程,并阐释STEM教育政策的变迁逻辑。相关研究发... 支持联盟框架是透视政策行为过程的代表性工具。借助于支持联盟框架,可以对美国STEM教育的体制内联盟、体制外联盟和受众体联盟及其信仰系统进行解析,进而解读美国STEM教育政策的历史演进过程,并阐释STEM教育政策的变迁逻辑。相关研究发现,美国STEM教育政策受短期外部干预以及各支持联盟政策取向学习的影响,经历了"面向科学素养"的本科人才培育→"面向能力准备"的贯通式人才培育→"面向STEM素养"的优质人才培育这一发展路径。其变迁逻辑表现为:政策取向学习是政策演变的关键发生机制,社会经济保障是政策演变的重要外部条件,社会公共舆论是政策演变的主要推动力量,其它系统政策是政策演变的基本制度环境保障。借鉴美国STEM教育政策的历史经验,我国应立足于政策导向与政策执行两个层面,从全学段贯通、STEM全纳教育、社会师资力量整合、教育经费保障、社会舆论引导以及支持联盟权力共同体这六个方面构建STEM教育的政策体系。 展开更多
关键词 STEM STEM教育政策 支持联盟框架 全纳教育 历史演进 变迁逻辑
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Applications of stem cells and bioprinting for potential treatment of diabetes 预览
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作者 Shweta Anil Kumar Monica Delgado +1 位作者 Victor E Mendez Binata Joddar 《世界干细胞杂志:英文版(电子版)》 2019年第1期13-32,共20页
Currently,there does not exist a strategy that can reduce diabetes and scientists are working towards a cure and innovative approaches by employing stem cellbased therapies.On the other hand,bioprinting technology is ... Currently,there does not exist a strategy that can reduce diabetes and scientists are working towards a cure and innovative approaches by employing stem cellbased therapies.On the other hand,bioprinting technology is a novel therapeutic approach that aims to replace the diseased or lostβ-cells,insulin-secreting cells in the pancreas,which can potentially regenerate damaged organs such as the pancreas.Stem cells have the ability to differentiate into various cell lines including insulinproducing cells.However,there are still barriers that hamper the successful differentiation of stem cells intoβ-cells.In this review,we focus on the potential applications of stem cell research and bioprinting that may be targeted towards replacing theβ-cells in the pancreas and may offer approaches towards treatment of diabetes.This review emphasizes on the applicability of employing both stem cells and other cells in 3D bioprinting to generate substitutes for diseasedβ-cells and recover lost pancreatic functions.The article then proceeds to discuss the overall research done in the field of stem cell-based bioprinting and provides future directions for improving the same for potential applications in diabetic research. 展开更多
关键词 BIOPRINTING Tissue engineering Pluripotent STEM CELLS Mesenchymal STEM CELLS HUMAN embryonic STEM Adult HUMAN liver CELLS β-cells Islet CELLS Biomaterials Bioink STEM cell DIABETES
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基于STEM与“工匠精神”融合的技能人才培养模式研究 预览
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作者 汪义旺 吴薛 +3 位作者 臧华东 张波 王蕊 林燕 《南通职业大学学报》 2019年第1期36-40,共5页
为有效解决行业技术技能人才供给不足的问题,将STEM教育理念与“工匠精神”相融合,以应用电子技术类工科专业为例,提出基于“STEM+CS”的技能人才培养创新模式,列举实践案例,为高职技术技能应用人才培养提供新思路和新途径。
关键词 STEM 工匠精神 STEM+CS” 技术技能型人才 培养模式
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Porcine pluripotent stem cells: progress, challenges and prospects
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作者 Jianyong HAN Yi-Liang MIAO +7 位作者 Jinlian HUA Yan LI Xue ZHANG Jilong ZHOU Na LI Ying ZHANG Jinying ZHANG Zhonghua LIU 《农业科学与工程前沿:英文版》 2019年第1期8-27,共20页
Pluripotent stem cells(PSCs) are characterized by their capacity for high self-renewal and multiple differentiation potential and include embryonic stem cells, embryonic germ cells and induced PSCs. PSCs provide a ver... Pluripotent stem cells(PSCs) are characterized by their capacity for high self-renewal and multiple differentiation potential and include embryonic stem cells, embryonic germ cells and induced PSCs. PSCs provide a very suitable model for the studies of human diseases, drugs screening, regenerative medicine and developmental biology research. Pigs are considered as an ideal model for preclinical development of human xenotransplantation, therapeutic approaches and regenerative medicine because of their size and physiological similarity to humans. However, lack of knowledge about the derivation, characterization and pluripotency mechanisms of porcine PSCs hinders progress in these biotechnologies. In this review, we discuss the latest progress on porcine PSCs generation, evaluation criteria for pluripotency, the scienti?c and technical questions arising from these studies. We also introduce our perspectives on porcine PSC research, in the hope of providing new ideas for generating naive porcine PSCs and animal breeding. 展开更多
关键词 EMBRYONIC GERM CELLS EMBRYONIC STEM CELLS induced PLURIPOTENT STEM CELLS PIGS PLURIPOTENT STEM CELLS
Predicting differentiation potential of human pluripotent stem cells:Possibilities and challenges 预览
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作者 Li-Ping Liu Yun-Wen Zheng 《世界干细胞杂志:英文版(电子版)》 2019年第7期375-382,共8页
The capability of human pluripotent stem cell(hPSC)lines to propagate indefinitely and differentiate into derivatives of three embryonic germ layers makes these cells be powerful tools for basic scientific research an... The capability of human pluripotent stem cell(hPSC)lines to propagate indefinitely and differentiate into derivatives of three embryonic germ layers makes these cells be powerful tools for basic scientific research and promising agents for translational medicine.However,variations in differentiation tendency and efficiency as well as pluripotency maintenance necessitate the selection of hPSC lines for the intended applications to save time and cost.To screen the qualified cell lines and exclude problematic cell lines,their pluripotency must be confirmed initially by traditional methods such as teratoma formation or by highthroughput gene expression profiling assay.Additionally,their differentiation potential,particularly the lineage-specific differentiation propensities of hPSC lines,should be predicted in an early stage.As a complement to the teratoma assay,RNA sequencing data provide a quantitative estimate of the differentiation ability of hPSCs in vivo.Moreover,multiple scorecards have been developed based on selected gene sets for predicting the differentiation potential into three germ layers or the desired cell type many days before terminal differentiation.For clinical application of hPSCs,the malignant potential of the cells must also be evaluated.A combination of histologic examination of teratoma with quantitation of gene expression data derived from teratoma tissue provides safety-related predictive information by detecting immature teratomas,malignancy marker expression,and other parameters.Although various prediction methods are available,distinct limitations remain such as the discordance of results between different assays and requirement of a long time and high labor and cost,restricting their wide applications in routine studies.Therefore,simpler and more rapid detection assays with high specificity and sensitivity that can be used to monitor the status of hPSCs at any time and fewer targeted markers that are more specific for a given desired cell type are urgently needed. 展开更多
关键词 Human PLURIPOTENT STEM CELLS Induced PLURIPOTENT STEM CELLS Embryonic STEM CELLS DIFFERENTIATION POTENTIAL Prediction Pluripotency Malignant POTENTIAL EMBRYOID bodies Lineage-specific DIFFERENTIATION Teratoma
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Targeting cancer stem cells in drug discovery:Current state and future perspectives 预览
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作者 Fang-Yu Du Qi-Fan Zhou +1 位作者 Wen-Jiao Sun Guo-Liang Chen 《世界干细胞杂志:英文版(电子版)》 2019年第7期398-420,共23页
In recent decades,cancer stem cells(CSCs)have been increasingly identified in many malignancies.CSC-related signaling pathways and their functions provide new strategies for treating cancer.The aberrant activation of ... In recent decades,cancer stem cells(CSCs)have been increasingly identified in many malignancies.CSC-related signaling pathways and their functions provide new strategies for treating cancer.The aberrant activation of related signaling pathways(e.g.,Wnt,Notch,and Hedgehog pathways)has been linked to multiple types of malignant tumors,which makes these pathways attractive targets for cancer therapy.CSCs display many characteristic features,such as self-renewal,differentiation,high tumorigenicity,and drug resistance.Therefore,there is an urgent need to develop new therapeutic strategies to target these pathways to control stem cell replication,survival,and differentiation.Notable crosstalk occurs among different signaling pathways and potentially leads to compensatory escape.Therefore,multitarget inhibitors will be one of the main methods to overcome the drug resistance of CSCs.Many small molecule inhibitors of components of signaling pathways in CSCs have entered clinical trials,and some inhibitors,such as vismodegib,sonidegib,and glasdegib,have been approved.Tumor cells are susceptible to sonidegib and vismodegib resistance due to mutations in the Smo protein.The signal transducers and activators of transcription 3(STAT3)inhibitor BBI608 is being evaluated in a phase III trial for a variety of cancers.Structural derivatives of BBI608 are the main focus of STAT3 inhibitor development,which is another strategy for CSC therapy.In addition to the potential pharmacological inhibitors targeting CSCrelated signaling pathways,other methods of targeting CSCs are available,such as nano-drug delivery systems,mitochondrion targeting,autophagy,hyperthermia,immunotherapy,and CSC microenvironment targeting.In addition,we summarize the latest advances in the clinical development of agents targeting CSC-related signaling pathways and other methods of targeting CSCs. 展开更多
关键词 CANCER STEM cells CANCER STEM cell-related signaling PATHWAYS Nano-drug delivery system IMMUNOTHERAPY MITOCHONDRION CANCER STEM CELL
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Current methods for the maturation of induced pluripotent stem cellderived cardiomyocytes 预览
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作者 Pranav Machiraju Steven C Greenway 《世界干细胞杂志:英文版(电子版)》 2019年第1期33-43,共11页
Induced pluripotent stem cells(iPSCs)were first generated by Yamanaka and colleagues over a decade ago.Since then,iPSCs have been successfully differentiated into many distinct cell types,enabling tissue-,disease-,and... Induced pluripotent stem cells(iPSCs)were first generated by Yamanaka and colleagues over a decade ago.Since then,iPSCs have been successfully differentiated into many distinct cell types,enabling tissue-,disease-,and patientspecific in vitro modelling.Cardiovascular disease is the greatest cause of mortality worldwide but encompasses rarer disorders of conduction and myocardial function for which a cellular model of study is ideal.Although methods to differentiate iPSCs into beating cardiomyocytes(iPSC-CMs)have recently been adequately optimized and commercialized,the resulting cells remain largely immature with regards to their structure and function,demonstrating fetal gene expression,disorganized morphology,reliance on predominantly glycolytic metabolism and contractile characteristics that differ from those of adult cardiomyocytes.As such,disease modelling using iPSC-CMs may be inaccurate and of limited utility.However,this limitation is widely recognized,and numerous groups have made substantial progress in addressing this problem.This review highlights successful methods that have been developed for the maturation of human iPSC-CMs using small molecules,environmental manipulation and 3-dimensional(3D)growth approaches. 展开更多
关键词 INDUCED PLURIPOTENT STEM cells INDUCED PLURIPOTENT STEM cell-derived CARDIOMYOCYTES Regenerative medicine STEM CELL biology Translational research
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p53 balances between tissue hierarchy and anarchy
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作者 Gabriela Koifman Ronit Aloni-Grinstein Varda Rotter 《分子细胞生物学报:英文版》 SCIE CAS CSCD 2019年第7期553-563,共11页
Normal tissues are organized in a hierarchical model,whereas at the apex of these hierarchies reside stem cells (SCs) capable of self-renewal and of producing differentiated cellular progenies,leading to normal develo... Normal tissues are organized in a hierarchical model,whereas at the apex of these hierarchies reside stem cells (SCs) capable of self-renewal and of producing differentiated cellular progenies,leading to normal development and homeostasis.Alike,tumors are organized in a hierarchical manner,with cancer SCs residing at the apex,contributing to the development and nourishment of tumors .p53,the well-known 'guardian ofthe genome',possesses various roles in embryonic development as well as in adult SC life and serves as the ‘guardian of tissue hierarchy’.Moreover,p53 serves as a barrier for dedifferentiation and reprogramming by constraining the cells to a somatic state and preventing their conversion to SCs.On the contrary,the mutant forms of p53 that lost theirtumor suppressor activity and gain oncogenic functions serve as 'inducers oftissue anarchy' and promote cancer development.In this review,we discuss these two sides ofthe p53 token that sentence a tissue either to an ordered hierarchy and life or to anarchy and death.A better understanding of these processes may open new horizons for the development of new cancer therapies. 展开更多
关键词 P53 STEM cell gain of function cancer STEM CELLS adult STEM CELLS embryonic development TISSUE HIERARCHY
国内外STEM研究现状及其发展趋势分析 预览
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作者 吕文洁 《软件导刊.教育技术》 2019年第7期3-5,共3页
近年来,STEM教育受到世界各地的热捧,同时也成为国内外研究热点。STEM教育作为一种跨学科融合的新型培养模式,对提升学生创造性解决问题、培养学生的创新思维等方面起着举足轻重的作用。阐述了国内外STEM教育的发展脉络,对高频关键词进... 近年来,STEM教育受到世界各地的热捧,同时也成为国内外研究热点。STEM教育作为一种跨学科融合的新型培养模式,对提升学生创造性解决问题、培养学生的创新思维等方面起着举足轻重的作用。阐述了国内外STEM教育的发展脉络,对高频关键词进行了可视化分析,从而得出国内外研究现状,并分析其发展趋势。 展开更多
关键词 STEM STEM+ 发展趋势 K-12
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Effects of neural stem cell transplantation on the motor function of rats with contusion spinal cord injuries:a meta-analysis 预览
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作者 Kai Qian Tuo-Ye Xu +7 位作者 Xi Wang Tao Ma Kai-Xin Zhang Kun Yang Teng-Da Qian Jing Shi Li-Xin Li Zheng Wang 《中国神经再生研究:英文版》 SCIE CAS CSCD 2020年第4期748-758,共11页
Objective:To judge the efficacies of neural stem cell(NSC)transplantation on functional recovery following contusion spinal cord injuries(SCIs).Data sources:Studies in which NSCs were transplanted into a clinically re... Objective:To judge the efficacies of neural stem cell(NSC)transplantation on functional recovery following contusion spinal cord injuries(SCIs).Data sources:Studies in which NSCs were transplanted into a clinically relevant,standardized rat model of contusion SCI were identified by searching the PubMed,Embase and Cochrane databases,and the extracted data were analyzed by Stata 14.0.Data selection:Inclusion criteria were that NSCs were used in in vivo animal studies to treat contusion SCIs and that behavioral assessment of locomotor functional recovery was performed using the Basso,Beattie,and Bresnahan lo-comotor rating scale.Exclusion criteria included a follow-up of less than 4 weeks and the lack of control groups.Outcome measures:The restoration of motor function was assessed by the Basso,Beattie,and Bresnahan locomotor rating scale.Results:We identified 1756 non-duplicated papers by searching the aforementioned electronic databases,and 30 full-text articles met the inclusion criteria.A total of 37 studies reported in the 30 articles were included in the meta-analysis.The meta-analysis results showed that transplanted NSCs could improve the motor function recovery of rats following contusion SCIs,to a moderate extent(pooled standardized mean difference(SMD)=0.73;95%confidence interval(CI):0.47–1.00;P<0.001).NSCs obtained from different donor species(rat:SMD=0.74;95%CI:0.36–1.13;human:SMD=0.78;95%CI:0.31–1.25),at different donor ages(fetal:SMD=0.67;95%CI:0.43–0.92;adult:SMD=0.86;95%CI:0.50–1.22)and from different origins(brain-derived:SMD=0.59;95%CI:0.27–0.91;spinal cord-derived:SMD=0.51;95%CI:0.22–0.79)had similar efficacies on improved functional recovery;however,adult induced pluripotent stem cell-derived NSCs showed no significant efficacies.Furthermore,the use of higher doses of transplanted NSCs or the administration of immunosuppressive agents did not promote better locomotor function recovery(SMD=0.45;95%CI:0.21–0.70).However,shorter periods between the contusion induction and the NSC tr 展开更多
关键词 Basso Beattie and Bresnahan locomotor rating scale cell transplantation META-ANALYSIS motor functional recovery neural regeneration neural stem cell neural stem cell transplantation rat model spinal contusion spinal cord injury
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Enhanced hepatic differentiation in the subpopulation of human amniotic stem cells under 3D multicellular microenvironment 预览
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作者 Kinji Furuya Yun-Wen Zheng +11 位作者 Daisuke Sako Kenichi Iwasaki Dong-Xu Zheng Jian-Yun Ge Li-Ping Liu Tomoaki Furuta Kazunori Akimoto Hiroya Yagi Hiromi Hamada Hiroko Isoda Tatsuya Oda Nobuhiro Ohkohchi 《世界干细胞杂志:英文版(电子版)》 2019年第9期705-721,共17页
BACKGROUND To solve the problem of liver transplantation donor insufficiency,an alternative cell transplantation therapy was investigated.We focused on amniotic epithelial cells(AECs)as a cell source because,unlike in... BACKGROUND To solve the problem of liver transplantation donor insufficiency,an alternative cell transplantation therapy was investigated.We focused on amniotic epithelial cells(AECs)as a cell source because,unlike induced pluripotent stem cells,they are cost-effective and non-tumorigenic.The utilization of AECs in regenerative medicine,however,is in its infancy.A general profile for AECs has not been comprehensively analyzed.Moreover,no hepatic differentiation protocol for AECs has yet been established.To this end,we independently compiled human AEC libraries,purified amniotic stem cells(ASCs),and co-cultured them with mesenchymal stem cells(MSCs)and human umbilical vein endothelial cell(HUVECs)in a 3D system which induces functional hepatic organoids.AIM To characterize AECs and generate functional hepatic organoids from ASCs and other somatic stem cells METHODS AECs,MSCs,and HUVECs were isolated from the placentae and umbilical cords of cesarean section patients.Amnion and primary AEC stemness characteristics and heterogeneity were analyzed by immunocytochemistry,Alkaline phosphatase(AP)staining,and flow cytometry.An adherent AEC subpopulation was selected and evaluated for ASC purification quality by a colony formation assay.AEC transcriptomes were compared with those for other hepatocytes cell sources by bioinformatics.The 2D and 3D culture were compared by relative gene expression using several differentiation protocols.ASCs,MSCs,and HUVECs were combined in a 3D co-culture system to generate hepatic organoids whose structure was compared with a 3D AEC sphere and whose function was elucidated by immunofluorescence imaging,periodic acid Schiff,and an indocyanine green(ICG)test.RESULTS AECs have certain stemness markers such as EPCAM,SSEA4,and E-cadherin.One AEC subpopulation was also either positive for AP staining or expressed the TRA-1-60 and TRA-1-81 stemness markers.Moreover,it could form colonies and its frequency was enhanced ten-fold in the adherent subpopulation after selective primary passage.Bioinfo 展开更多
关键词 3D MICROPATTERN Amniotic epithelial CELLS Amniotic STEM CELLS Hepatic differentiation Heterogeneity HUMAN PLACENTAL tissue HUMAN umbilical vein endothelial CELLS Mesenchymal STEM CELLS Multicellular microenvironment Organoid
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连杆机构在小学科学技术与工程中的应用研究 预览
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作者 罗泽碧 王雪 《贵阳学院学报:自然科学版》 2019年第2期82-85,97共5页
随着新课标的颁布,增加了‘技术与工程’的知识,工程技术得到了前所未有的重视。连杆机构作为机械传动系统的重要组成部分,与工程技术是密不可分的。本文首先分析介绍了连杆机构在小学科学中的学习现状及成因,紧接着研究介绍了一些相关... 随着新课标的颁布,增加了‘技术与工程’的知识,工程技术得到了前所未有的重视。连杆机构作为机械传动系统的重要组成部分,与工程技术是密不可分的。本文首先分析介绍了连杆机构在小学科学中的学习现状及成因,紧接着研究介绍了一些相关理论,连杆机构的基本介绍、STEM教育理论、工程技术相关概念及过程。文章最后以设计制作跑步机器人作为实践研究,来阐述最新课标的新内容——技术与工程的应用过程。最后,分析总结了本次设计、制作过程中存在的一些问题。 展开更多
关键词 工程技术 连杆机构 小学科学 STEM
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工程认证中的复杂工程问题及其构造研究 预览
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作者 杨帆 张彩丽 马令坤 《电气电子教学学报》 2019年第5期70-73,77共5页
本文针对教学中复杂工程问题设计困难的问题,提出了基于STEM理念的复杂工程问题构造方法。这种方法的核心在于基于问题导向、知识整合应用的理念,将传统的结构良好教学问题转换为结构不良教学问题,从而使其具备复杂工程问题的大部分特征... 本文针对教学中复杂工程问题设计困难的问题,提出了基于STEM理念的复杂工程问题构造方法。这种方法的核心在于基于问题导向、知识整合应用的理念,将传统的结构良好教学问题转换为结构不良教学问题,从而使其具备复杂工程问题的大部分特征,为复杂工程问题解决能力的有效形成提供了问题保证。文中给出了电子信息类专业的一个典型复杂工程问题的构造案例,用以说明这种方法的可行性。 展开更多
关键词 复杂工程问题 问题设计 STEM
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Exogenous neural stem cell transplantation for cerebral ischemia 预览
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作者 Ling-Yi Liao Benson Wui-Man Lau +1 位作者 Dalinda Isabel Sánchez-Vida?a Qiang Gao 《中国神经再生研究:英文版》 SCIE CAS CSCD 2019年第7期1129-1137,共9页
Cerebral ischemic injury is the main manifestation of stroke,and its incidence in stroke patients is 70–80%.Although ischemic stroke can be treated with tissue-type plasminogen activator,its time window of effectiven... Cerebral ischemic injury is the main manifestation of stroke,and its incidence in stroke patients is 70–80%.Although ischemic stroke can be treated with tissue-type plasminogen activator,its time window of effectiveness is narrow.Therefore,the incidence of paralysis,hypoesthesia,aphasia,dysphagia,and cognitive impairment caused by cerebral ischemia is high.Nerve tissue regeneration can promote the recovery of the aforementioned dysfunction.Neural stem cells can participate in the reconstruction of the damaged nervous system and promote the recovery of nervous function during self-repair of damaged brain tissue.Neural stem cell transplantation for ischemic stroke has been a hot topic for more than 10 years.This review discusses the treatment of ischemic stroke with neural stem cells,as well as the mechanisms of their involvement in stroke treatment. 展开更多
关键词 nerve REGENERATION STEM CELL therapy NEURAL STEM cells CELL transplantation ischemic stroke cerebral ischemia NEUROPLASTICITY functional recovery NEURAL REGENERATION
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Effects of Ginkgo biloba extract EGb761 on neural differentiation of stem cells offer new hope for neurological disease treatment 预览
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作者 Chao Ren Yong-Qiang Ji +5 位作者 Hong Liu Zhe Wang Jia-Hui Wang Cai-Yi Zhang Li-Na Guan Pei-Yuan Yin 《中国神经再生研究:英文版》 SCIE CAS CSCD 2019年第7期1152-1157,共6页
Stem cell transplantation has brought new hope for the treatment of neurological diseases.The key to stem cell therapy lies in inducing the specific differentiation of stem cells into nerve cells.Because the different... Stem cell transplantation has brought new hope for the treatment of neurological diseases.The key to stem cell therapy lies in inducing the specific differentiation of stem cells into nerve cells.Because the differentiation of stem cells in vitro and in vivo is affected by multiple factors,the final differentiation outcome is strongly associated with the microenvironment in which the stem cells are located.Accordingly,the optimal microenvironment for inducing stem cell differentiation is a hot topic.EGb761 is extracted from the leaves of the Ginkgo biloba tree.It is used worldwide and is becoming one of the focuses of stem cell research.Studies have shown that EGb761 can antagonize oxygen free radicals,stabilize cell membranes,promote neurogenesis and synaptogenesis,increase the level of brain-derived neurotrophic factors,and replicate the environment required during the differentiation of stem cells into nerve cells.This offers the possibility of using EGb761 to induce the differentiation of stem cells,facilitating stem cell transplantation.To provide a comprehensive reference for the future application of EGb761 in stem cell therapy,we reviewed studies investigating the influence of EGb761 on stem cells.These started with the composition and neuropharmacology of EGb761,and eventually led to the finding that EGb761 and some of its important components play important roles in the differentiation of stem cells and the protection of a beneficial microenvironment for stem cell transplantation. 展开更多
关键词 nerve REGENERATION GINKGO biloba extract GINKGOLIDE B traditional Chinese medicine STEM cells induction of differentiation STEM cell transplantation synaptic plasticity pharmacological effect NEUROLOGICAL diseases nervous systems neural REGENERATION
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Extracellular matrix and biomimetic engineering microenvironment for neuronal differentiation 预览
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作者 Deepak Jain Sabrina Mattiassi +1 位作者 Eyleen L.Goh Evelyn K.F.Yim 《中国神经再生研究:英文版》 SCIE CAS CSCD 2020年第4期573-585,共13页
Extracellular matrix(ECM)influences cell differentiation through its structural and biochemical properties.In nervous system,neuronal behavior is influenced by these ECMs structures which are present in a meshwork,fib... Extracellular matrix(ECM)influences cell differentiation through its structural and biochemical properties.In nervous system,neuronal behavior is influenced by these ECMs structures which are present in a meshwork,fibrous,or tubular forms encompassing specific molecular compositions.In addition to contact guidance,ECM composition and structures also exert its effect on neuronal differentiation.This short report reviewed the native ECM structure and composition in central nervous system and peripheral nervous system,and their impact on neural regeneration and neuronal differentiation.Using topographies,stem cells have been differentiated to neurons.Further,focussing on engineered biomimicking topographies,we highlighted the role of anisotropic topographies in stem cell differentiation to neurons and its recent temporal application for efficient neuronal differentiation. 展开更多
关键词 biomimetic platforms biophysical cues contact guidance extracellular matrix neuronal development neural regeneration neural stem cell niche neuronal differentiation neuronal maturation stem cell topography
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比较视角下STEM高等教育政策与STEM项目跨学科趋势研究
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作者 山田礼子(日) 张文雅(译) 《中国高教研究》 CSSCI 北大核心 2019年第2期86-91,共6页
STEM是推动创新的主力,在科学研究和开发中发挥着重要作用。近年来,世界各国均出台了与STEM相关的教育政策。通过分析美国、澳大利亚、英国、日本4个国家与科技政策相关的官方报告中的STEM高等教育政策,发现STEM教育备受重视,并不断增加... STEM是推动创新的主力,在科学研究和开发中发挥着重要作用。近年来,世界各国均出台了与STEM相关的教育政策。通过分析美国、澳大利亚、英国、日本4个国家与科技政策相关的官方报告中的STEM高等教育政策,发现STEM教育备受重视,并不断增加STEM学科的毕业生人数。另外,STEM专业的学生不仅需要学习本学科知识,还需要获得21世纪的技能和能力,如学习跨学科和跨文化知识,了解全球问题和培养全球能力等,以斯坦福大学的必应海外留学计划(BOSP)和日本领先研究生院项目作为案例分析了其STEM项目的跨学科趋势。 展开更多
关键词 STEM 高等教育政策 跨学科 跨文化
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