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Identification of protein targets for the antidepressant effects of Kai-Xin-San in Chinese medicine using isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation 预览
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作者 Xian-Zhe Dong Dong-Xiao Wang +3 位作者 Tian-Yi Zhang Xu Liu Ping Liu Yuan Hu 《中国神经再生研究:英文版》 SCIE CAS CSCD 2020年第2期302-310,共9页
Kai-Xin-San consists of Ginseng Radix, Polygalae Radix, Acori Tatarinowii Rhizoma, and Poria at a ratio of 3:3:2:2. Kai-Xin-San has been widely used for the treatment of emotional disorders in China. However, no studi... Kai-Xin-San consists of Ginseng Radix, Polygalae Radix, Acori Tatarinowii Rhizoma, and Poria at a ratio of 3:3:2:2. Kai-Xin-San has been widely used for the treatment of emotional disorders in China. However, no studies have identified the key proteins implicated in response to Kai-Xin-San treatment. In this study, rat models of chronic mild stress were established using different stress methods over 28 days. After 14 days of stress stimulation, rats received daily intragastric administrations of 600 mg/kg Kai-Xin-San. The sucrose preference test was used to determine depression-like behavior in rats, while isobaric tags were used for relative and absolute quantitation-based proteomics to identify altered proteins following Kai-Xin-San treatment. Kai-Xin-San treatment for 2 weeks noticeably improved depression-like behaviors in rats with chronic mild stress. We identified 33 differentially expressed proteins: 7 were upregulated and 26 were downregulated. Functional analysis showed that these differentially expressed proteins participate in synaptic plasticity, neurodevelopment, and neurogenesis. Our results indicate that Kai-Xin-San has an important role in regulating the key node proteins in the synaptic signaling network, and are helpful to better understand the mechanism of the antidepressive effects of Kai-Xin-San and to provide objective theoretical support for its clinical application. The study was approved by the Ethics Committee for Animal Research from the Chinese PLA General Hospital(approval No. X5-2016-07) on March 5, 2016. 展开更多
关键词 BRAIN-DERIVED neurotrophic factor signal pathway depression ISOBARIC tags for RELATIVE and absolute quantitation Kai-Xin-San neurogenesis protein network proteomics analysis synaptic plasticity traditional Chinese medicine
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基于突触可塑性的自适应脉冲神经网络在高斯白噪声刺激下的抗扰功能研究 预览
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作者 郭磊 刘东钊 +1 位作者 黄凤荣 于洪丽 《电工技术学报》 EI CSCD 北大核心 2020年第2期225-235,共11页
电磁环境的复杂多变使得传统电磁抗扰方式的不足日益凸显。生物体在神经系统调节下具有自组织、自适应和抗扰性等优势。因此,探索一种借鉴生物体优势的新的电磁抗扰方式具有重要意义,电磁仿生防护应运而生。该文基于电磁仿生防护的理念... 电磁环境的复杂多变使得传统电磁抗扰方式的不足日益凸显。生物体在神经系统调节下具有自组织、自适应和抗扰性等优势。因此,探索一种借鉴生物体优势的新的电磁抗扰方式具有重要意义,电磁仿生防护应运而生。该文基于电磁仿生防护的理念开展了基于兴奋性和抑制性突触可塑性共同调控的脉冲神经网络的抗扰功能的研究。构建了十层前馈脉冲神经网络,对高斯白噪声干扰下的脉冲神经网络进行仿真实验,重点研究了高斯白噪声对输出层神经元放电率和膜电位间相关性的影响。实验结果表明,一定强度范围的高斯白噪声干扰,对输出层神经元的放电率影响较小,输出层神经元放电率的相对变化率较小;对输出层神经元膜电位的影响较小,膜电位间的相关性较高。即在突触可塑性机制的调控下,脉冲神经网络具有一定的抗噪声干扰的能力。该研究成果为提高电子系统在复杂电磁环境下的防护能力奠定了理论基础。 展开更多
关键词 脉冲神经网络 突触可塑性 抗扰 高斯白噪声
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Locus coeruleus-norepinephrine:basic functions and insights into Parkinson's disease 预览
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作者 Bilal Abdul Bari Varun Chokshi Katharina Schmidt 《中国神经再生研究:英文版》 SCIE CAS CSCD 2020年第6期1006-1013,共8页
The locus coeruleus is a pontine nucleus that produces much of the brain's norepinephrine.Despite its small size,the locus coeruleus is critical for a myriad of functions and is involved in many neurodegenerative ... The locus coeruleus is a pontine nucleus that produces much of the brain's norepinephrine.Despite its small size,the locus coeruleus is critical for a myriad of functions and is involved in many neurodegenerative and neuropsychiatric disorders.In this review,we discuss the physiology and anatomy of the locus coeruleus system and focus on norepinephrine's role in synaptic plasticity.We highlight Parkinson's disease as a disorder with motor and neuropsychiatric symptoms that may be understood as aberrations in the normal functions of locus coeruleus. 展开更多
关键词 CATECHOLAMINES copper neurodegenerative diseases NEUROMODULATION neuronal circuits neuropsychiatric symptoms NORADRENALINE synaptic plasticity
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抑郁症大鼠海马神经元自噬与PTEN的表达 预览
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作者 赵俊华 王海涛 +3 位作者 刘浩 艾莉波 郭艳华 徐爱军 《中风与神经疾病杂志》 CAS 2020年第1期4-10,共7页
目的观察抑郁症大鼠海马神经元是否存在PTEN的异常表达,探讨其表达与自噬的相关性。方法成年健康雄性SD大鼠50只,随机分为对照组和模型组:每组25只。通过慢性不可预见温和性应激(CUMS)方法制备抑郁症大鼠模型。采取旷场、水迷宫、穿梭... 目的观察抑郁症大鼠海马神经元是否存在PTEN的异常表达,探讨其表达与自噬的相关性。方法成年健康雄性SD大鼠50只,随机分为对照组和模型组:每组25只。通过慢性不可预见温和性应激(CUMS)方法制备抑郁症大鼠模型。采取旷场、水迷宫、穿梭箱、悬尾实验及糖水偏好等行为学实验检测大鼠抑郁状态。分别于成模后0.5 d、1 d、3 d、7 d、14 d取海马组织,通过免疫组织荧光、Weston blot、实时荧光定量PCR等方法检测海马自噬相关蛋白LC3、Beclin1以及抑癌基因PTEN的表达变化。结果模型组大鼠好奇心缺失,空间学习记忆能力受损,行为绝望状态以及快感缺失(P<0.01);模型组LC3、Beclin1两种自噬相关蛋白有共定位表达,其中LC3也与PTEN蛋白呈共定位表达;抑郁症模型组大鼠海马LC3、Beclin1两种自噬相关蛋白与PTEN蛋白的表达均高于对照组(P<0.05),并呈随时间增加趋势;抑郁症模型组大鼠两种目的自噬相关基因和PTEN基因表达均高于对照组(P<0.01)。结论抑郁症大鼠海马神经元存在异常PTEN表达,其表达与自噬发生相关。 展开更多
关键词 抑郁症 自噬 PTEN 突触重塑 海马
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Glutamate receptor delocalization in postsynaptic membrane and reduced hippocampal synaptic plasticity in the early stage of Alzheimer’s disease 预览
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作者 Ning Li Yang Li +3 位作者 Li-Juan Li Ke Zhu Yan Zheng Xiao-Min Wang 《中国神经再生研究:英文版》 SCIE CAS CSCD 2019年第6期1037-1045,共9页
Mounting evidence suggests that synaptic plasticity provides the cellular biological basis of learning and memory,and plasticity deficits play a key role in dementia caused by Alzheimer’s disease.However,the mechanis... Mounting evidence suggests that synaptic plasticity provides the cellular biological basis of learning and memory,and plasticity deficits play a key role in dementia caused by Alzheimer’s disease.However,the mechanisms by which synaptic dysfunction contributes to the pathogenesis of Alzheimer’s disease remain unclear.In the present study,Alzheimer’s disease transgenic mice were used to determine the relationship between decreased hippocampal synaptic plasticity and pathological changes and cognitive-behavioral deterioration,as well as possible mechanisms underlying decreased synaptic plasticity in the early stages of Alzheimer’s disease-like diseases.APP/PS1 double transgenic(5XFAD;Jackson Laboratory)mice and their littermates(wild-type,controls)were used in this study.Additional 6-weekold and 10-week-old 5XFAD mice and wild-type mice were used for electrophysiological recording of hippocampal dentate gyrus.For 10-week-old 5XFAD mice and wild-type mice,the left hippocampus was used for electrophysiological recording,and the right hippocampus was used for biochemical experiments or immunohistochemical staining to observe synaptophysin levels and amyloid beta deposition levels.The results revealed that,compared with wild-type mice,6-week-old 5XFAD mice exhibited unaltered long-term potentiation in the hippocampal dentate gyrus.Another set of 5XFAD mice began to show attenuation at the age of 10 weeks,and a large quantity of amyloid beta protein was accumulated in hippocampal cells.The location ofα-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-propionic acid receptor and N-methyl-D-aspartic acid receptor subunits in synaptosomes was decreased.These findings indicate that the delocalization of postsynaptic glutamate receptors and an associated decline in synaptic plasticity may be key mechanisms in the early onset of Alzheimer’s disease.The use and care of animals were in strict accordance with the ethical standards of the Animal Ethics Committee of Capital Medical University,China on December 17,2015(approval No.AE 展开更多
关键词 nerve REGENERATION Alzheimer’s disease SYNAPTIC plasticity hippocampus learning and memory long-term POTENTIATION βamyloid glutamate receptor SYNAPTIC strength neural REGENERATION
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星形胶质细胞在三方突触中对突触信息的加工处理和调控作用 预览
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作者 郭航 马亚群 +4 位作者 李海红 马丽 卢彦 王筱君 马玉龙 《中华神经创伤外科电子杂志》 2019年第3期182-185,共4页
传统观念认为脑组织功能专属于神经元活动,最新研究表明除了经典的突触前、后神经元之间存在“双向”信息流之外,星形胶质细胞也参与突触的神经元间信息交换、对突触活性做出反应、调节突触传递等过程。本文将对星形角质细胞在突触生理... 传统观念认为脑组织功能专属于神经元活动,最新研究表明除了经典的突触前、后神经元之间存在“双向”信息流之外,星形胶质细胞也参与突触的神经元间信息交换、对突触活性做出反应、调节突触传递等过程。本文将对星形角质细胞在突触生理学中的作用,就其整合和加工处理突触信息并通过释放胶质递质最终调节突触传递和可塑性综述如下。 展开更多
关键词 三方突触 星形胶质细胞 突触传递 突触可塑性
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Two-dimensional materials for synaptic electronics and neuromorphic systems
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作者 Shuiyuan Wang David Wei Zhang Peng Zhou 《科学通报:英文版》 SCIE EI CSCD 2019年第15期1056-1066,共11页
Synapses in biology provide a variety of functions for the neural system. Artificial synaptic electronics that mimic the biological neuron functions are basic building blocks and developing novel artificial synapses i... Synapses in biology provide a variety of functions for the neural system. Artificial synaptic electronics that mimic the biological neuron functions are basic building blocks and developing novel artificial synapses is essential for neuromorphic computation. Inspired by the unique features of biological synapses that the basic connection components of the nervous system and the parallelism, low power consumption, fault tolerance, self-learning and robustness of biological neural systems, artificial synaptic electronics and neuromorphic systems have the potential to overcome the traditional von Neumann bottleneck and create a new paradigm for dealing with complex problems such as pattern recognition, image classification, decision making and associative learning. Nowadays, two-dimensional(2 D) materials have drawn great attention in simulating synaptic dynamic plasticity and neuromorphic computing with their unique properties. Here we describe the basic concepts of bio-synaptic plasticity and learning, the 2 D materials library and its preparation. We review recent advances in synaptic electronics and artificial neuromorphic systems based on 2 D materials and provide our perspective in utilizing 2 D materials to implement synaptic electronics and neuromorphic systems in hardware. 展开更多
关键词 Artificial SYNAPTIC ELECTRONICS Neuromorphic COMPUTATION 2D MATERIALS SYNAPTIC PLASTICITY Hebbian learning
Paired associative stimulation improves synaptic plasticity and functional outcomes after cerebral ischemia 预览
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作者 Yan Hu Tie-Cheng Guo +2 位作者 Xiang-Yu Zhang Jun Tian Yin-Shan Lu 《中国神经再生研究:英文版》 SCIE CAS CSCD 2019年第11期1968-1976,共9页
Paired associative stimulation is a relatively new non-invasive brain stimulation technique that combines transcranial magnetic stimulation and peripheral nerve stimulation. The effects of paired associative stimulati... Paired associative stimulation is a relatively new non-invasive brain stimulation technique that combines transcranial magnetic stimulation and peripheral nerve stimulation. The effects of paired associative stimulation on the excitability of the cerebral cortex can vary according to the time interval between the transcranial magnetic stimulation and peripheral nerve stimulation. We established a model of cerebral ischemia in rats via transient middle cerebral artery occlusion. We administered paired associative stimulation with a frequency of 0.05 Hz 90 times over 4 weeks. We then evaluated spatial learning and memory using the Morris water maze. Changes in the cerebral ultra-structure and synaptic plasticity were assessed via transmission electron microscopy and a 64-channel multi-electrode array. We measured mRNA and protein expression levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor and N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor 1 in the hippocampus using a real-time polymerase chain reaction and western blot assay. Paired associative stimulation treatment significantly improved learning and memory in rats subjected to cerebral ischemia. The ultra-structures of synapses in the CA1 area of the hippocampus in rats subjected to cerebral ischemia were restored by paired associative stimulation. Long-term potentiation at synapses in the CA3 and CA1 regions of the hippocampus was enhanced as well. The protein and mRNA expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor and N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor 1 increased after paired associative stimulation treatment. These data indicate that paired associative stimulation can protect cog-nition after cerebral ischemia. The observed effect may be mediated by increases in the mRNA and protein expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor and N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor 1, and by enhanced synaptic plasticity in the CA1 area of the hippocampus. The animal experiments were approved by the Animal Ethics Committee of Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science & Technology, China(appr 展开更多
关键词 cerebral ischemia paired ASSOCIATIVE stimulation cognitive function long-term POTENTIATION SYNAPTIC plasticity Morris water maze SYNAPTIC structure N-methyl-D-aspartic acid receptor BRAIN-DERIVED NEUROTROPHIC factor MULTI-ELECTRODE array neural regeneration
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基于SBT忆阻器元件的神经突触设计 预览
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作者 孙菊斋 刘文昊 +4 位作者 陆增 孙广杰 窦明龙 窦刚 李玉霞 《中国科技论文》 CAS 北大核心 2019年第3期334-339,共6页
利用SBT(Sr0.95Ba0.05TiO3)忆阻器进行神经突触设计,并分析其模拟的神经突触的性能。首先,采用分周期积累建模的方法对测得的忆阻器电压、电流数据进行建模,得到SBT忆阻器忆导值随时间的变化;其次,将忆导值作为突触权重,拟合到忆阻器普... 利用SBT(Sr0.95Ba0.05TiO3)忆阻器进行神经突触设计,并分析其模拟的神经突触的性能。首先,采用分周期积累建模的方法对测得的忆阻器电压、电流数据进行建模,得到SBT忆阻器忆导值随时间的变化;其次,将忆导值作为突触权重,拟合到忆阻器普遍适用的模型中,更好地描述SBT忆阻突触的记忆及遗忘特性;最后,通过数值仿真实验对SBT忆阻突触的脉冲突触可塑性、长/短时记忆可塑性及"学习经验式"行为进行分析。实验结果表明,SBT忆阻突触具有良好的突触可塑性,能够实现类脑学习、记忆过程。 展开更多
关键词 SBT忆阻器 突触建模 人工神经突触 突触可塑性
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An enriched environment promotes synaptic plasticity and cognitive recovery after permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion in mice 预览
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作者 Chuan-Jie Wang Yi Wu +2 位作者 Qun Zhang Ke-Wei Yu Yu-Yang Wang 《中国神经再生研究:英文版》 SCIE CAS CSCD 2019年第3期462-469,共8页
Cerebral ischemia activates an endogenous repair program that induces plastic changes in neurons.In this study,we investigated the effects of environmental enrichment on spatial learning and memory as well as on synap... Cerebral ischemia activates an endogenous repair program that induces plastic changes in neurons.In this study,we investigated the effects of environmental enrichment on spatial learning and memory as well as on synaptic remodeling in a mouse model of chronic cerebral ischemia,produced by subjecting adult male C57BL/6 mice to permanent left middle cerebral artery occlusion.Three days post- operatively,mice were randomly assigned to the environmental enrichment and standard housing groups.Mice in the standard housing group were housed and fed a standard diet.Mice in the environmental enrichment group were housed in a cage with various toys and fed a standard diet.Then,28 days postoperatively,spatial learning and memory were tested using the Morris water maze.The expression levels of growth-associated protein 43,synaptophysin and postsynaptic density protein 95 in the hippocampus were analyzed by western blot assay.The number of synapses was evaluated by electron microscopy.In the water maze test,mice in the environmental enrichment group had a shorter escape latency,traveled markedly longer distances,spent more time in the correct quadrant (northeast zone),and had a higher frequency of crossings compared with the standard housing group.The expression levels of growth-associated protein 43, synaptophysin and postsynaptic density protein 95 were substantially upregulated in the hippocampus in the environmental enrichment group compared with the standard housing group.Furthermore,electron microscopy revealed that environmental enrichment increased the number of synapses in the hippocampal CA1 region.Collectively,these findings suggest that environmental enrichment ameliorates the spatial learning and memory impairment induced by permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion.Environmental enrichment in mice with cerebral ischemia likely promotes cognitive recovery by inducing plastic changes in synapses. 展开更多
关键词 nerve REGENERATION environmental enrichment CEREBRAL ischemia COGNITIVE RECOVERY brain PLASTICITY and reorganization synaptic PLASTICITY electron microscopy growth-associated PROTEIN 43 synaptophysin postsynaptic density PROTEIN 95 permanent middle CEREBRAL artery occlusion neural REGENERATION
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类脑机的思想与体系结构综述 预览
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作者 黄铁军 余肇飞 刘怡俊 《计算机研究与发展》 EI CSCD 北大核心 2019年第6期1135-1148,共14页
经典计算机的理论边界在1936年就由图灵确定了,冯·诺依曼体系结构计算机也受限于图灵机模型.囿于神经形态器件的缺失,神经网络模型一直在经典计算机上运行.然而,冯·诺依曼体系结构与神经网络的异步并行结构及通信机制并不匹配... 经典计算机的理论边界在1936年就由图灵确定了,冯·诺依曼体系结构计算机也受限于图灵机模型.囿于神经形态器件的缺失,神经网络模型一直在经典计算机上运行.然而,冯·诺依曼体系结构与神经网络的异步并行结构及通信机制并不匹配,表现之一是功耗巨大,发展面向神经网络的体系结构,对于人工智能乃至一般意义上的信息处理都是重要方向.类脑机是仿照生物神经网络、采用神经形态器件构造的、以时空信息处理为特征的智能机器.类脑机的思想在计算机发明之前就提出了,研究开发实践也已经进行了30多年,多台类脑系统已经上线运行,其中SpiNNaker专注于类脑系统的体系结构研究,提出了一种行之有效的类脑方案.未来20年左右,预计模式动物大脑和人脑的精细解析将逐步完成,模拟生物神经元和神经突触信息处理功能的神经形态器件及集成工艺将逐步成熟,结构逼近大脑、性能远超大脑的类脑机有望实现.类脑机像生物大脑一样都是脉冲神经网络,神经形态器件具有真正的随机性,因此类脑机具备丰富的非线性动力学行为.已证明任何图灵机均可由脉冲神经网络构造出来,类脑机在理论上是否能够超越图灵机,是需要突破的一个重大问题. 展开更多
关键词 类脑机 脉冲神经网络 神经形态计算 图灵机 突触可塑性
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艾灸对快速老化小鼠海马区突触可塑性相关蛋白表达的影响 预览
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作者 林瑶 左滢竹 +1 位作者 哈略 赵百孝 《世界中医药》 CAS 2019年第5期1149-1152,共4页
目的:探究艾灸对快速老化小鼠(SAMP8)海马区突触可塑性相关蛋白表达的影响。方法:将12只6个月龄雄性SAMP8小鼠随机分为模型组和艾灸组。另以6只同月龄雄性正常老化小鼠(SAMR1)作为空白组。空白组、模型组小鼠每天常规抓取并用固定器固定... 目的:探究艾灸对快速老化小鼠(SAMP8)海马区突触可塑性相关蛋白表达的影响。方法:将12只6个月龄雄性SAMP8小鼠随机分为模型组和艾灸组。另以6只同月龄雄性正常老化小鼠(SAMR1)作为空白组。空白组、模型组小鼠每天常规抓取并用固定器固定,不予其他处理;艾灸组小鼠釆用相同抓取并固定后,用艾条灸其关元穴。各组小鼠干预时间为20 min/d,6 d/周,共干预6周。6周后取材,用Western-blot法检测各组小鼠海马突触素(SYN)、脑源性神经营养因子(BDNF)、酪氨酸激酶受体B(Trk B)及磷酸化Trk B(p-Trk B)的表达。结果:与空白组比较,模型组小鼠海马内SYN、BDNF、p-Trk B表达显著下降( P <0.05)。与模型组比较,艾灸组小鼠海马内SYN、BDNF、p-Trk B表达显著上升( P <0.05)。3组小鼠海马Trk B表达水平差异无统计学意义( P >0.05)。结论:艾灸干预能够通过影响SAMP8小鼠海马区突触可塑性相关蛋白的表达起到抗衰老的作用,且该作用可能经由BDNF/Trk B通路实现。 展开更多
关键词 阿尔茨海默病 艾灸 BDNF/Trk B通路 快速老化小鼠 脑源性神经营养因子 突触 突触可塑性 突触素
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Memory consolidation during sleep and adult hippocampal neurogenesis 预览
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作者 Iyo Koyanagi Katherine G. Akers +3 位作者 Pablo Vergara Sakthivel Srinivasan Takeshi Sakurai Masanori Sakaguchi 《中国神经再生研究:英文版》 SCIE CAS CSCD 2019年第1期20-23,共4页
关键词 神经原 成年人 睡觉 记忆 发生期 海马 祖先 ing
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Role and mechanisms underlying tau accumulation-induced neurodegeneration and synapse impairment 预览
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作者 WANG Jian-zhi 《中国药理学与毒理学杂志》 CAS 北大核心 2019年第6期401-402,共2页
As a structural protein, the physiological function of tau proteins is to promote microtu-bule assembly and maintain the stability of the microtubules, so that to build up the tracks for axonal transport of the neuron... As a structural protein, the physiological function of tau proteins is to promote microtu-bule assembly and maintain the stability of the microtubules, so that to build up the tracks for axonal transport of the neurons. Recent studies suggest that tau is also actively involved in regulation of cell viability and enzymatic reaction. In Alzheimer disease (AD) and other tauopathies, tau proteins are abnormally hyperphosphorylated or cleaved, or the gene mutated, which result in intracellular tau accumulation and formation of neurofibrillary tangles in the degenerated neurons. In addition to hyperphosphorylation, many other types of tau posttranslational modifications have been identified in the brains of AD patients and/or the transgenic mouse models. To date, it is not clear how the abnormality of tau causes neurodegeneration and memory deficits. By overexpressing human full-length wildtype tau to mimic tau abnormality as seen in the brain of sporadic AD patients, we found that tau accumulation activated JAK2 to phosphorylate STAT1 at Tyr701 leading to STAT1 dimerization, nuclear translocation and its activation. STAT1 activation suppressed expression of NMDAR through direct binding to the specific GAS element of Glu N1, Glu N2A and Glu N2B promoters, while knockdown STAT1 by AAV-Cre in STAT1 flox/flox mice or expressing dominant negative Y701F-STAT1 efficiently rescued tau-induced suppression of NMDAR expression with amelioration of synaptic functions and memory performance.These findings indicate that tau accumulation impairs synaptic plasticity through JAK2/STAT1-induced suppression of NMDAR expression, which reveals a novel mechanism for tau-associated synapse and memory deficits in AD and other tauopathies. 展开更多
关键词 TAU ACCUMULATION SYNAPTIC plasticity NMDA receptors
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经颅磁刺激与神经调控
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作者 徐桂芝 付蕊 +2 位作者 朱海军 赵东帅 丁冲 《生命的化学》 CSCD 2019年第5期917-923,共7页
近年来,人们已经认识到脑科学研究的重要性,而无创式脑神经刺激和调节技术已是脑科学领域一个常用的技术手段和工具,经颅磁刺激(transcranial magnetic stimulation,TMS)作为无创脑刺激最常用的技术,更是在治疗神经性疾病和脑科学研究... 近年来,人们已经认识到脑科学研究的重要性,而无创式脑神经刺激和调节技术已是脑科学领域一个常用的技术手段和工具,经颅磁刺激(transcranial magnetic stimulation,TMS)作为无创脑刺激最常用的技术,更是在治疗神经性疾病和脑科学研究中展示出了非常有潜力的应用价值。本文简单介绍了经颅磁刺激以及利用此项技术进行的临床和生理研究。 展开更多
关键词 经颅磁刺激 神经调控 神经退行性疾病 突触可塑性 脑源性神经营养因子
Effects of Ginkgo biloba extract EGb761 on neural differentiation of stem cells offer new hope for neurological disease treatment 预览
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作者 Chao Ren Yong-Qiang Ji +5 位作者 Hong Liu Zhe Wang Jia-Hui Wang Cai-Yi Zhang Li-Na Guan Pei-Yuan Yin 《中国神经再生研究:英文版》 SCIE CAS CSCD 2019年第7期1152-1157,共6页
Stem cell transplantation has brought new hope for the treatment of neurological diseases.The key to stem cell therapy lies in inducing the specific differentiation of stem cells into nerve cells.Because the different... Stem cell transplantation has brought new hope for the treatment of neurological diseases.The key to stem cell therapy lies in inducing the specific differentiation of stem cells into nerve cells.Because the differentiation of stem cells in vitro and in vivo is affected by multiple factors,the final differentiation outcome is strongly associated with the microenvironment in which the stem cells are located.Accordingly,the optimal microenvironment for inducing stem cell differentiation is a hot topic.EGb761 is extracted from the leaves of the Ginkgo biloba tree.It is used worldwide and is becoming one of the focuses of stem cell research.Studies have shown that EGb761 can antagonize oxygen free radicals,stabilize cell membranes,promote neurogenesis and synaptogenesis,increase the level of brain-derived neurotrophic factors,and replicate the environment required during the differentiation of stem cells into nerve cells.This offers the possibility of using EGb761 to induce the differentiation of stem cells,facilitating stem cell transplantation.To provide a comprehensive reference for the future application of EGb761 in stem cell therapy,we reviewed studies investigating the influence of EGb761 on stem cells.These started with the composition and neuropharmacology of EGb761,and eventually led to the finding that EGb761 and some of its important components play important roles in the differentiation of stem cells and the protection of a beneficial microenvironment for stem cell transplantation. 展开更多
关键词 nerve REGENERATION GINKGO biloba extract GINKGOLIDE B traditional Chinese medicine STEM cells induction of differentiation STEM cell transplantation synaptic plasticity pharmacological effect NEUROLOGICAL diseases nervous systems neural REGENERATION
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Remodeling dendritic spines for treatment of traumatic brain injury 预览
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作者 Ye Xiong Asim Mahmood Michael Chopp 《中国神经再生研究:英文版》 SCIE CAS CSCD 2019年第9期1477-1480,共4页
Traumatic brain injury is an important global public health problem.Traumatic brain injury not only causes neural cell death,but also induces dendritic spine degeneration.Spared neurons from cell death in the injured ... Traumatic brain injury is an important global public health problem.Traumatic brain injury not only causes neural cell death,but also induces dendritic spine degeneration.Spared neurons from cell death in the injured brain may exhibit dendrite damage,dendritic spine degeneration,mature spine loss,synapse loss,and impairment of activity.Dendritic degeneration and synapse loss may significantly contribute to functional impairments and neurological disorders following traumatic brain injury.Normal function of the nervous system depends on maintenance of the functionally intact synaptic connections between the presynaptic and postsynaptic spines from neurons and their target cells.During synaptic plasticity,the numbers and shapes of dendritic spines undergo dynamic reorganization.Enlargement of spine heads and the formation and stabilization of new spines are associated with long-term potentiation,while spine shrinkage and retraction are associated with long-term depression.Consolidation of memory is associated with remodeling and growth of preexisting synapses and the formation of new synapses.To date,there is no effective treatment to prevent dendritic degeneration and synapse loss.This review outlines the current data related to treatments targeting dendritic spines that propose to enhance spine remodeling and improve functional recovery after traumatic brain injury.The mechanisms underlying proposed beneficial effects of therapy targeting dendritic spines remain elusive,possibly including blocking activation of Cofilin induced by beta amyloid,Ras activation,and inhibition of GSK-3 signaling pathway.Further understanding of the molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying synaptic degeneration/loss following traumatic brain injury will advance the understanding of the pathophysiology induced by traumatic brain injury and may lead to the development of novel treatments for traumatic brain injury. 展开更多
关键词 TRAUMATIC brain injury dendritic SPINES SYNAPTIC plasticity spinogenic agents TREATMENT spine REMODELING memory functional recovery
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Electronic synapses based on ultrathin quasi-two-dimensional gallium oxide memristor
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作者 王硕培 何聪丽 +3 位作者 汤建 杨蓉 时东霞 张广宇 《中国物理B:英文版》 SCIE EI CAS CSCD 2019年第1期183-188,共6页
Synapse emulation is very important for realizing neuromorphic computing, which could overcome the energy and throughput limitations of today’s computing architectures. Memristors have been extensively studied for us... Synapse emulation is very important for realizing neuromorphic computing, which could overcome the energy and throughput limitations of today’s computing architectures. Memristors have been extensively studied for using in nonvolatile memory storage and neuromorphic computing. In this paper, we report the fabrication of vertical sandwiched memristor device using ultrathin quasi-two-dimensional gallium oxide produced by squeegee method. The as-fabricated two-terminal memristor device exhibited the essential functions of biological synapses, such as depression and potentiation of synaptic weight, transition from short time memory to long time memory, spike-timing-dependent plasticity, and spike-rate-dependent plasticity. The synaptic weight of the memristor could be tuned by the applied voltage pulse, number,width, and frequency. We believe that the injection of the top Ag cations should play a significant role for the memristor phenomenon. The ultrathin of medium layer represents an advance to integration in vertical direction for future applications and our results provide an alternative way to fabricate synaptic devices. 展开更多
关键词 GALLIUM oxide MEMRISTOR artificial SYNAPSE SYNAPTIC PLASTICITY
人脐静脉内皮细胞来源外泌体有助于促进缺血性脑卒中小鼠的康复 预览
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作者 张晓星 胡慧 李跃华 《中国临床医学》 2019年第3期425-431,共7页
目的:探讨人脐静脉内皮细胞(HUVECs)来源的外泌体对缺血性脑卒中小鼠的治疗效果。方法:提取并鉴定HUVECs细胞来源的外泌体(HUVECs-exo),尾静脉注射30μg(溶于100μLPBS中)外泌体至短暂性大脑中动脉缺血性模型小鼠体内,对照组注射同等体... 目的:探讨人脐静脉内皮细胞(HUVECs)来源的外泌体对缺血性脑卒中小鼠的治疗效果。方法:提取并鉴定HUVECs细胞来源的外泌体(HUVECs-exo),尾静脉注射30μg(溶于100μLPBS中)外泌体至短暂性大脑中动脉缺血性模型小鼠体内,对照组注射同等体积的PBS。术后第1、3、7、14、21、28天对小鼠进行mNSS评分,磁共振成像检测小鼠的梗死范围,在第28天将小鼠断头取脑,CD31/BrdU、DCX/BrdU、NeuN/BrdU免疫荧光双染评价小鼠梗死边缘区血管及神经元的新生,Western印迹法检测小鼠梗死边缘区突触前膜蛋白Synaptophysin及突触后膜蛋白PSD-95的表达情况,进而检测突触重塑。结果:HUVECs-exo组小鼠梗死范围显著小于PBS对照组(P<0.05),梗死边缘区新生血管、神经前体细胞及成熟神经元显著高于PBS对照组(P<0.05),HUVECs-exo组突触前膜蛋白Synaptophysin及后膜蛋白PSD-95表达含量显著高于PBS对照组(P<0.05)。HUVECs-exo组及PBS对照组在造模后第1、3、7天,神经功能评分无明显差异,在第14、21、28天HUVECs-exo组神经功能评分显著低于PBS对照组(P<0.05)。结论:HUVECs-exo尾静脉注射能够减小缺血性脑卒中后的梗死范围,促进梗死边缘区血管及神经元新生,促进突触重塑,改善卒中后的神经功能预后。 展开更多
关键词 缺血性脑卒中 外泌体 神经新生 血管新生 突触重塑
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Menin:一个新的神经系统疾病防治靶点
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作者 朱慰文 杨三桥 唐小卿 《中南药学》 CAS 2019年第6期889-894,共6页
Menin蛋白是MEN1基因编码的产物,可通过调控突触可塑性和神经炎症发挥神经保护作用。神经炎症的发生和突触可塑性障碍被证明参与大多数神经系统疾病的发病过程,因此开发抑制神经炎症和改善突触可塑性的药物对治疗神经系统疾病具有重要... Menin蛋白是MEN1基因编码的产物,可通过调控突触可塑性和神经炎症发挥神经保护作用。神经炎症的发生和突触可塑性障碍被证明参与大多数神经系统疾病的发病过程,因此开发抑制神经炎症和改善突触可塑性的药物对治疗神经系统疾病具有重要意义。所以本文将综述Menin在神经系统疾病相关症状中的调节作用及潜在机制,并展望Menin对阿尔兹海默症和帕金森病等神经退行性疾病的潜在防治作用。 展开更多
关键词 MENIN蛋白 神经系统疾病 神经炎症 突触可塑性
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