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养育环境与儿童早期发展的相关性 认领
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作者 高越 张云婷 +6 位作者 赵瑾 单文婕 王雪莱 张子琛 朱绮 董媛媛 江帆 《中华儿科杂志》 CAS CSCD 北大核心 2021年第3期175-180,共6页
目的:探讨儿童养育环境的影响因素及其与儿童早期发展的相关性。方法:采用分层整群随机抽样方法,于2017年在上海16个区抽取187所幼儿园共22509名新入园儿童,对其家长进行问卷调查。采用育儿环境指数(ICCE)评估儿童家庭养育环境,采用人... 目的:探讨儿童养育环境的影响因素及其与儿童早期发展的相关性。方法:采用分层整群随机抽样方法,于2017年在上海16个区抽取187所幼儿园共22509名新入园儿童,对其家长进行问卷调查。采用育儿环境指数(ICCE)评估儿童家庭养育环境,采用人类早期能力指数了解儿童早期发展情况。根据ICCE分数在人群中的分布将被调查儿童分为4组,家庭养育环境最差组(≤10分)、中下组(11分)、中上组(12分)、最好组(13分)。分别使用线性回归模型和Logistic回归模型分析影响养育环境的相关因素以及养育环境对儿童早期发展的影响。结果:共22067名儿童完成本次调查,年龄(44±7)月龄,男11425名(51.8%),女10642名(48.2%)。多元线性回归分析结果显示,女孩、母亲教育程度高、家庭年收入高、独生子女、父母非离异及早期母乳喂养经历是新入园学龄前儿童家庭养育环境的保护因素[β=0.064、0.238、0.119、0.096、0.113、0.032,95%可信区间(CI):0.020~0.108、0.175~0.302、0.058~0.180、0.046~0.146、-0.012~0.242、-0.051~0.116,均P<0.01]。多因素Logistic回归分析显示,相较于养育环境最好组,养育环境中上组、中下组和最差组早期发展高危风险均更高,OR值分别为1.543(95%CI:1.373~1.735,P<0.01),2.537(95%CI:2.254~2.856,P<0.01)和4.198(95%CI:3.757~4.690,P<0.01)。结论:养育环境不仅与家庭结构及社会经济因素有关,且与早期母乳喂养经历显著相关。而良好的家庭养育环境对儿童早期发展促进具有重要的意义。 展开更多
关键词 儿童 儿童抚育 儿童发育
深圳市龙华区托幼及小学儿童水痘发病与疫苗接种现况 认领
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作者 吕鸿鑫 古子豪 +1 位作者 刘晓忠 陈宏标 《中国学校卫生》 CAS 北大核心 2021年第1期112-115,共4页
目的了解水痘疫苗预防接种政策实施后,深圳市龙华区水痘高发人群的疫苗接种及水痘流行现状,为指导当地制定水痘免疫规划措施提供参考。方法采用随机分层整群抽样方法,选择深圳市龙华区6个街道30所托幼机构及小学23 706名儿童进行电子问... 目的了解水痘疫苗预防接种政策实施后,深圳市龙华区水痘高发人群的疫苗接种及水痘流行现状,为指导当地制定水痘免疫规划措施提供参考。方法采用随机分层整群抽样方法,选择深圳市龙华区6个街道30所托幼机构及小学23 706名儿童进行电子问卷调查,对获得的年龄、年级、最近疫苗接种年份、接种剂次、发病情况、发病时疫苗接种情况等基础数据进行分析。结果龙华区托幼及小学儿童水痘疫苗总接种率为86.01%,其中1剂次接种率为55.61%,2剂次为30.41%。托幼机构及小学的接种率差异有统计学意义(χ2=154.95,P<0.05)。各街道未接种率、1剂次接种率、2剂次接种率、总接种率差异均有统计学意义(χ2值分别为146.09,103.93,127.31,146.09,P值均<0.05)。年级别罹患率与年级的高低呈正比(χ2趋势=8.65,P<0.01),托幼机构与小学的罹患率差异有统计学意义(χ2=478.69,P<0.05)。各街道未接种罹患率、1剂次罹患率、总罹患率差异均有统计学意义(χ2值分别为54.49,74.59,151.49,P值均<0.05)。随间隔年份增加小学儿童罹患率具有线性趋势(χ2趋势=24.28,P<0.05),1剂次水痘疫苗接种后间隔时间越长罹患率越高,2剂次疫苗可保证较长时间的保护效果。疫苗的保护率与年级的高低呈反比,各年级不同剂次疫苗保护率及效果指数之间的相关性有统计学意义(r值分别为0.80,0.63,P值均<0.05)。接种1剂次疫苗及2剂次疫苗效果最好的分别为小班、大班。结论龙华区政策实施后2剂次疫苗接种率明显提升,但未起到持久效果。建议将水痘疫苗纳入免疫规划,以达到保障易感人群目的。 展开更多
关键词 水痘 发病率 水痘疫苗 接种 儿童 日托幼儿园
Maternal and Fetal Prognosis of Evacuated Parturients in N’Djamena Mother and Child Hospital (Chad) 认领
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作者 Lhagadang Foumsou Bray Madoué Gabkika +2 位作者 Foba Kheba Sadjoli Damthéou Salathiel Djongali 《妇产科期刊(英文)》 2021年第3期263-271,共9页
<strong>Introduction</strong><span style="font-family:Verdana;"><span style="font-family:Verdana;"><span style="font-family:Verdana;"><strong>:</str... <strong>Introduction</strong><span style="font-family:Verdana;"><span style="font-family:Verdana;"><span style="font-family:Verdana;"><strong>:</strong> All pregnant women are at risk of obstetric complications </span></span></span><span style="font-family:Verdana;"><span style="font-family:Verdana;"><span style="font-family:Verdana;">leading to high fetal-maternal mortality and morbidity. The aim of this work was to evaluate the maternal and fetal prognosis of evacuated parturients.</span></span></span><span><span><span style="font-family:""> </span></span></span><span style="font-family:Verdana;"><span style="font-family:Verdana;"><b><span style="font-family:Verdana;">Patient and Method</span></b></span></span><span><span><span style="font-family:""><span style="font-family:Verdana;">: we conducted a prospective analytical survey for four months, from April 1</span><sup><span style="font-family:Verdana;">st</span></sup><span style="font-family:Verdana;"> to July 31</span><sup><span style="font-family:Verdana;">st</span></sup><span style="font-family:Verdana;">, 2018 in the Maternity of N’Djamena Mother and Child Hospital about the maternal and fetal prognosis of evacuated parturients. Any parturient evacuated or referred for obstetric complications was included. Study parameters were epidemiological, clinical, para-clinical, therapeutic and prognosis order. These parameters were analyzed in the SPSS 18 French version software.</span></span></span></span><span><span><span style="font-family:""> </span></span></span><span style="font-family:Verdana;"><span style="font-family:Verdana;"><b><span style="font-family:Verdana;">Results</span></b></span></span><span><span><span style="font-family:""><span style="font-family:Verdana;">: Evacuated parturients represented 20% of maternity admissions. The average age was 23.9 years, with extremes ranging from 15 and 43 years. They were uneducated in 72.9%, primiparous in 46.8% of cases. The three delays were dominated by the 1</span><sup><span style="font-family:Verdana;" 展开更多
关键词 Maternal and Fetal Prognosis Evacuated Parturients Obstetric Complications Mother and Child Hospital N’Djamena CHAD
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汉语发展性阅读障碍儿童正字法加工研究进展 认领
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作者 刘芳芳 左彭湘 +2 位作者 唐淑婷 高小焱 何红瑶 《中国学校卫生》 CAS 北大核心 2021年第3期465-470,共6页
发展性阅读障碍可能的机制主要包括语言框架假设和非语言框架假设。语言框架假设发展性阅读障碍者可能在语音意识、快速命名、语音记忆和正字法加工中表现出缺陷。汉语发展性阅读障碍的研究发现正字法缺陷可能是产生阅读障碍的重要原因... 发展性阅读障碍可能的机制主要包括语言框架假设和非语言框架假设。语言框架假设发展性阅读障碍者可能在语音意识、快速命名、语音记忆和正字法加工中表现出缺陷。汉语发展性阅读障碍的研究发现正字法缺陷可能是产生阅读障碍的重要原因,但关于正字法加工的研究观点并不统一。本文对正字法研究的行为学和神经影像学等方面的研究进展进行梳理,为进一步开展发展性阅读障碍正字法研究加工机制中的加工测试材料、研究方法等方面提供参考。 展开更多
关键词 阅读障碍 儿童 儿童语言 方法 自然语言处理
The WHO African Region: Research Priorities on Sexual and Reproductive Health and Rights 认领
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作者 Leopold Ouedraogo Triphonie Nkurunziza +15 位作者 Assumpta Muriithi Theopista Kabuteni John Chilanga Asmani Hayfa Elamin Symplice Mbola Mbassi Souleymane Zan Bigirimana Françoise Mihretu Belete Gbenou Dina Dadji Kwami Kim Caron Rahn Ali Moazzam Tolu Lemi Blami Dao Issiaka Sombie Okech Mollent 《生殖科学(英文)》 2021年第1期13-23,共11页
<strong>Background:</strong> Many policy makers deliberating on comprehensive sexual and reproductive health and rights services need reliable evidence to make choices that benefit women, adolescents, chil... <strong>Background:</strong> Many policy makers deliberating on comprehensive sexual and reproductive health and rights services need reliable evidence to make choices that benefit women, adolescents, children and the wider society. While universal health coverage discourse provides an opportunity to expand access through evidence based interventions, many gaps exist. Research prioritization has proved to be very helpful in identifying relevant areas especially in constrained resource settings. The purpose of this paper is to present the results of the World Health Organization Africa Region research prioritization for sexual and reproductive health and rights. These priorities hope to guide the region for the next three years. <strong>Methods: </strong>We used the Child Health and Nutrition Research Initiative approach to identify priority questions among many potential areas for research prioritization on sexual and reproductive health and rights. The implementation process was organized in three phases. The first phase involved sending out an online survey to various experts with experience in sexual and reproductive health rights. These questions were received by a technical team from World Health Organization headquarters for review. 634 questions were identified for potential research and grouped into 12 themes. The second phase involved experts who reviewed the questions. The team merged questions with duplications, removed the questions that were out of scope and finally refined the wordings. In the final phase, experts worked in groups to score and rank top ten priority questions for each of the 12 thematic areas. <strong>Results: </strong>A list of 120 priority questions for sexual and reproductive health and rights were prioritized by 67 participants drawn from 16 organizations. Most of the priority research questions (45%) focused on the theme of gender-based violence, 35% prioritized services in sexual and reproductive health and rights in humanitarian settings while 15% prioritized preventing unsafe 展开更多
关键词 Research Priorities Sexual and Reproductive Health and Rights Child Health and Nutrition Research Initiative
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儿童医疗辅导游戏在急性白血病患儿护理中的应用进展 认领
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作者 张冠珣 阐玉英 +1 位作者 李蓉蓉 杨琦 《中国实用护理杂志》 2021年第9期717-720,F0003,共5页
本文就近年来儿童医疗辅导游戏在急性白血病患儿护理中的应用进行综述,包括儿童医疗辅导游戏的相关概述、应用效果和应用过程中存在的不足及展望,为今后在急性白血病患儿中更加深入实施这一干预提供思路。
关键词 儿童 医疗辅导 游戏 急性白血病 综述
The Dark Side of Samsung’s Value Chain: The Human Costs of Cobalt Mining “BLOOD, SWEAT AND COBALT” 认领
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作者 Daniel Krummel Patrick Siegfried 《地球科学和环境保护期刊(英文)》 2021年第2期182-203,共22页
Samsung has been implicitly linked to human rights abuses and wider social downgrading propagated within the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). Reports by different studies have shown artisanal cobalt mines (ASM) to ... Samsung has been implicitly linked to human rights abuses and wider social downgrading propagated within the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). Reports by different studies have shown artisanal cobalt mines (ASM) to exploit child labour and subject workers to perilous conditions. The IT multinational is dependent upon Congolese cobalt as a key element in lithiumion batteries used to produce their array of electronics. However, irresponsible cobalt sourcing practices undertaken by Tier 1 suppliers, Glencore and Huayou, have resulted in ASM operations being incorporated into Samsung’s global value chain, as Tier 2 suppliers. Analysis of the relationships underpinning Samsung’s cobalt value chain theoretical framework, highlights the presence of a relational governance structure, with captive elements among upstream Tier 1 and Tier 2 suppliers. Samsung is thereby reliant upon both Glencore and Huayou to transmit and enforce private codes of conduct down the value chain to expel human rights abuses. In conjunction, the DRC’s weak and unstable institutional environment has facilitated corruption and the improper enforcement of laws across the ASM industry. It is thereby imperative that Samsung takes ownership of the issues present within its value chain, as both Tier 1 suppliers and the Congolese government have failed to ensure responsible cobalt sourcing practices to date. This report recommends that Samsung adopt a holistic action plan, not only utilising their own resources and capabilities, but also those of critical stakeholders including Tier 1 suppliers, NGOs and the DRC and South Korean governments. Most prominently, this report suggests that supply chain transparency can be improved using certificates of origin and blockchain technology. Furthermore, it is recommended that poverty alleviation is targeted as a key measure through “Cobalt for Development”, an action plan designed to instigate both social and economic upgrading within ASM operations and the wider community. By employing a multi-scala 展开更多
关键词 Value Chain ETHICS Child Labour
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Right Ulnar Reconstruction after Sequestrectomy by Non-Vascularized Fibular Transfer in a Girl of Three Years 认领
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作者 Missoki Azanlédji Boume Kwami Edem Edoh Bikor +4 位作者 Yawa Sesime Sanni Nguefack Blanchard Noumedem Cynthia Evlo Vanessa Akakpo Gamédzi Komlatsè Akakpo-Numado 《矫形学期刊(英文)》 2021年第3期73-84,共12页
<p style="text-align:justify;"> <span style="font-family:Verdana;">Chronic osteomyelitis is serious because of the orthopedic sequels that they could cause. Extended diaphyseal sequestr... <p style="text-align:justify;"> <span style="font-family:Verdana;">Chronic osteomyelitis is serious because of the orthopedic sequels that they could cause. Extended diaphyseal sequestrations could cause bone loss and their management is delicate. Here we report a case of right ulnar diaphyseal reconstruction by non-vascularized fibula transfer. This was a three-year-old girl, non-sickle cell, who had chronic osteomyelitis of the right ulna. The evolution was towards an almost total ulnar diaphyseal sequestration with externalization of the distal extremity. The removal of this large sequestrum occurred almost spontaneously, leaving a significant bone loss over a length of about 6 cm. Secondarily, we reconstructed the right ulnar diaphysis by transfer of a free non-vascularized graft of the left fibula, maintained by a pin. </span><span style="font-family:Verdana;">The follow up was favorable with almost complete recovery of pro</span><span style="font-family:Verdana;">no-supination. Fibular ossification has evolved as well and we did not notice any complications at the graft collection site. Non-vascularized fibula graft transfer is a useful therapeutic option in the management of significant bone defect</span><span style="font-family:Verdana;">s</span><span style="font-family:Verdana;"> secondary to chronic osteomyelitis of one of the two forearm bones.</span> </p> 展开更多
关键词 Free Fibula Transfer Chronic Osteomyelitis ULNA Child Togo
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Acute Intestinal Invagination of the Child at the Teaching Hospital of Bouaké: Ultrasound Diagnosis and Clinical-Echo-Surgical Correlation 认领
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作者 Bouassa Davy Melaine Kouakou Konaté +15 位作者 Issa Kouamé Paul Bonfils Kouassi Adoubs Cé lestin Bé nié Tsri Akoli Baudouin Bravo Kesse Emile Tanoh Allou Florent Kouadio Brou Lambert Yao Achie Jean-Ré gis Akobe Sara Carole Sanogo Malick Soro Kouadio N’Dri 《医学影像期刊(英文)》 2021年第1期18-28,共11页
<strong>Background: </strong>Acute intestinal invagination or intussusception is the most common abdominal surgical emergency in infants, but it can occur at any age. Performing an ultrasound scan at the s... <strong>Background: </strong>Acute intestinal invagination or intussusception is the most common abdominal surgical emergency in infants, but it can occur at any age. Performing an ultrasound scan at the slightest clinical suspicion contributes to early diagnosis and therapeutic management. <strong>Objective:</strong> To show the relevance of ultrasound in the therapeutic management of the child’s intussusception through a correlation between the ultrasound diagnosis and the clinical and/or per operative diagnosis. <strong>Patients and Methods:</strong> It was a retrospective study of 24 cases from July 2017 to September 2020 (30 months) in the Medical Imaging and Paediatric Surgery departments of Teaching Hospital of Bouaké. We included only patients from 0 to 15 years old who had digestive symptoms, an abdominal ultrasound scan. These patients were eligible for surgery. Data analysis was performed with Epi info 7 software. <strong>Results:</strong> Median age was 17.2 months [02 - 120]. Male gender predominated (83.3%). Clinico-biological data were dominated by abdominal pain (79.2%), vomiting (75%) and rectorragies (33.3%), with Ombredanne’s triad in 33.3% and hyperleukocytosis (70.8%). Ultrasonography showed invaginated coves (95.8%) sitting in the right angl iliac fossa, peri-umbilical and right flank in 73.9%. Cockade image coupled with the sandwich image accounted for 95.6%. Superficial adenopathies (45.8%) and peri-lesional fluid effusion (20.8%) were associated with it. An occlusive syndrome complicating intussusception was observed in 41.67% associated with intra-peritoneal effusion of fluid (25%). There was a significant diagnostic agreement between the clinic, ultrasound and surgery according to the Fisher’s exact test (p = 0.002). That between ultrasound and surgery was calculated at 95.4%. <strong>Conclusion:</strong> This study allowed us to show a good clinical-echo-surgical concordance. Ultrasound is therefore an undeniable diagnostic, prognostic and therapeutic tool in the exploration of 展开更多
关键词 ULTRASOUND Acute Intestinal Invagination CHILD
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Bacteriological Profile of Acute Respiratory Infections in Children: About a Prospective Study at the Albert Royer Hospital in Dakar 认领
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作者 Guillaye Diagne A. Kane +6 位作者 A. Mbaye A. M. Coundoul S. Sow K. Bop A. Sow I. D. Ba O. Ndiaye 《儿科学期刊(英文)》 2021年第1期71-77,共7页
<strong>Introduction: </strong><span style="font-family:;" "=""><span style="font-family:Verdana;">Acute Respiratory Infections (ARI) is a global public healt... <strong>Introduction: </strong><span style="font-family:;" "=""><span style="font-family:Verdana;">Acute Respiratory Infections (ARI) is a global public health priority. It is the leading cause of childhood morbidity and mortality, especially in developing countries. The main objective of this work was to look mainly at the bacteriological aspects of ARI in children in Senegalese hospitals. </span><b><span style="font-family:Verdana;">Methodology: </span></b><span style="font-family:Verdana;">We have been conducted a prospective descriptive mono-centric study over a period of one year (from July 1, 2017 to June 30, 2018) at the Albert Royer National child hospital in Dakar. A multiplex PCR (protein chain reaction) has been performed on nasopharyngeal swabs taken from all patients. This technique (viral RNA transcribed into DNA, then the DNA of the different pathogens is simultaneously amplified in the same tube by PCR Fast-tract<span style="white-space:nowrap;"><sup>&reg</sup></span>, multiplex). </span><b><span style="font-family:Verdana;">Results: </span></b><span style="font-family:Verdana;">During the study period, 109 patients were included. The hospital prevalence of acute respiratory infections was 3.7%. </span><span style="font-family:Verdana;">The mean age was 23.7 months with extremes between 1 month and 144</span><span style="font-family:Verdana;"> months. Peaks of consultations were found in the months of August, March and April with 22%, 15.6% and 12.8% respectively. Fever, respiratory distress and pulmonary condensation syndrome were the main signs found in our patients. Bacteriology was positive in 82.6% of samples and the most frequently found bacteria were </span><i><span style="font-family:Verdana;">Streptococcus pneumoniae</span></i><span style="font-family:Verdana;"> in 38.5%, </span><i><span style="font-family:Verdana;">Haemophilus influenza</span></i><span style="font-family:Verdana;"> b in 32.1% and </span><i><span style="font-family:Verdana;">Moraxella catarrhalis</span></i><span style="fo 展开更多
关键词 Acute Respiratory Infection CHILD BACTERIA DAKAR
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北京市儿童保健人员对儿童青少年血脂异常发生率的认知情况及检查意愿的调查研究 认领
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作者 闫辉 赵杰 +3 位作者 刘影 李雪迎 张欣 齐建光 《中国全科医学》 CAS 北大核心 2021年第17期2202-2206,共5页
背景血脂异常是导致动脉粥样硬化性疾病的重要原因,我国儿童青少年血脂异常发生率具有逐年上升的趋势,儿童保健人员及家长的正确认知不仅是血脂异常状态早期发现和正确诊疗的基础,而且是形成正确膳食习惯和生活方式的关键,对于实现该类... 背景血脂异常是导致动脉粥样硬化性疾病的重要原因,我国儿童青少年血脂异常发生率具有逐年上升的趋势,儿童保健人员及家长的正确认知不仅是血脂异常状态早期发现和正确诊疗的基础,而且是形成正确膳食习惯和生活方式的关键,对于实现该类疾病的早期识别与防控具有重要意义。目的了解北京市作为家长的儿童保健人员对儿童青少年血脂异常发生率的认知情况及检查意愿,以实现对血脂异常的早期发现和防控。方法选取2019年4-12月参加北京市婴幼儿科学养育项目的儿童保健人员,纳入家庭中有20岁以下子女的人员作为调查对象。对儿童青少年血脂异常发生率认知情况及检查意愿进行调查,具体内容包括:子女性别、年龄,调查对象对儿童青少年血脂异常发生率的认知情况、城乡地域、调查对象及配偶受教育程度、工作地点及职业、一级及二级亲属是否有早发心脑血管疾病家族史、对自己子女血脂水平了解情况及是否愿意给子女做血脂检查。将选择儿童青少年血脂异常发生率<5%者及选择儿童青少年血脂不稳定者作为认知不正确组,选择5%及以上者作为认知正确组。采用多因素Logistic回归分析探讨儿童青少年血脂异常认知的影响因素。结果选择儿童青少年血脂异常发生率<5%者109例(20.4%),在5%及以上者247例(46.2%),选择儿童青少年血脂不稳定者179例(33.5%)。认知不正确组288例,认知正确组247例。两组工作地点、受教育程度比较,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。多因素Logistic回归分析结果显示,儿童保健人员的受教育程度是儿童青少年血脂异常认知的影响因素(P=0.042)。了解子女血脂水平的家长共45例,占8.2%;认为血脂检查重要者占90.4%;愿意给子女做血脂检查者523例(95.4%)。结论超过一半的儿童保健人员对我国儿童青少年血脂异常发生率认识不足,其受教育程度是� 展开更多
关键词 血脂异常 儿童 青少年 儿童保健服务 筛查
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Improvements to Female Autonomy and Household Decision-Making Power from an Intervention Targeting Improved Food Security: A Gender-Based Analysis of the Rajasthan Nutrition Project 认领
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作者 Lindsay M. Belvedere Siena F. Davis +1 位作者 Bobbi L. Gray Benjamin T. Crookston 《健康(英文)》 2021年第2期188-203,共16页
In India, women and children continue to experience food insecurity. The purpose of this study is to evaluate whether the Rajasthan Nutrition Project (RNP) led to changes in 1) dietary habits and nutrition, and 2) ind... In India, women and children continue to experience food insecurity. The purpose of this study is to evaluate whether the Rajasthan Nutrition Project (RNP) led to changes in 1) dietary habits and nutrition, and 2) indicators of gender equality, female autonomy, and empowerment. This study surveyed women belonging to self-help groups who were pregnant or who had young children. Over the course of the intervention, significant improvements were seen in the following indicators: breastfeeding within one hour of birth, exclusively breastfeeding for the first six months, food insecurity of children and mothers, household decision-making, communication, mobility, and domestic violence. These findings suggest that the RNP is a promising intervention for improving nutrition and female autonomy in Rajasthan, India. Additional research is needed to determine if the RNP would be equally as effective in other regions of India, or in populations outside of India. 展开更多
关键词 India RAJASTHAN Female Autonomy Food Security Maternal and Child Health
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Evaluating the Knowledge of HIV Transmission and Prevention of Mother to Child Transmission (PMTCT) of HIV among HIV-Positive Mothers Accessing Care in Military Hospital in Lagos, Nigeria 认领
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作者 Nkechinyere Elizabeth Harrison Kenneth Ejiofor Oruka +2 位作者 Uzoamaka Concilia Agbaim Olutunde Ademola Adegbite Nathan Anelechi Elvis Okeji 《艾滋病(英文)》 2021年第1期25-40,共16页
<strong>Introduction:</strong> The prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) plays a major role in limiting the number of children being infected by HIV. There is dearth of studies that explored t... <strong>Introduction:</strong> The prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) plays a major role in limiting the number of children being infected by HIV. There is dearth of studies that explored the knowledge of HIV transmission and PMTCT among women living with HIV. <strong>Methods:</strong> This was a cross-sectional, descriptive study of HIV-positive mothers receiving medical care at the adult antiretroviral therapy (ART) clinic, 68 Nigeria Army Reference Hospital Yaba. A pre-tested structured questionnaire was used to collect information from the subjects concerning their socio-demographic, knowledge of HIV transmission and mother-to-child transmission of HIV and preventive measures. SPSS v23 was used for data analysis. <strong>Results</strong><strong>:</strong> Out of the 374 participants, 282 (75.4%) were aware that HIV can be transmitted to an unborn baby from the positive mother. Of these, 240 (85.1%) were well-informed that increase mother’s viral load can increase the chances of mother-to-child transmission. 268 (95%) understood that giving of antiretroviral drugs during and after pregnancy can lower transmission risk, while 254 (90.1%) saw the use of breast milk substitutes as another prevention strategy. There was statistically significant association between the respondents’ knowledge of PMTCT and their husbands’/partners’ awareness of their HIV status. <strong>Conclusion:</strong> In conclusion, our study demonstrated a good knowledge of HIV transmission, MTCT and PMTCT among women who were receiving ART in our centre. Disclosure is a significant factor found to be associated with PMTCT knowledge. More studies can also explore if the observations in our study with women living with HIV will be comparable in similar population in different settings. 展开更多
关键词 Prevention of Mother to Child Transmission of HIV HIV Positive Mothers NIGERIA
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文章速递北京市儿童保健人员对儿童青少年血脂异常发生率的认知情况及检查意愿的调查研究 认领
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作者 闫辉 赵杰 +3 位作者 刘影 李雪迎 张欣 齐建光 《中国全科医学》 CAS CSCD 北大核心 2021年第17期2202-2206,共5页
背景血脂异常是导致动脉粥样硬化性疾病的重要原因,我国儿童青少年血脂异常发生率具有逐年上升的趋势,儿童保健人员及家长的正确认知不仅是血脂异常状态早期发现和正确诊疗的基础,而且是形成正确膳食习惯和生活方式的关键,对于实现该类... 背景血脂异常是导致动脉粥样硬化性疾病的重要原因,我国儿童青少年血脂异常发生率具有逐年上升的趋势,儿童保健人员及家长的正确认知不仅是血脂异常状态早期发现和正确诊疗的基础,而且是形成正确膳食习惯和生活方式的关键,对于实现该类疾病的早期识别与防控具有重要意义。目的了解北京市作为家长的儿童保健人员对儿童青少年血脂异常发生率的认知情况及检查意愿,以实现对血脂异常的早期发现和防控。方法选取2019年4—12月参加北京市婴幼儿科学养育项目的儿童保健人员,纳入家庭中有20岁以下子女的人员作为调查对象。对儿童青少年血脂异常发生率认知情况及检查意愿进行调查,具体内容包括:子女性别、年龄,调查对象对儿童青少年血脂异常发生率的认知情况、城乡地域、调查对象及配偶受教育程度、工作地点及职业、一级及二级亲属是否有早发心脑血管疾病家族史、对自己子女血脂水平了解情况及是否愿意给子女做血脂检查。将选择儿童青少年血脂异常发生率<5%者及选择儿童青少年血脂不稳定者作为认知不正确组,选择5%及以上者作为认知正确组。采用多因素Logistic回归分析探讨儿童青少年血脂异常认知的影响因素。结果选择儿童青少年血脂异常发生率<5%者109例(20.4%),在5%及以上者247例(46.2%),选择儿童青少年血脂不稳定者179例(33.5%)。认知不正确组288例,认知正确组247例。两组工作地点、受教育程度比较,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。多因素Logistic回归分析结果显示,儿童保健人员的受教育程度是儿童青少年血脂异常认知的影响因素(P=0.042)。了解子女血脂水平的家长共45例,占8.2%;认为血脂检查重要者占90.4%;愿意给子女做血脂检查者523例(95.4%)。结论超过一半的儿童保健人员对我国儿童青少年血脂异常发生率认识不足,其受教育程度是对儿童青少年血脂异常发生率认知的影响因素,绝大多数被调查者不了解子女的血脂水平,但认为儿童青少年血脂异常值得重视,并认同对儿童青少年做血脂方面的检测。 展开更多
关键词 血脂异常 儿童 青少年 儿童保健服务 筛查
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血清C反应蛋白、白介素-6和降钙素原对小儿急性复杂性阑尾炎的诊断价值研究 认领
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作者 徐永康 云叶 +4 位作者 赵永祥 姜海山 赵俊刚 张建国 吴向铭 《临床小儿外科杂志》 CAS CSCD 2021年第1期60-64,共5页
目的探索血清C反应蛋白(C-reactive protein,CRP)、白介素-6(interleukin 6,IL-6)和降钙素原(procalcitonin,PCT)水平对小儿急性复杂性阑尾炎的诊断价值。方法以2016年1月至2017年5月包头市第四医院小儿外科收治并进行手术治疗的96例急... 目的探索血清C反应蛋白(C-reactive protein,CRP)、白介素-6(interleukin 6,IL-6)和降钙素原(procalcitonin,PCT)水平对小儿急性复杂性阑尾炎的诊断价值。方法以2016年1月至2017年5月包头市第四医院小儿外科收治并进行手术治疗的96例急性阑尾炎患者为研究对象,分为两组:单纯性阑尾炎组30例,复杂性阑尾炎(包括化脓性阑尾炎及坏疽性阑尾炎)组66例,两组患者年龄、性别、体重差异均无统计学意义(P>0.05),检测两组患者术前血清CRP、IL-6、和PCT浓度,并绘制ROC曲线分析CRP、IL-6和PCT对小儿急性复杂性阑尾炎的诊断价值。结果复杂性阑尾炎组CRP、IL-6及PCT水平均显著高于单纯性阑尾炎组(P<0.05);以手术后病理结果为金标准,CRP、PCT、IL-6及三者联合检验ROC曲线下面积别为0.906(95%置信区间:0.829~0.956),0.953(95%置信区间:0.889~0.986),0.765(95%置信区间:0.668~0.846),0.973(95%置信区间:0.971~0.995)。曲线下面积值由大到小排序:PCT+CRP+IL-6>PCT>CRP>IL-6,通过两两比较发现,联合检验曲线下面积与CRP、IL-6单独检验曲线下面积比较差异具有统计学意义(Z=2.932,P=0.003;Z=3.854,P=0.0001);联合检验曲线下面积与PCT单独检验曲线下面积比较差异无统计学意义(Z=1.861,P=0.063);CRP与PCT单独检验曲线下面积差异无统计学意义(Z=1.668,P=0.095),IL-6单独检验与CRP单独检验、PCT单独检验比较曲线下面积差异具有统计学意义(Z=2.312,P=0.021;Z=3.371,P=0.001);得到最佳临界点分别为11.47(95%置信区间:11.42~14.48)mg/L,0.87(95%置信区间:0.63~0.98)ng/L,88.60(95%置信区间:87.12~170.83)pg/mL。结论CRP、IL-6和PCT有助于临床医师对阑尾炎严重程度进行早期判断,从而早期争取家长配合,尽早手术治疗并减少并发症的发生。 展开更多
关键词 阑尾炎/诊断 阑尾炎/免疫学 C反应蛋白质 白介素-6 降钙素原 儿童
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西安市2014—2018年病区村8~12岁儿童氟斑牙状况 认领
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作者 董璐 姚培杰 +3 位作者 李平 时学花 陈伟 何姗姗 《中国学校卫生》 CAS 北大核心 2021年第1期120-123,共4页
目的动态监测西安市饮水型氟中毒病区改水后水氟和儿童氟斑牙病情变化趋势,为改水降氟提供科学依据。方法 2014—2018年在西安市选择10个区县的35个病区村作为固定监测点,调查改水方式、水氟含量和8~12岁儿童氟斑牙病情。结果 2014—201... 目的动态监测西安市饮水型氟中毒病区改水后水氟和儿童氟斑牙病情变化趋势,为改水降氟提供科学依据。方法 2014—2018年在西安市选择10个区县的35个病区村作为固定监测点,调查改水方式、水氟含量和8~12岁儿童氟斑牙病情。结果 2014—2018年病区村水氟含量超标率分别为22.86%,14.29%,11.43%,11.43%和8.57%,差异有统计学意义(χ2=16.44,P<0.01)。各年度间8~12岁儿童氟斑牙总检出率依次为20.89%,18.22%,17.46%,18.13%,16.76%,且呈逐年下降趋势(χ趋势2=10.02,P<0.01)。8,9岁组儿童氟斑牙检出率各年度间比较,呈逐年下降的趋势(χ趋势2值分别为6.53,4.54,P值均<0.05)。水氟含量超标村儿童氟斑牙总检出率、轻度及以下、中度及以上检出率与水氟含量合格村比较,差异有统计学意义(χ2值分别为179.22,167.93,10.35,P值均<0.01)。水氟含量超标病区村各年度间的氟斑牙检出率呈逐年下降趋势(χ趋势2=28.50,P<0.01)。市政供水、低氟井与除氟处理3种改水方式儿童氟斑牙检出率差异有统计学意义(χ2=197.76,P<0.01)。市政供水各年度间儿童氟斑牙检出率呈逐年下降趋势(χ趋势2=12.16,P<0.01)。结论市政供水改水降氟效果显著,其他改水方式仍有部分病区村水氟及儿童氟斑牙检出率未达标,应继续加强改水后水氟含量和儿童氟斑牙病情监测。 展开更多
关键词 水污染 氟中毒 患病率 儿童
囊内出血对儿童大囊型淋巴管畸形硬化治疗效果的影响 认领
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作者 谢民 宁金波 +4 位作者 姚明木 陈强 黄峥嵘 陈斌 陈思远 《临床小儿外科杂志》 CAS CSCD 2021年第1期65-68,共4页
目的探讨儿童大囊型淋巴管畸形并发囊内出血的硬化治疗效果。方法将重庆大学附属三峡医院儿外科收治的50例儿童大囊型淋巴管畸形患者按是否发生囊内出血分为出血组(22例)和未出血组(28例),术前根据包块发现时间、彩超、MRI及穿刺结果确... 目的探讨儿童大囊型淋巴管畸形并发囊内出血的硬化治疗效果。方法将重庆大学附属三峡医院儿外科收治的50例儿童大囊型淋巴管畸形患者按是否发生囊内出血分为出血组(22例)和未出血组(28例),术前根据包块发现时间、彩超、MRI及穿刺结果确诊。在彩超引导下抽尽囊液后向囊腔内注射聚桂醇注射液,局部加压包扎2~3天。两周后包块未消失者采用同样的方法进行第二次治疗,直至包块消失为止。观察第一次硬化治疗后及最终包块大小的变化、治疗次数。包块消失判定为显效,包块缩小50%及以上判定为有效,包块缩小50%以下判定为无效。结果两组均成功进行硬化治疗,第一次治疗后出血组显效4例,有效9例,无效9例,总有效率59.09%;未出血组显效10例,有效14例,无效4例,总有效率85.71%;两组间疗效差异具有统计学意义(χ2=4.539,P<0.05)。最终两组包块均完全消失,有效率均为100%,其中出血组平均治疗(3.55±1.26)次;未出血组平均治疗(2.57±1.35)次,二者比较差异具有统计学意义(t=2.611,P<0.05)。结论儿童大囊型淋巴管畸形并发囊内出血会降低首次硬化治疗效果,最终疗效满意,但需增加治疗次数。 展开更多
关键词 淋巴管畸形 硬化治疗 聚桂醇注射液 儿童
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儿童先天性二尖瓣疾病的外科治疗及中期随访研究 认领
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作者 成梦遇 贾兵 +3 位作者 叶明 潘蕴 张惠锋 陈纲 《中华小儿外科杂志》 CSCD 北大核心 2021年第1期7-11,共5页
目的探讨儿童先天性二尖瓣疾病外科手术的疗效及中期随访结果分析。方法回顾分析2009年1月至2017年12月在复旦大学附属儿科医院心血管中心接受二尖瓣成形术的患儿92例。其中,二尖瓣狭窄患儿26例(二尖瓣狭窄组),二尖瓣关闭不全患儿66例(... 目的探讨儿童先天性二尖瓣疾病外科手术的疗效及中期随访结果分析。方法回顾分析2009年1月至2017年12月在复旦大学附属儿科医院心血管中心接受二尖瓣成形术的患儿92例。其中,二尖瓣狭窄患儿26例(二尖瓣狭窄组),二尖瓣关闭不全患儿66例(二尖瓣关闭不全组);男44例,女48例;手术年龄为(42.55±40.57)个月,范围为1个月至14岁,22.8%(21/92)患儿的年龄<1岁。结果4.3%(4/92)的患儿于手术早期死亡,3.3%(3/92)的患儿在随访期间死亡,总病死率为7.6%。术后所有患儿的心功能分级改善明显,Ⅲ级3例,余均在Ⅱ级及以上,随访时间为(42.72±29.66)个月,随访时间范围为3~104个月。随访期间11例患儿共接受了17次再手术,所有患儿的再手术率为12.0%(11/92)。二尖瓣狭窄组与二尖瓣关闭不全组在生存率及免除再手术率的Log Rank分析中,差异无统计学意义。所有患儿中<1岁的患儿较>1岁的患儿具有更高的病死率(P=0.045)及再手术率(P=0.039),差异均具有统计学意义。结论二尖瓣成形手术对于治疗先天性二尖瓣疾病的效果显著。但婴幼儿,特别是年龄<1岁的患儿,先天性二尖瓣疾病的修补手术仍面临着巨大挑战。虽然部分患儿需多次手术,瓣膜成形术仍是再手术时首要考虑的手术方式。 展开更多
关键词 二尖瓣狭窄 先天性 二尖瓣关闭不全 先天性 瓣膜成形术 儿童
儿童1型糖尿病生命早期相关影响因素的病例对照研究 认领
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作者 刘合作 孙琦 +3 位作者 魏薇 翟玲玲 白英龙 贾丽红 《中国学校卫生》 CAS 北大核心 2021年第1期128-131,共4页
目的探讨儿童1型糖尿病(T1DM)发生的影响因素,为有针对性采取防治措施提供参考。方法采用病例对照研究,选取沈阳市某医院106例确诊为T1DM的患儿为病例组,同期按照年龄、性别、居住地区1:1匹配的原则,选取106名健康儿童作为对照组,对两... 目的探讨儿童1型糖尿病(T1DM)发生的影响因素,为有针对性采取防治措施提供参考。方法采用病例对照研究,选取沈阳市某医院106例确诊为T1DM的患儿为病例组,同期按照年龄、性别、居住地区1:1匹配的原则,选取106名健康儿童作为对照组,对两组生命早期可能影响T1DM发生发展的因素进行问卷调查。结果 106例T1DM患儿平均确诊年龄为(8.02±3.49)岁;女童占60.4%,男童占39.6%。多因素Logistic回归分析显示,家庭经济好、父亲文化程度高与T1DM的发生呈负相关;而家庭成员吸烟(OR=2.51, 95%CI=1.19~5.29)、有糖尿病家族史(OR=2.56, 95%CI=1.18~5.55)、母亲肥胖(OR=5.42, 95%CI=2.49~11.83)和孕期感染(OR=3.45, 95%CI=1.04~11.46)与T1DM发生呈正相关(P值均<0.05)。结论儿童T1DM的发生受遗传、母孕期健康及家庭经济等多因素的影响,从生命早期开始预防儿童T1DM的发生具有重要意义。 展开更多
关键词 糖尿病 1型 病例对照研究 回归分析 儿童
达芬奇机器人与传统腹腔镜在治疗小儿先天性胆总管囊肿的对比研究 认领
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作者 董露露 楚泽浩 +2 位作者 崔西春 张大 王家祥 《中华小儿外科杂志》 CSCD 北大核心 2021年第1期17-22,共6页
目的对比达芬奇机器人与传统腹腔镜在治疗小儿先天性胆总管囊肿的优劣势。方法回顾性收集2018年3月至2019年9月郑州大学第一附属医院诊断为胆总管囊肿的103例患儿的临床资料,其中行达芬奇机器人手术的21例患儿作为机器人组,行传统腹腔... 目的对比达芬奇机器人与传统腹腔镜在治疗小儿先天性胆总管囊肿的优劣势。方法回顾性收集2018年3月至2019年9月郑州大学第一附属医院诊断为胆总管囊肿的103例患儿的临床资料,其中行达芬奇机器人手术的21例患儿作为机器人组,行传统腹腔镜治疗的82例患儿为腹腔镜组,所有手术均由同一团队完成。其中,机器人组患儿的年龄为(3.85±0.79)岁,范围为1~11岁;Todani分型为胆总管囊性扩张型(Ⅰ型)17例,其他分型4例;囊肿最大径为(36.76±10.13)mm,范围为16~79 mm。腹腔镜组患儿的年龄为(3.71±0.67)岁,范围为3个月至12岁;Todani分型为Ⅰ型70例,其他分型12例;囊肿最大径为(35.98±8.25)mm,范围为10~82 mm。分析两组在一般资料及术前情况、术中及术后等方面的差异。结果①机器人组与腹腔镜组患儿在年龄、性别、体重、临床表现、Todani分型、囊肿最大径、术前C反应蛋白(C-reactive protein,CRP)值、术后并发症发生率、术后疼痛评分方面差异无统计学意义(P>0.05);②机器人组的术中失血量、术后第一天及第三天腹腔引流液量、术后CRP值、术后禁食时间、术后出院时间均小于腹腔镜组,差异具有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论达芬奇机器人在治疗小儿先天性胆总管囊肿方面较传统腹腔镜具有术中出血量少、组织损伤小、恢复快、愈合好等优点,具有可行性、安全性、有效性等优点。不足之处为手术总时间较长、费用较高。随着技术的进步及手术医生经验的积累,机器人治疗小儿先天性胆总管囊肿将会发挥更大的优势。 展开更多
关键词 胆总管囊肿 达芬奇机器人手术系统 腹腔镜手术 儿童
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